Chapter 2 <br />Art of Ancient Near East<br />
Ancient near east <br />Civilization was merging in several places at the same time<br />When Egypt was being united under...
Sumer<br />Not a unified nation – made up of city-states which were under the protection of different Mesopotamian deities...
Ziggurats <br />Ziggurats proclaimed the wealth, prestige and stability of a city’s rulers and glorified its gods.<br />Th...
Ziggurats <br />
Warka vase<br />3500 BCE <br />36” high <br />Alabaster <br />Registers were used <br />To tell stories with economy <br /...
Eshnunna statues <br />
Votive figures dedicated to the gods.<br />Each sculpture was used as a stand-in for the <br />Donor who may have commissi...
What does Mesopotamia mean? <br />What are the 4 achievements of Sumerians<br />
Bull lyre  from Royal tomb 2550-2400 BCE <br />
Bull lyre <br />The association of animals with deities is a carryover from the prehistoric times but the difference in th...
akkad<br />
akkadians<br />Spoke a semitic language<br />Sargon ruled the empire from his capital at Akkad <br />He assumed broad eart...
Head of an akkadian ruler2300-2200 BCE 14 3/8”copper alloy<br />
Stele of Naramsin<br />6’6”<br />2220-2184 BCE <br />Limestone<br />Sargon’s grandson naram-sin <br />And his army are mem...
Lagash <br />Central figure in Lagash at this time was Gudea<br />Nearly two dozen portraits of him survive <br />Gudea re...
Gudea statue<br />Unlike the Akkadian rulers, Gudea took care to reserve the title of king to Lagash’s city-god , Ningirsu...
How is this representation different from the “Akkadian Ruler?”<br />If they are different does that tell us anything abou...
Law code of Hammurabi <br />Made out of diorite <br />7’ tall <br />Hammurabi was Babylon’s most powerful king <br />He wa...
129. If a man&apos;s wife be caught lying with another, they shall be strangled and cast into the water. If the wife&apos;...
Reflective Questions <br />Think about the ways in which the social and political contexts of the time are reflected in th...
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Chapter 2 Powerpoint

  1. 1. Chapter 2 <br />Art of Ancient Near East<br />
  2. 2. Ancient near east <br />Civilization was merging in several places at the same time<br />When Egypt was being united under Pharaonic rule, Syria and another great civilization arose in Mesopotamia<br />For 3000 years these two regions kept their distinct characteristics even though they had frequent contact with each other from the beginning<br />
  3. 3. Sumer<br />Not a unified nation – made up of city-states which were under the protection of different Mesopotamian deities <br />The oldest written documents are Mesopotamian records of administrative acts and commercial transactions <br />Pictographs (simplified pictures standing in for words)<br />Cuneiform (wedge-shaped signs)<br />
  4. 4. Ziggurats <br />Ziggurats proclaimed the wealth, prestige and stability of a city’s rulers and glorified its gods.<br />The sumerian city plan reflected the central role of the local god in the daily life as the ziggurat and temple formed the city’s nucleus<br />They functioned symbolically as a bridge between earth and the heavens<br />They were made of mudbrick<br />
  5. 5. Ziggurats <br />
  6. 6. Warka vase<br />3500 BCE <br />36” high <br />Alabaster <br />Registers were used <br />To tell stories with economy <br />And clarity.<br />A groundline is used to <br />separate the registers.<br />Size is associated with <br />importance. Such a <br />Convention is called hieratic scale. <br />Stylized figures (figures that o not conform to natural appearances) are shown in profile or side views. <br />
  7. 7. Eshnunna statues <br />
  8. 8. Votive figures dedicated to the gods.<br />Each sculpture was used as a stand-in for the <br />Donor who may have commissioned it.<br />The concept of representation had a very direct meaning for the Sumerians: the gods<br />Were believed to be present in their images and the votive statues offered prayers and transmitted messages to the gods. <br />Bodies and the faces are simplified so that they do not distract attention from the eyes which are the “window to the soul.”<br />Next to the woman are the remains of children’s legs.<br />
  9. 9. What does Mesopotamia mean? <br />What are the 4 achievements of Sumerians<br />
  10. 10. Bull lyre from Royal tomb 2550-2400 BCE <br />
  11. 11. Bull lyre <br />The association of animals with deities is a carryover from the prehistoric times but the difference in the sacred animals of Sumerian culture is that they play an active role in mythology. <br />Some scholars have suggested that the creatures inhabit the land of the dead and that the narrative has a funerary significance <br />
  12. 12. akkad<br />
  13. 13. akkadians<br />Spoke a semitic language<br />Sargon ruled the empire from his capital at Akkad <br />He assumed broad earthly powers but also elevated his status to a god<br />Under the akkadians the sumerians had a new task: glorifying the monarch <br />
  14. 14. Head of an akkadian ruler2300-2200 BCE 14 3/8”copper alloy<br />
  15. 15. Stele of Naramsin<br />6’6”<br />2220-2184 BCE <br />Limestone<br />Sargon’s grandson naram-sin <br />And his army are memorialized in this <br />large stele.<br />This was a bold rejection of the standard <br />means of telling a story on horizontal <br />registers.<br />
  16. 16. Lagash <br />Central figure in Lagash at this time was Gudea<br />Nearly two dozen portraits of him survive <br />Gudea rebuilt or built, at great cost, all the temples where he placed his statues <br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Gudea statue<br />Unlike the Akkadian rulers, Gudea took care to reserve the title of king to Lagash’s city-god , Ningirsu.<br />he shared the same sense of personal importance that the akkadian rulers had biut he prided himself on his relations with gods rather than on secular powers.<br />He had many of these figures made. <br />Although very small and compact it has a monumental –an impression of grandeur—feeling to it.<br />
  19. 19. How is this representation different from the “Akkadian Ruler?”<br />If they are different does that tell us anything about the differences in the cultures? <br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Law code of Hammurabi <br />Made out of diorite <br />7’ tall <br />Hammurabi was Babylon’s most powerful king <br />He was famous for his conquests <br />But is best known today for his code<br />
  22. 22. 129. If a man&apos;s wife be caught lying with another, they shall be strangled and cast into the water. If the wife&apos;s husband would save his wife, the king can save his servant. 130. If a man has ravished another&apos;s betrothed wife, who is a virgin, while still living in her father&apos;s house, and has been caught in the act, that man shall be put to death; the woman shall go free. 21. If a man has broken into a house he shall be killed before the breach and buried there. 22. If a man has committed highway robbery and has been caught, that man shall be put to death<br />Here are translations of some laws…<br />8. If a patrician has stolen ox, sheep, ass, pig, or ship, whether from a temple, or a house, he shall pay thirtyfold. If he be a plebeian, he shall return tenfold. If the thief cannot pay, he shall be put to death. <br />
  23. 23. Reflective Questions <br />Think about the ways in which the social and political contexts of the time are reflected in the art. <br />How are these cultures different from the Neolithic cultures that you read about in the previous chapter? <br />If you were to name the two most important values that these cultures emphasized, what would they be? <br />

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