Dy Eco Part 2


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Dy Eco Part 2

  1. 1. Biodiversity By Hasimah Azit
  2. 2. <ul><li>KINGDOMS </li></ul>CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISM Monera Protista Fungi Animalia Plantae
  3. 3. Monera <ul><li>Prokaryotic organism </li></ul><ul><li>No nuclear membrane </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. blue green algae and bacteria </li></ul>
  4. 5. Protista <ul><li>Unicellular organism and a few multicellular. </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Include algae protozoa and slime molds </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic or autotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Amoeba sp, Paramecium sp, Trypanasoma sp, Spyrogyra </li></ul>
  5. 7. Diatoms
  6. 8. Fungi <ul><li>Multicellular and unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryote </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall contain chitin </li></ul><ul><li>Main body consist of thread like mycelium </li></ul><ul><li>Saprophytic </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Mucor sp, mushrooms, yeast. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Plantae <ul><li>Immobile </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryote </li></ul><ul><li>Produce food by photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. moss, fern, conifer and flowering plant </li></ul>
  8. 12. <ul><ul><li>Eukaryote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial And Aquatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual ( A Few Asexual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motile ( A Few Are Nonmotile) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things Like: Sponges, Jellyfish, Mollusks, Round Worms, Flat Worms, Segmented Worms, Arthropods, Starfish, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals </li></ul></ul>Animalia
  9. 14. Classification Classification: The process of putting similar things into groups. Taxonomy: Is the science of classifying organisms.
  10. 15. <ul><li>4000 B.C. ARISTOTLE (GREEK PHILOSOPHER) </li></ul><ul><li>Created first written classification scheme </li></ul><ul><li>>> TWO groups - plants & animals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal group - anything that lived on land, in the water or in the air. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant group - based this on their different stems </li></ul></ul></ul>History of Classification
  11. 16. <ul><li>1500's - 1700's Many different classification systems created : </li></ul><ul><li>Many of them really complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Names based on common names - This created confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Names also based on long scientific definitions </li></ul>
  12. 17. 1700's - Carols Linnaeus Swedish Biologist <ul><li>Binomial nomenclature - 2 name naming system - still in use today. </li></ul><ul><li>Created a system of groups called taxa or taxon </li></ul><ul><li>Each taxon is a category into which related organisms are placed </li></ul><ul><li>Approximantly 2.5 million kinds of organisms identifie d </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>KINGDOM </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY </li></ul><ul><li>GENUS </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIES </li></ul>Modern Day Levels of Classification
  14. 19. <ul><li>THE EVIDENCE USED TO CLASSIFY INTO TAXONOMY GROUPS: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1) EMBRYOLOGY   2) CHROMOSOMES / DNA   3) BIOCHEMISTRY   4) PHYSIOLOGY   5) EVOLUTION   6) BEHAVIOR </li></ul>Modern Taxonomy
  15. 20. System of scientific naming <ul><li>TWO NAMES FOR EVERY ORGANISM: (Binomial nomenclature) </li></ul><ul><li>GENUS </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIES </li></ul><ul><li>The system follows certain rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific name must be in Greek or Latin language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This helps to accurate communicate information to other biologist around the world who use many different languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first part of the name is called the genus and the second part of the name is called the species. </li></ul><ul><li>The genus name refers to the relatively small group of organisms to which a particular type of organism belongs. </li></ul><ul><li>The second part of the name is the species . </li></ul><ul><li>The species name is usually a Latin description of some important characteristic of the organism. </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>The Genus (or surname) as a general rule starts with a capital letter while the Specific name (or personal name) is written completely in lower case. </li></ul><ul><li>At times the Genus will be abbreviated to the first letter (the capital letter) followed by the Specific name in full, however this is only after the entire name has been written out in full once . </li></ul>
  17. 22. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Felis Species: F. catus
  18. 24. Other member ( Panthera tigris ) ( Panthera tigris ) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Panthera Species: P. tigris
  19. 25. Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Malvales Family: Durionaceae Genus: Durio zibethinus
  20. 27. Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Malvales Family: Malvaceae Genus: Hibiscus Species: H. rosa-sinensis
  21. 28. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia Subclass: Theria Order: Primates Superfamily: Hominoidea Family: Hominidae Subfamily: Homininae Tribe: Hominini Subtribe: Hominina Genus: Homo Species: H. sapiens Subspecies: H. s. sapiens
  22. 29. <ul><li>A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). </li></ul>microorganism
  23. 30. <ul><li>DISCUSS THE ROLE OF   </li></ul><ul><li>GATHER INFORMATIONS ON PATOGEN, </li></ul><ul><li>VECTORS, SYMPTOMS AND METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>IN TRANSMISSION OF DISEASES </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CONDUCT A FORUM TO DISCUSS THE </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANCE OF PRESERVATIONS AND </li></ul><ul><li>CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY </li></ul>useful microorganisms
  24. 31. Anton van Leeuwenhoek's <ul><ul><li>discover microorganisms in 1675, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using a microscope of his own design. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 32. microbes <ul><li>Microorganisms are very diverse. </li></ul><ul><li>They include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fungi, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protists; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microscopic plants (called green algae); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic animals such as plankton, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the planarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>viruses, </li></ul></ul>
  26. 33. HIV
  27. 36. Useful microorganism <ul><li>Food production </li></ul><ul><li>cheese industry </li></ul><ul><li>in bread making, </li></ul><ul><li>alcoholic drinks. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins, </li></ul><ul><li>Medical </li></ul><ul><li>genetically-modified bacteria are engineered to carry the gene for insulin, steroid cortisone, which is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>the antibiotics </li></ul>
  28. 37. <ul><li>Industrial </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiotic microbes </li></ul><ul><li>The latest food fads have introduced a whole variety of algae and fungi as food. </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial enzymes are added to detergents to enhance their power as stain-removers and colour restorers. </li></ul><ul><li>Microbes in our intestines help produce certain essential vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizobium living in the nodules of leguminous plants convert nitrogen from the air </li></ul>Useful microbes
  29. 38. <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>composting, microbes to degrade organic matter into fertile plant stuff, breaking down the organic substances into simple ones, </li></ul><ul><li>they break down the oil from oil spills </li></ul><ul><li>turning crud into water that is pure enough to be released into rivers or channeled into tanks for chlorination before it once again becomes drinking water </li></ul>Useful microbes
  30. 39. Harmful microbes <ul><li>Cause health problems such as strep throat, chickenpox and the common cold </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy food </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed crops </li></ul>
  31. 40. Infectious diseases: How they spread? Direct contact: An easy way to catch most infectious diseases is by coming in contact with someone who has one. 1. Person to person - direct transfer of bacteria, viruses or other germs from one person to another. - touches, -coughs on or - kisses someone who isn't infected. - the exchange of body fluids from sexual contact or - a blood transfusion.
  32. 41. Infectious diseases: How they spread? <ul><li>2. Animal to person </li></ul><ul><li>pets can carry many germs </li></ul><ul><li>Handling animal waste can be hazardous, </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mother to unborn child </li></ul><ul><li>A pregnant woman may pass germs that cause infectious diseases to her unborn baby. </li></ul>
  33. 42. Indirect contact <ul><li>Droplet transmission – cough / sneeze </li></ul><ul><li>Insect vector – dengue fever/ malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination of water – typhoid/ cholera </li></ul>