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# 5.1 reflection of light 2017

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### 5.1 reflection of light 2017

1. 1. REFLECTION OF LIGHT PANTULAN CAHAYA
2. 2. Senarai semak Fizik / Checklist Physics
3. 3. Cermin/Mirror Sinar tuju Incidence ray Sinar pantulan Reflected ray AO ialah sinar cahaya yang dituju ke cermin AO, is the ray of light which strike the mirror OB ialah sinar cahaya yang dipantul oleh cermin OB, is the ray which is bounces back from the mirror ON ialah garis yang bersudut tepat dengan cermin. ON is a line which is perpendicular to the surface of a mirror. Sinar tuju Incidence ray A O N B Sinar pantulan Reflected ray Garis normal Normal line
4. 4. Cermin / Mirror Garis normal Normal line Sinar tuju Incidence ray Sinar pantulan Reflected ray i r Sudut antara garis normal dengan sinar tuju, i The angle between the normal line and the incident ray, i Sudut antara garis normal dengan sinar pantulan, r The angle between the normal and the reflected ray, r Sudut tuju Incidence angle Sudut pantulan Reflected angle
5. 5. 20⁰ 30⁰ 40⁰ 50⁰ 60⁰
6. 6. Sudut tuju, i = sudut pantulan, r Incidence angle, i = reflected angel, r 1. Sinar tuju, sinar pantulan dan garis normal semuanya berada pada satah yang sama. incidence ray, reflected ray and normal line are all in the same plane 2. Sudut tuju, i sama dengan sudut pantulan, r. Incidence angle, i = reflected angle, r
7. 7. Telinga kanan / Right ear
8. 8. • laterally inverted / songsang sisi • same size / sama saiz • upright / tegak • virtual image / imej maya • Object distance = image distance Jarak objek = jarak imej Huraikan ciri-ciri imej yang dibentukkan oleh cermin satah. Describe the charac-teristics of the image formed by reflection of light
9. 9. Real Image is an image which can be seen or projected on a screen Imej NYATA/REAL image Imej nyata ialah imej yang boleh dilihat atau dipancarkan di atas skrin. screen object Real image /imej nyata Real image /imej nyata Real image /imej nyata
10. 10. Imej MAYA / VIRTUAL image Virtual Image is an image which cannot be seen on a screen or cannot be projected on a screen Imej maya ialah imej yang tidak boleh dilihat atau dipancarkan di atas skrin Mirror / cermin object Virtual image/ imej maya Virtual image imej maya
11. 11. Plane Mirror Cermin satah Melukis rajah sinar bagi cermin satah. Draw ray diagram in a plane mirror Object Image Eyes /mata u = jarak objek v = jarak imej
12. 12. Plane Mirror Cermin satah
13. 13. Object Virtual image / imej maya Upright / tegak Same size / sama saiz
14. 14. Senarai semak Fizik / Checklist Physics
15. 15. Pantulan ke atas cermin melengkung Reflection on a Curved Mirror 1. Terdapat dua jenis cermin: There are two type of curved mirrors: (a) Concave mirror, which curves _______ (b) Convex mirror which curves ___________ Ke dalam / Inwards Keluar / outwards
16. 16. Cermin cekung – imej tegak & besar Concave Mirror – image upright and big
17. 17. Cermin Cekung Concave Mirror Imej songsang & kecil Image inverted and small
18. 18. Cermin Cembung: Imej sentiasa kecil dan tegak Convex mirror:Image always small and upright.
19. 19. Cermin Cembung: cermin sisi kereta Convex mirror: side mirror of car
20. 20. Cermin Satah Plane Mirror Sinar cahaya dipantulkan melalui lintasan yang sama The parallel rays is reflected back to the same path.
21. 21. Cermin cekung: menumpu Concave mirror: converge Cermin cembung: mencapah Convex mirror: diverge
22. 22. Paksi utama Principle axis P = kutub cermin Pole of the mirror P F F = Titik Fokus Focal point Cermin Cekung Concave Mirror Sinar selari dipantulkan dan menumpu pada TITIK FOKUS The parallel rays is reflected and CONVERGE at a FOCAL POINT
23. 23. Principle axis P = Pole of the mirror P F F = Focal point The parallel rays is reflected and DIVERGE as it comes from a FOCAL POINT behind the mirror Convex Mirror Sinar selari dipantulkan dan dicapahkan seolah- olah ia datang dari titik fokus di belakang cermin
24. 24. Sinar selari dipantulkan pada lintasan yang sama. The parallel rays is reflected back to the same path. Sinar selari ditumpukan di TITIK FOKUS selepas dipantulkan The parallel rays is CONVERGE at a FOCAL POINT after reflection Sinar selari dipantulkan dan mencapah seolah2 dari TITIK FOKUS di belakang cermin The parallel rays is reflected and DIVERGE as it comes from a FOCAL POINT behind the mirror
25. 25. Kaca sfera berlubang/ Hollow glass sphere Cermin Cekung Concave mirror Cermin Cembung Convex mirror
26. 26. Paksi Utama Principal axis Garisan yang melalui pusat kelengkungan, C dan kutub cermin, P The line which passes through the centre of curvature, C and the pole of a mirror, P C C F F Istilah berkaitan cermin melengkung The terms regarding the curve mirror
27. 27. Pusat kelengkungan Centre of curvature, C Pusat cermin cekung / cembung Center of the concave / convex mirror C C F F Istilah berkaitan cermin melengkung The terms regarding the curve mirror
28. 28. Kutub cermin Pole of mirror, P Titik tengah bagi cermin melengkung Middle point on the curved mirror. C C F F
29. 29. Titik fokkus Focal point,F Titik di mana semua sinar selari ditumpukan selepas dipantulkan A point through which all rays traveling parallel converge after reflection. C C F F
30. 30. Panjang focus Focal length, f Jarak antara titik focus, F dan kutub cermin, P The distance between the focal point, f and the pole of the mirror, P. C C F F f f
31. 31. Jarak objek, u Object distance, u Jarak antara objek dengan kutub cermin, ,P Distance of object from the pole of the mirror, P Jarak imej, v Image distance, v Jarak antara imej dengan kutub cermin, P Distance of image from the pole of the mirror, P
32. 32. Draw ray diagrams to show the positioning and characteristics of the image formed by a convex mirror concave mirror
33. 33. Senarai semak Fizik / Checklist Physics
34. 34. Peraturan melukis rajah sinar bagi cermin cekung Construction Rules for drawing ray diagram for concave mirror Sinar selari dengan paksi utama dipantulkan ke titik F. A ray parallel to the principal axis is reflected through F. Sinar melalui titik F dipantulkan selari dengan paksi utama. A ray passing through F is reflected parallel to the principal axis Sinar melalui titik C dipantulkan semula ikut lintasan sama. A ray passing through C is reflected back along the same path.
35. 35. Sinar selari dengan paksi utama dipantulkan ke titik F. A ray parallel to the principal axis is reflected through F.
36. 36. Sinar melalui titik F dipantulkan selari dengan paksi utama. A ray passing through F is reflected parallel to the principal axis
37. 37. Sinar melalui titik C dipantulkan semula ikut lintasan sama. A ray passing through C is reflected back along the same path.
38. 38. Peraturan Melukis Rajah Sinar bagi Cermin Cembung. Construction Rules for drawing ray diagram for convex mirror Sinar selari dengan paksi utama dipantulkan seolah2 ia datang dari titik F. A ray parallel to the principal axis is reflected as if it comes from F. Sinar dipancarkan ke titik F dipantulkan selari dengan paksi utama A ray directed towards F is reflected parallel to the principal axis. Sinar dipancarkan melalui titik C dipantulkan sepanjang lintasan yang sama. A ray is directed towards C is reflected back along the same path.
39. 39. Menentukan kedudukan dan ciri-ciri imej dengan rajah sinar bagi cermin cekung. 1- Sinar selari dipantulkan ke F / A ray parallel is reflected through F. 2- Sinar melalui F dipantulkan selari. / A ray passing through F is reflected parallel. 3- sinar melalui C dipantulkan ikut lintasan yang sama. / A ray passing through C reflected along the same path. C F Object 4- Pertemuan garis-garis ini ialah kedudukan imej / The intersection of the lines is the position of an image Image Determining the position and characteristics of an image with a Ray Diagram for CONCAVE MIRROR
40. 40. Convex Mirror 1- A ray parallel to the principal axis is reflected as if it came from F. 2- A ray which appears to came from F is reflected parallel to principal axis. 3- A ray which appears to come from C strikes the mirror at right angles and returns along the same path away from C. F C
41. 41. Cermin Cekung Concave Mirror Skrin / Screen Objek / Object
42. 42. Cermin Cekung / Concave mirror Cermin cembung convex mirror
43. 43. Rajah sinar bagi cermin cekung Ray Diagram for concave mirror (u>2f or u > C) Image characteristics: 1- Real / Nyata 2- Inverted / Songsang 3- Diminished / Kecil 4- f < v < 2f
44. 44. Cermin Cekung / Concave mirror (u = 2f or u = C) Image characteristics: 1- Real / Nyata 2- Inverted / Songsang 3- Same size / Sama saiz 4- v = 2f = C
45. 45. Rajah sinar bagi cermin cekung Ray Diagram for concave mirror (f < u < 2f) Image characteristics: 1- Real / Nyata 2- Inverted / Songsang 3- Magnified / Besar 4- v > 2f
46. 46. Rajah sinar bagi cermin cekung Ray Diagram for concave mirror (u = f) Image characteristics: 1- Virtual / maya 2- upright / tegak 3- Magnified / besar 4- Image at infinity / imej di infiniti
47. 47. Rajah Sinar bagi cermin Cekung Ray Diagram for Concave mirror (u < f) Image
48. 48. Ciri imej / Characteristics of image (u < f) 3- Magnified / besar 1- virtual / maya 2- upright / tegak
49. 49. Real, Inverted, Diminished RID Real, Inverted, Same size RIS Real, Inverted, Magnified RIM Virtual, Upright, Magnified VUM Virtual, Upright, Magnified VUM
50. 50. Imej nyata : u > 2f , f < u < 2f, u = 2f Real image Semakin berkurang jarak objek, u, semakin bertambah jarak imej, v u berkadar songsang dengan v The less the object distance, u, the further the image distance, v u inversely proportional to v Semakin berkurang jarak objek, u, semakin besar saiz imej u berkadar songsang dengan saiz imej u inversely proportional to size of image
51. 51. Senarai semak Fizik / Checklist Physics
52. 52. F F 2F C Object Image Rajah sinar bagi cermin cembung Ray diagram for convex mirror Ciri-ciri imej / Characteristics of image: Maya, tegak, kecil Upright, virtual and smaller
53. 53. Senarai semak Fizik / Checklist Physics
54. 54. Menggunakan cermin anti paralaks pada ammeter. Penunjuk ammeter selari dengan imej penunjuk dalam cermin. Use anti parallax error mirror of an ammeter. The pointer of ammeter overlaps the image of the pointer in the mirror imej Imej dan penunjuk tidak selari – ralat paralaks Imej and pointer are not in line – parallax error.
55. 55. Imej dan penunjuk tidak selari – ralat paralaks Imej and pointer are not in line – parallax error. Tiada ralat paralaks No parallax error.
56. 56. Cahaya dari objek dipantulkan oleh cermin pertama ke cermin kedua dan dipantulkan ke dalam mata Light from the object is reflected by the first mirror to the second mirror. It is reflected to the eyes. Imej maya, tegak, sama saiz. Image is virtual, upright, same size.
57. 57. Periskop dalam kereta untuk melihat trafik di hadapan. Periscope in the car to see ahead in traffic
58. 58. Supaya imej yang dilihat dalam cermin kereta di hadapan kelihatan tegak . The image seen in the mirror of the car in front is upright.
59. 59. Cermin cekung / Concave mirror u < f Maya, tegak, besar Virtual, upright dan magnified. Cermin cekung digunakan untuk mendapatkan imej muka yang besar dan tegak. Concave mirror is used to create a magnified and upright image of the face.
60. 60. Imej Maya, tegak, sama saiz Image Virtual, upright, same size. Imej Maya, tegak, besar Image Virtual, upright, magnified. Untuk make-up muka gadis mesti dekat dengan cermin cekkung. Jarak objek mesti kurang dari panjang fokus, f ( u < f) For make-up the lady’s face must be close to the concave mirror. The object distance has to be less than the focal length, f.
61. 61. Cermin cekung / Concave mirror Pada titik fokus / At focal point / u = f Semua gelombang tuju dari satelit (jauh) datang secara selari dan akan ditumpukan selepas dipantulkan. The incidence waves from the satellite (distant object) are parallel and will focus at focal point after reflection.
62. 62. Cermin cekung / Concave mirror Pada titik fokus pemantul At the focal point of the reflector. Cahaya daripada bulb lampu akan menuju ke pemantul dan dipantulkan selari. Dapat melihat objek yang berada jauh di depan. Light from the bulb at f, hit the reflector and will reflect parallel. Can see distant object ahead.
63. 63. High beam: Mentol di F, cahaya dipantulkan selari untuk lihat objek jauh di depan. bulb at F, light reflected parallel to see distant object in front Low beam High beam
64. 64. Cermin cekung / Concave mirror u < f Maya, tegak, besar / virtual, upright, magnified
65. 65. Cermin cembung / Convex mirror Medan penglihatan besar. Pemandu boleh lihat objek di belakang dan di sisi kereta / wider view of vision. Driver can see object at the back and at the side of the car / blind spot
66. 66. Cermin cembung / Convex mirror Cahaya dari kereta di depan dipantulkan oleh cermin ke pemandu. Pemandu lihat imej tegak dan kecil, luas medan penglihatan./ light from the car ahead is reflected by the mirror to the driver. He can see an upright and small image, wider view of vision.
67. 67. In supermarket for safety purposes. Imej yang dihasilkan oleh cermin cembung sentiasa maya, kecil dan tegak. Dapat melihat keadaan kedai. The image produced by convex mirror is always virtual, smaller and upright. Can see the whole shop.
68. 68. Convex and Concave Mirrors Images in convex mirrors Images in concave mirrors are always smaller. are always bigger