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# Essay waves 2018

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SPM essay questions in chapter 6.

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### Essay waves 2018

1. 1. Puncak bertindak sebagai kanta cembung The crest acts as convex lens Puncak menumpukan sinar cahaya untuk menghasilkan garis cerah The crest converge the light rays to form the bright line. Lembangan bertindak sebagai kanta cekung The trough acts as concave lens Lembangan mencapah sinar cahaya untuk membentuk garis gelap. The trough diverge the light rays to form the dark line.
2. 2. Panjang gelombang sebelum dan selepas melalui celah adalah sama. The wavelength does not change before and after passing through the gap Sebelum melalui celah, muka gelombang lurus Before the gaps, the wave fronts are straight Muka gelombang bengkok bila melalui celah. The wave fronts bend when passed through the gaps Muka gelombang membulat apabila melalui celah kecil. The wave front is circular when the gap is smaller. Pembelauan lebih jelas apabila saiz celah kecil. Diffraction is more obvious when the size of the gap is small.
3. 3. • Build a slanting barrier • Reduce speed / energy of the wave when the depth of water decreases • The surface of the barrier is made rough / porous / uneven • To reduce reflection of the wave • Build the new jetty at the bay • Water is calm in the bay. • Water is spread according to the shape of the bay • Build a barrier with small opening surround the bay. • Diffraction happens at the opening so can spread the energy or reduce amplitude of the wave • Bina benteng bercerun • Mengurangkan laju / tenaga gelombang apabila kedalaman air berkurang • Permukaan benteng kasar / poros / tidak rata • Untuk mengurangkan kesan pantulan • Bina banteng tinggi. • Air tidak melimpah ke jeti • Bina jeti baru di teluk • Air di teluk lebih tenang. • Bina banteng dengan celah kecil di sekeliling teluk. • Pembelauan boleh berlaku di celah supaya gelombang disebarkan. Tenaga dan amplitude berkurang.
4. 4. Pembelauan ialah penyebaran atau pembengkokan gelombang apabila melalui celah atau halangan Diffraction is the spreading or bending of waves as it enter a gap or an obstacle.
5. 5. Pembelauan kurang jelas. Tenaga atau amplitud gelombang bertambah. Less diffraction. Wave energy or amplitude increases Lebih banyak kerosakan pada pelabuhan. More damage on the harbour.
6. 6. Sumber yang hasilkan gelombang dengan sama frekuensi dan beza fasa yang sama Source that produce waves with same frecuency and same phase different • The ship moves up and down with higher amplitude at A • Constructive interference occurs at A • The ship remain calm at B. • Destructive interference occurs at B • Kapal terumbang ambing di A • Inteferens membina berlaku di A • Kapal kekal pegun di B • Inteferens memusnah berlaku di B
7. 7. • Located at the bay • Water is calmer • Sloping retaining wall • Slow down the speed as depth decreases • Uneven surface • Absorb energy and reduce amplitude of the wave • High retaining wall • Protect from high wave / prevent water from overflowing • Chose W • Located at the bay, sloping retainin wall, uneven surface and high retaining wall • Terletak di teluk • Air tenang • Tembok penahan bercerun • Kurangkan laju bila kedalaman berkurang • Permukaan yang tidak rata • Menyerap tenaga dan kurangkan amplitud gelombang • Tembok penahan tinggi • Melindungi dari ombak tinggi / elakkan air melimpah. • Pilih W • Terletak di teluk, tembok penahan bercerun, permukaan tidak rata dan tembok penahan tinggi
8. 8. Frekuensi / panjang gelombang Frequency / wavelength
9. 9. • High pitch, high frequency / pitching is directly proportional to frequency • Frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength / high frequency shorter wavelength • Short wavelength will diffract less, so only student C can hear • Sound easily diffracted during low pitch sound which has low f, long λ so students at A, B, C can hear. • Kelangsingan tinggi, frekuensi tinggi. • Frekuensi tinggi, panjang gelombang pendek. • Pembelauan kurang jelas jika panjang gelombang pendek. Hanya pelajar C boleh dengar • Bunyi dengan kelangsingan rendah, mempunyai frekuensi rendah. • Maka λ panjang supaya bunyi lebih mudah dibelaukan. ketiga2 pelajar boleh dengar.
10. 10. Criteria Reason 1 Diameter besar 2 Menerima banyak isyarat 3 Sama dengan panjang fokus 4 Isyarat difokuskan /ditumpukan ke penerima // sinar selari 5 Microwave 6 Frekuensi tinggi // tenaga tinggi 7. Tinggi 8. Isyarat tidak dihalang 9. Pilih K 10. Kerana ia mempunyai diameter besar, sama dengan f, guna mikrowave dan lokasi di tempat tinggi.
11. 11. Criteria Reason 1 Large diameter 2 Receive ( more) signal 3 Same as focal length 4 Signal focused/ converge (to the receivers // give out parallel beam 5 Microwave 6 Has high frequency // high energy // 7. High 8. The signal is not blocked 9. Choose K 10. Because it has large diameter, Same as focal length, use microwave and locate at high position.
12. 12. s = vt/2 v = 2s = 2 x 90 = 1500 ms-1 t 0.12 v = fλ λ = 1500 50000 = 0.03 m // 3 cm
13. 13. Panjang gelombang ialah jarak antara dua puncak / lembangan berturutuan. Wavelength is the distance between two successive crest / trough
14. 14. 1st : Panjang gelombang merah lebih panjang. 2nd : jarak antara pinggir merah dan hijau adalah sama. 3rd : Jarak antara dua pinggir berturutan cahaya merah lebih besar daripada cahaya hijau. 4th : jarak antara pinggir-pinggir bertambah bila panjang gelombang bertambah 5th : Interferens
15. 15. 1st : wavelength of red is larger 2nd : distance is equally space in red fringe or green fringes 3rd : Distance between two successive fringe of red is greater than green. 4th : The fringes separation increases with the wavelength 5th : Interference
16. 16. 1st : Pada waktu malam, darat lebih cepat sejuk 2nd : bunyi bergerak daripada udara sejuk ke udara panas 3rd : laju bunyi bertambah. 4th : Gelombang bunyi dibias menjauhi garis normal @ bengkok ke arah pemerhati.
17. 17. 1st : At night, the ground cools quickly 2nd : sound travels from cool air to hot air 3rd : speed of sound increases 4th : Sound waves refract away from normal line (bend towards the observer )
18. 18. Modification Reason Pemantul parabolic Parabolic reflector Haba ditumpukan. Heat will be focused Permukaan berkilat / licin Shining / smooth surface Pantulan lebih berkesan Reflection will be effective Diameter besar Larger diameter Lebih banyak haba dapat dikumpulkan More heat will be collected Diletakkan pada titik fokus. Placed at the focal point Haba ditumpukan ke cerek Heat converge to kettle Mengadap matahari Facing the sun Boleh kutip lebih banyak tenaga solar. Can collect/capture more solar energy
19. 19. 1. Gendang bergetar 2. Molekul2 udara bergetar 3. Hasilkan kawasan mampatan dan regangan. 4. Arah getaran molekul udara selari dengan arah perambatan bunyi. 5. Tenaga dipindahkah. 6. Gegendang telinga bergetar.Gelombang membujur
20. 20. 1. Drum vibrate 2. Air molecules vibrates 3. Produce compression and rarefaction region 4. The direction of vibration of air molecule is parallel to the direction of propagation of wave 5. Energy is transferred 6. Eardrum vibrates Transverse wave
21. 21. Panjang gelombang kawasan panas lebih panjang. Wavelength at warm region is longer Sudut di kawasan panas lebih besar Angle in warm region is bigger Lebih panjang panjang gelembung, lebih tinggi laju gelombang. The longer the wavelength, the higher the speed
22. 22. Terbias menjauhi garis normal. Refracted away from normal line. pembiasan Refraction.
23. 23. Pancarkan gelombang microwave Transmit microwave Mempunyai tenaga tinggi Higher energy Frekuensi lebih tinggi Higher frequency Tenaga tinggi supaya menembusi atmosfera Higher energy so can penetrate atmosphera Diameter penerima yang besar Large diameter of the receiver Untuk menangkap / memantulkan banyak isyarat To capture / reflect more signal Menggunakan stesyen geganti / satelit Use relay station / satelite Untuk mengatasi pelembapan To overcome damping Terletak di tempat tinggi. Located on the higher position Tiada halangan / liputan lebih luas No blocking / wide coverage
24. 24. Gelombang ultrasonic ialah gelombang bunyi yang mempunyai frequency lebih dari 20 000 Hz. Ultrasonic wave is sound wave which has frequency more than 20 000 Hz 1. Kelawar pancarkan gelombang ultrasonic. The bat emits ultrasonic wave 2. Gelombang itu dipantulkan semula oleh halangan. The wave are then reflected back by the obstacle 3. Masa antara pancaran dan penerimaan gelombang dipantulkan di kesan. The time between the emission and reception of the reflected is detected 4. Semakin lama masa, semakin jauh halangan. S = vt/2 The longer the time, the further the obstacle s = vt/2
25. 25. 1. 100 ms = 0.1 s 2. D = 1450 x 0.1 /2 3. = 72.5 m 1. λ = 1450 / 40 000 2. = 0.03625 m
26. 26. 1. Pembesar suara diletakkan di tempat tinggi. 2. Untuk mengelakkan halangan 3. Jarak antara dua pembesar suara adalah besar. 4. Jarak antara dua bunyi berturutan / antinode, x kecil 5. Bahan digunakan untuk tutup dinding daripada papan lembut 6. Mengelakkan gema 7. Microphone diletakkan di belakang pembesar suara. 8. Untuk mengelakkan bunyi bising 9. Pilih Y 10. Tempat tinggi, jarak a besar, papan lembut, dan mikrofon diletakkan di belakang pembesar suara.
27. 27. 1. The loud speakers is put at high place 2. To prevent blocking 3. The distance between two loud speakers is large distance 4. The distance between two loud sound is small 5. Soft board material 6. Avoid echo 7. Microphone is Behind the speaker 8. To avoid noise / humming 9. Choose Y 10. High place, large distance, soft board and microphone behind the speakers