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# SPM Paper 2 Esei: FORCE AND PRESSURE

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SPM paper 2. All essay questions in chapter 3: Force and Pressure

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### SPM Paper 2 Esei: FORCE AND PRESSURE

1. 1. Soalan esei spm kertas 2
2. 2. SPM 2005
3. 3. Aerofoil // aerodynamic SPM 2007
4. 4. Higher velocity on the upper surface Lower pressure on the upper surface Lift force = Difference in pressure x Area of surface // difference in pressure produce lift force
5. 5. In diagram 9.2 : less bending In diagram 9.3: more bending
6. 6. In diagram 9.3 : further // longer landing distance In diagram 9.2: shorter (landing distance)
7. 7. The higher the lift force, the further the landing distance lift force is directly proportional to landing distance
8. 8. • Long jump // triple jump // glider • Relationship between the lift force and the landing distance is the higher the lift force the further the landing distance // directly proportional
9. 9. Modification Reason 1. Smooth //coat with wax // slippery 2. Reduce friction /resistance //reduce drag 3. Stream line // aerodynamic // torpedo // sharp end // bullet// diagram 4. Reduce friction / resistance / drag
10. 10. 5. Low density material // strong material // carbon composite // fiber glass // tough material // wood 6.Easy to float // not easy to break // slides faster // increase the speed // light // withstand high force of wave. 7.Water proof // strong // nylon // tough // plastic // synthetic fiber // canvas // synthetic polymer 8.to avoid the sail absorbs water // avoid sail become heavier // sail lighter // not easy to tear off// //small load
11. 11. 9.Wide // big // large //not too big 10 trap more wind // bigger force // increase resistance towards air // withstand strong wind
12. 12. SPM 2009
13. 13. Diagram 9.1 shows a boy and his father sitting on two identical beach balls, A and B, respectively. SPM 2010 Their weights are balanced by the buoyant force.
14. 14. What is the meaning of weight? [1 mark] Force exerted on every object due to gravity
15. 15. (i) Using Diagram 9.1, compare the weight of the boy and his father, the volume of the water displaced and the buoyant force acted on both of them. [3 marks] • The weight of the father is higher • The volume of water displaced by ball B is bigger. •The buoyant force acted on the father is bigger
16. 16. State the relationship between the buoyant force and: The volume of water displaced As the volume of water displaced increases, the buoyant force increases The weight of water displaced Buoyant force = weight of water [2 marks] displaced Name the physics principle involved. Archimedes principle [1 mark]
17. 17. (c) Diagram 9.2 shows what happens when a wooden block is held above the water surface and then released into the water. When the wooden block is released, it falls into the water and goes completely under the water surface. Then it moves upwards and floats on the water surface. Using the concept of buoyant force, explain why the wooden block moves upwards and then floats on the water surface. [3 marks]
18. 18. 1st : Buoyant increases when the volume of the immersed wooden block increases. 2nd : buoyant force is larger than the weight when the wooden block is moving upwards. 3rd : Buoyant force equals to weight of the wooden block when it is floating on the surface of water.
19. 19. (d) The State Forestry Department is going to organize a raft competition. As a team leader, you are required to give some suggestions to design a raft which can accommodate 15 participants and be able to move quickly in water.
20. 20. Using your knowledge of motion, forces and properties of materials, state and explain the suggestions, based on the following aspects: The shape of the raft [2 marks] The material used for the raft [2 marks] The size of the raft [2 marks] The design of the raft. [4 marks]
21. 21. Modification Reason Streamline shape Reduce water resistance Low density material Can float easily Bigger size Can accommodate more participants A few layers of Displaced more water / higher buoyant force Attach plastic bottle, drum/ polisterene To increases buoyant force Attach sail / paddle/ fan / motor Increase speed
22. 22. • Diagram 11.1 shows a hydraulic jack which is used to lift up a car. The working principle of the hydraulic jack is based on the Pascal's principle. 11 SPM 2011
23. 23. (a) (i) State the Pascal's principle. [1 mark] 11 Pressure transmitted same/uniformly/equally (ii) Explain how the hydraulic jack can be used to lift a car when force F1 is applied on the small piston with cross-section area Al. In your explanation, state the reason why force F2 is greater than force F1. [4 marks] M1 – force produce pressure / P=F/A M2 – pressure equally/equal / P1=P2 / M3 – pressure act on A2 / pressure produce force / F2 = PA2 M4 – A2 > A1 / A2 greater / ratio A2:A1 greater then 1 M2 and M3 – pressure transmitted equally on A2
24. 24. • Diagram 11.2 shows a hydraulic brake system in a car. 11
25. 25. • You are required to investigate the characteristics of a hydraulic brake system as shown in Table 11. 11
26. 26. 11 • Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the hydraulic brake system. Determine the most effective hydraulic brake to be used in a car brake system. Give reasons for your choice. [10 marks]
27. 27. • M1 – incompressible • M2 – fluid can transfer / flow / pressure transmitted / obey Pascal Principle • M3 – high boiling point 11 • M4 – not change to vapour / not easy to evaporate/boil / dry out / vaporize / volume remain constant • M5 – high spring constant • M6 – can withstand force / return quickly • M7 – 1:5 / low ratio • M8 – larger force / stop faster / easy to stop / easy to slow down • M9 – L • M10 – because it is incompressible, has high boiling point, high spring constant and low ration (1:5)
28. 28. 11 In a hydraulic brake system, the cross-section area of the pistons in the master cylinder and the front wheel are 2 cm2 and 6 cm2 respectively. A force of 50 N is applied to the piston in the master cylinder. Calculate (i) the pressure transmitted throughout the brake fluid. [2 marks] (ii) the force exerted on the piston of the front wheel. [3 marks]
29. 29. 11
30. 30. 9 Two identical simple Diagram 9.1 shows the positions P and Q at different altitude. barometers are placed at both positions. The height of the mercury column in the barometers are shown in Diagram 9.2. SPM 2012 The density of air at P is 1.2 kgm-3 and the density of air at Q is 1.0 kgm-3
31. 31. What is the meaning of density? [1 mark] Mass per volume Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the altitudes of P and Q, the density of surrounding air and the height of mercury column in the simple barometer at positions P and Q. [3 marks] 1. Altitude Q is higher 2. Density of air at Q is lower 3. Height of mercury column Q is lower 9
32. 32. State the relationship between the altitude and The density of the air The atmospheric pressure [2 marks] The higher the altitude, the lower the density of air The higher the altitude, the lower the atmospheric pressure 9
33. 33. Diagram 9.3 shows a dropper in a bottle. Using the knowledge of atmospheric pressure, explain how the liquid in the bottle can be sucked into the dropper tube. 1. Press the dropper 2. Air inside the dropper is forced out 3. Pressure inside decrease / low 4. Release the dropper 5. Atmospheric pressure push the liquid // difference in pressure 9
34. 34. 9 Diagram 9.4 shows a vacuum cleaner. You are required to give some suggestions to design a vacuum cleaner which can clean the dust faster and effectively. Using the knowledge on atmospheric pressure, Bernoulli’s principle and properties of materials, explain your suggestion based on the following aspects: Material used for the body of vacuum cleaner. Material used for the hose The size of the fan The size of the floor nozzle The diameter of wand [10 marks]
35. 35. Material Low density Strong / plastic Lighter Not easily break Material of the hose Flexible / elastic Strong Easy to adjust Does not tear Twist/ moveable Size of fan Bigger fan More air can be sucked / lower pressure inside Floor nozzle Wider floor nozzle More dust is sucked Diameter of the wand Small diameter Lower pressure / high velocity 9
36. 36. Diagram 11.1 shows the cross section of the wing of an aeroplane. Name the shape of the aeroplane’s wing. Aerofoil ………………………………………………………..[1 mark] 11
37. 37. Explain how the aeroplane can lift up from the track when it moves at high speed during take off. [4 marks] 11 SPM 2013 √1 Air faster (at) top √2 Small pressure (at) upper √3 difference in pressure // P2 – P1 / P1 – P2 √4 Lift / force (idea of upward force) // F = PA // F // PA // label diagram √5 Bernoulli’s principle Max 4 marks
38. 38. An aeroplane with mass of 3.6 x 105 kg and total surface area of 460 m2 is at a constant height. The resultant force acting on the aeroplane at that moment is zero. (i) Calculate the weight of the aeroplane. [1 mark] 3.6 x 106 N (ii) Determine the lifting force acting on the aeroplane. [1 mark] 3.6 x 106 N (iii) Based on the answer in 11(b)(ii), calculate the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the wings of the aeroplane. [3 marks] √1 3.6 x 106 = P1A – P2A √2 Pressure difference = (3.6 x 106/460) // (3.528 x 106)/460 √3 7826.09 Pa 11
39. 39. Diagram 11.2 shows four design of perfume sprays, P, Q, R and S with different specifications. You are required to determine the most suitable design of a perfume spray to produce a fine spray. Study the specifications of the four perfume sprays based on the following aspects: (i) Size of the squeeze bulb. (ii) Elasticity of the squeeze bulb. (iii) Shape of the mid tube (iv) Size of the nozzle. Explain the suitability of each aspect and then determine the most suitable design of a perfume spray. Give reason for your choice. [10 marks] 11
40. 40. 11
41. 41. √1 Big 11 √2 contain more air, produce greater pressure √3 Elastic √4 Less compression force required // easy to return to original shape √5 narrower at the middle of the tube √6 Air travel faster to create lower pressure √7 Small size √8 Liquid carried out from the nozzle in a tiny droplets // large coverage // increase coverage / area √9 Perfume spray R √10 Big size of squeeze-bulb, elastic squeeze-bulb, narrower shape of the tube at the middle and small size of nozzle