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# 4.2 specific heat capacity 2017

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specific heat capacity: definition, experiment, problem solving, applications

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### 4.2 specific heat capacity 2017

1. 1. MUATAN HABA TENTU SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY
2. 2. Air dalam baldi / water in the pail Air dalam baldi / water in the pail
3. 3. Air dalam baldi / water in the pail
4. 4. Inference: • A body with a ____________ mass requires more heat to raise its temperature by 1 C. • The water in the _______ needs to be exposed to the sunlight in a shorter time in order to raise its temperature by 1 ºC. pail larger
5. 5. Haba yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu bahan sebanyak 1 °C Heat required to increase temperature of a substance by 1 °C Air dalam kolam / water in the swimming pool
6. 6. Haba yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu bahan sebanyak 1 °C Heat required to increase temperature of a substance by 1 °C Air panas/ hot water Semakin tinggi suhu, semakin besar muatan haba/ the higher the temperature, the more the heat capacity
7. 7. Haba yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu bahan sebanyak 1 °C Heat required to increase temperature of a substance by 1 °C Air panas di dalam cerek/ hot water in a kettle Semakin besar jisim, semakin besar muatan haba/ the higher the mass, the more the heat capacity
8. 8. THE IDEA OF HEAT CAPACITY • With the same temperature a cup of hot coffee cause more injury on a body compare than a drop of hot coffee. Why? The larger the mass of an object, the larger amount of heat it can store. A CUP OF COFFEE HAS MORE HEAT CAPACITY
9. 9. Why do the metal parts of the car gets really hot while the plastic and other materials stay at more bearable temperature? • The metal and plastic have different specific heat capacities.
10. 10. Why Hot Apple Pies Burn? •The crust and the apple jam have different heat capacity We can touch the crust Apple jam is very hot
11. 11. Kubus B/ cube B
12. 12. jisim/ mass Jenis bahan/ type of substances suhu/ temperature
13. 13. Haba yang diperlukan bagi 1 kg bahan untuk menaikkan suhu sebanyak 1 °C/ heat required for 1 kg substance to increase the temperature by 1 °C haba/energy jisim/ mass Kenaikan suhu/ Increase in temperature Muatan haba tentu/ specific heat capacity J kg °CJ kg-1°C-1
14. 14. Kuantiti haba Amount of heat, J Jisim / Mass, kg Muatan haba tentu Specific heat capacity Kenaikan suhu/ Temperature difference
15. 15. 900 J haba diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu sebanyak 1 °C bagi 1 kg aluminium/ 900 J of heat is required to increase the temperature by 1 °C for 1 kg aluminium.
16. 16. 4 200 J haba diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu sebanyak 1 °C bagi 1 kg air 4 200 J of heat is required to increase the temperature by 1 °C for 1 kg water.
17. 17. m = 2 θ = 70-30 = 40 c = 500 Q = mcθ = (2)(500)(70 – 30) = 40,000 J
18. 18. m = 0.1 θ = 100-20 = 40 c = 129 Q = mcθ = (0.1)(129)(80) = 1 032 J
19. 19. Mengurangkan haba hilang ke persekitaran To reduce heat from the heater lost to surrounding
20. 20. Nilai c lebih besar/The value of c from experiment is larger. Terdapat kehilangan haba, there is heat lost, θ rendah dari nilai sepatutnya /so the value of θ is lower than the expected value Formula c=Q/mθ, jadi c besar jika θ kecil/ c will be higher if θ is lower.
21. 21. • Heat energy cannot be created. • However, electrical energy, potential energy and kinetic energy can be converted to heat energy. Electrical energy Heat energy Pt = mcө Potential energy Heat energy mgh = mcө Kinetic energy Heat energy ½ mv2 = mcө heater Power = P Object falls from a high position Moving object stopped due to friction
22. 22. Heat absorbed = heat released 0.2 x c x (ϴ- 40) = 0.8 x c x (100 - ϴ) 0.2ϴ - 8 = 80 - 0.8ϴ ϴ = 80 + 8 = 88 ⁰C
23. 23. Potential energy = heat mgh = mcθ → 10 x 12 = 128 x ϴ ϴ = 0.9375 ⁰C
24. 24. APPLICATIONSOF SPECIFICHEAT CAPACITY
25. 25. Cepat panas & cepat sejuk Fast heated up & Fast cooled down Peka pada perubahan suhu. Sensitive to temperature change
26. 26. Lambat panas dan lambat sejuk. Heats up and cools down at a slower rate. Boleh serap haba dengan kuantiti banyak. Can absorb a great amount of heat
27. 27. DESIGNING A COOKING POT HANDLE : Plastic High specific heat capacity. Poor heat conductor BASE : Copper Low specific heat capacity. Heats up very quickly. BODY : Aluminium Low specific heat capacity. Heats up quickly
28. 28. • Tapak kuprum/Copper base : • Muatan haba tentu rendah. Periuk menjadi panas dengan cepat. Ini membolehkan makanan dimasak dalam periuk dengan cepat. • low specific heat capacity. The pot becomes hot very quickly. This enables quick cooking of the food in the pot. • Ketumpatan tinggi: Tapak yang berat memastikan periuk stabil dan tidak mudah terbalik • High density. The heavier base ensures that the pot is stable and will not topple over easily.
29. 29. • Pemegang kayu/Wooden handle: : • Muatan haba tentu tinggi. Pemegang tidak mudah panas apabila haba diserap. Konduktor haba lemah. • High specific heat capacity. The handle will not become too hot when heat is absorbed. Poor conductor of heat. • Badan Aluminium/Alumni body: • Muatan haba tentu rendah. Periuk cepat panas. Ketumpatan rendah supaya ia ringan. • Low specific heat capacity. The pot becomes hot quickly. Low density so it will be lighter
30. 30. Bayu laut1. Waktu siang, haba diserap oleh darat dan air. 2. Muatan haba tentu laut besar, lambat panas. 3. Muatan haba tentu darat rendah. Darat lebih cepat panas. 4. Udara panas di atas darat naik. Tekanan rendah 5. Udara sejuk dari laut (tekanan tinggi) bergerak ke darat. Pergerakan udara sejuk dari laut ke darat
31. 31. Sea Breeze1. During the day, heat is absorbed by the land and sea 2. Sea has a high specific heat capacity which temperature increases slower. 3. Land has a low specific heat capacity which temperature increases faster. Land is warmer than sea. 4. Warm air above the land rises. Becomes low pressure 5. Cool air from the sea (high pressure) moves towards the land as sea breeze. The movement of cool air from sea to land
32. 32. Bayu Darat3. Udara panas di atas laut naik ke atas. Tekanan menjadi rendah 2. Laut lebih panas dari darat. Lambat hilang haba. 1. Darat cepat hilang haba dari laut sebab muatan haba tentunya rendah. 4. Udara sejuk dari darat (tekanan tinggi) bergerak ke laut. Pergerakan udara sejuk dari darat ke laut
33. 33. Land Breeze3. Hot air above the sea rises. Low pressure 2. Sea is hotter than the land which loses heat slower. 1. Land loses heat faster than sea at night due to its low specific heat capacity 4. Cool air from the land (high pressure) moves towards the sea to replace the rising air The movement of cool air from land to sea
34. 34. Sistem penyejukan enjin kereta Cooling system of a car engine Air digunakan sebagai penyejuk / Water is used as coolant: • Takat didih tinggi – tidak mudah menjadi gas High boiling point – not change to gas easily • Muatan haba tentu tinggi supaya menyerap haba dengan banyak /High specific heat capacity so can absorb a lot of heat. • Banyak / mudah didapati – murah dan kos rendah Abundant, Economical –so cheaper & save cost
35. 35. Air dipam ke enjin Water pump Pumps the water into the engine block Haba dari enjin diserap oleh air. Heat produced by the engine is absorbed by the water Air panas mengalir ke radiator The hot water flows to the radiator Haba dibebaskan ke udara sejuk yang mengalir melalui kipas penyejuk. Heat is released to the cooler air that flows through the cooling fans.