« Political poverty designates a failure of capacity in public
deliberation : a group-related inability to make effective use of
opportunities to inﬂuence the deliberative process in favor of
concerns of the group’s members » (Bohman, 1996 : 110).
« In order to be minimally effective in deliberation, a
deliberator must be able to initiate public dialogue about an
issue or a theme, in which his or her reasons may receive
deliberative uptake » (Ibid. : 125).
4 criteria :
“I will use the term adequate public functioning to
mean the capacities for full and effective use of
political rights and liberties in deliberation – capacities
that are evident when citizens successfully initiate
deliberation, introduce new themes into public
debate, and inﬂuence the outcome” (Bohman, 1996 :
Then, I will call inadequate public functioning (or
“deliberative dys-abilities”) the capacities for a
truncated and (communicatively) ineffective use of
political rights and liberties in deliberation.
« All habits are demands for certain kinds of activities
(…). They form our effective desires and they furnish us with
our working capacities (…). We may think of habits as
means, waiting, like tools in a box (…). But they are more
than that. They are active means, means that project
themselves, energetic and dominating ways of acting.
A man who does not stand properly forms a habit of standing
improperly, a positive, forceful habit. The common
implication that his mistake is merely negative, that he is
simply failing to do the right thing, and that the failure can be
made good by an order of will is absurd. One might as well
suppose that the man who is a slave of whiskey-drinking is
merely one who fails to drink water. »
J. Dewey, 1922, p.22 ; p.25-26.
Accommodationist preferences : “psychological
adjustments to conditions of subordination in which
individuals are not recognized as having the capacity
for self-government” (J. Cohen, 1997 : 77)