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# 6.1 Waves / Gelombang

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Pengenalan gelombang,
Introduction to waves

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### 6.1 Waves / Gelombang

1. 1. Air tenang / Calm water Air terumbang ambing/ water moves up & down Tiada bunyi/ no sound Ada bunyi/ hear sound
2. 2. Satu proses memindahkan tenaga daripada satu tempat ke tempat lain yang dihasilkan oleh sistem bergetar atau berayun. A process of transferring energy from one location to another which is produced by an oscillating of vibrating system.
3. 3. air water kiri kanan left right air water atas bawah up down Tenaga / energy
4. 4. Ke kiri dan ke kanan / flame is flicker Getaran pembesar suara memindahkan tenaga bunyi dan dipindahkan ke api. / sound waves transfer energy from the speaker to the candle flame. zarah transfer
5. 5. • Energy transfer through sea waves motion can be huge. • For example during tsunami, the energy carried by water waves from the sea can cause great damage to the surroundings. Most of the energy comes from the winds blowing across the surface of the sea. MOZAC
6. 6. Tsunami Effect MOZAC
7. 7. Arah perambatan gelombang Direction of propagation of the wave Arah getaran benang Direction of the vibration of the thread
8. 8. X mampatan regangan compression rarefraction Panjang gelombang wavelength
9. 9. Arah perambatan gelombang Direction of propagation of the wave Arah getaran benang Direction of the vibration of the thread X
10. 10. MOZAC selari parallel Water, electromagnetic wave berserenjang perpendicular Sound waves
11. 11. MOZAC
12. 12. Muka Gelombang Amplitud Panjang gelombang Tempoh Frekuensi Laju Gelombang Wave fronts Amplitude Wavelength Period Frequency Speed of wave Bagaimana menerangkan gelombang? How to describe wave?
13. 13. Garisan yang menyambungkan titik-titik pada fasa yang sama. Lines joining all points of the same phase
14. 14. berserenjang perpendicular
15. 15. Suatu gerakan yang berulang-alik pada satu kedudukan keseimbangan. The movement from one extreme position to the other and back to the same position. : P → Q → R → Q → P .: O → B → O → A → O
16. 16. a a a a Sesaran maksimum sesuatu objek dari kedudukan keseimbangan. The maximum displacement of the object from its equilibrium position.
17. 17. : f = 1/T . S-1 = Hz
18. 18. Panjang gelombang ialah jarak antara dua puncak / lembangan berturutan. Wavelength is the distance between two successive crest or troughs.
19. 19. λ λ λ
20. 20. AE BF, CG. A,E B,F C,G,D Kiri ke kanan From left to right. λ = 20/5 = 4 cm
21. 21. 12/2 = 6.0 cm T = 8.0/10 = 0.8 s f = 1/0.8 = 1.25 Hz
22. 22. Titik keseimbangan / Equilibrium position amplitud Tempoh / Period amplitud Panjang gelombang wavelength
23. 23. T = 4 s f = 1/4 = 0.25 Hz
24. 24. 0.5 cm 0.4 s 1/0.4 = 2.5 Hz 2.0 cm
25. 25. a > b a < b Berkadar songsang / inversely proportional
26. 26. Panjang gelombang / Wavelength, λ Tempoh / Period v = fλ
27. 27. f = 1.6 / 4.0 = 0.4 Hz λ = v/f = 340/440 = 0.773 m 10 m 0.4 s 1/0.4 = 2.5 Hz
28. 28. 15 cm 20 cm v = fλ = (5) (20) = 100 cm/s f = v/λ = 4/2 = 2 m/s
29. 29. Graph B
30. 30. Pelembapan / Damping Resonance
31. 31. Amplitud berkurang./ amplitude decreases. Amplitude decreases as time increases. Amplitud berkurang apabila masa bertambah. Tenaga berkurang. / Energy decreases. Tenaga hilang sebagai haba disebabkan geseran. / Energy lost to heat due to friction. Berhenti / stop
32. 32. Pelembapan ialah pengurangan amplitud bagi satu sistem ayuna di mana tenaga dilesapkan dalam bentuk haba. Damping is the decrease in the amplitude of an oscillating system when its energy is drained out as heat. Tenaga haba / heat energy Dengan memberikan daya ke atas bilah gergaji By applying force to the blade.
33. 33. Amplitud ayunan buaian semakin berkurang dan berhenti. Amplitude of oscillation of the cradle decreases and stops. Pelembapan / damping Berikan daya luar pada buaian. Give external force to the cradle. Daya luar yang dikenakan itu membekalkan tenaga tambahan ke atas ayunan buaian untuk menggantikan tenaga yang hilang disebabkan daya geseran. External force to the cradle gives extra energy to the oscillating cradle as to compensate for the energy dissipated by frictional force.
34. 34. D and C C and D Bandul-bandul yang lain turut bergerak kerana tenaga dipindahkan melalui tali. The other pendulums start to oscillate because energy is transferred throught the rope. D
35. 35. C dan D. Bandul C dan D mempunyai frekuensi asli yang sama. Oleh itu bandul C menyebabkan bandul D berayun dengan frekuensi aslinya. Bandul D menerima tenaga yang lebih besar dan berayun dengan amplitud yang maksimun. Resonan berlaku. Pendulums C and D have the same natural frequency. Therefore, pendulum C causes pendulum D to oscillate at its natural frequency. Pendulum D receives a bigger amount of energy and oscillate with the maximum amplitude. Resonance occurs. . Resonans berlaku apabila suatu sistem dipaksa bergetar pada frekuensi yang sama dengan frekuensi aslinya yang disebabkan oleh daya luar. Sistem ini akan berayun dengan amplitude yang maksimum. Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force. The system oscillates at its maximum amplitude.
36. 36. Resonans berlaku. Sistem itu akan berayun dengan amplitude maksimum. Resonance occurs. The system will oscillate at its maximum amplitude.
37. 37. Bunyi jeritan yang nyaring menyebabkan gelas mula bergetar dengan frekuensi asli yang sama Gelas akan bergetar dengan amplitud maksimum sehingga ia pecah. The high pitch sound causes the glass to start vibrating with the same natural frequency. The glass vibrates at its maximum amplitude until it breaks.
38. 38. Tiupan angin mempunyai frekuensi asli yang sama dengan getaran jambatan. Resonans berlaku. Tindakan angin yang bertiup menyebabkan jambatan bergetar dengan amplitud yang besar sehingga jambatan itu runtuh. The movement of the wind has the same frequency as the vibration of the bridge. Resonance occurs. The action of the wind caused the bridge to vibrate at a large amplitude until it collapsed.