Cell Organisation


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Cell Organisation

  1. 1. cell organisation Hasimah bt Azit
  2. 2. unicellular organism
  3. 5. How this organism: <ul><li>Move? </li></ul><ul><li>Do respiration? </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to stimuli? </li></ul><ul><li>Controls and regulates water ? </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce? </li></ul>
  4. 6. multicell organism They have a lot of cells !!
  5. 7. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System </li></ul><ul><li>Organism </li></ul>
  6. 9. All the tissues are same in the beginning! <ul><li>They differentiate to fit their function in the organism </li></ul><ul><li>They undergo specialisation in order to perform their tasks more efficiently </li></ul>
  7. 10. The Origin of Tissues Morula Blastula Gastrula Differentiate between primary tissues and embryonic germ layers.
  8. 11. 4 Basic Tissues Types <ul><li>Epithelial </li></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul>
  9. 12. Epithelial Tissue -- General Features <ul><li>Cover surfaces, line cavities and form glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name one multicellular gland formed by epithelial tissue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avascular ---without blood vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nutrients diffuse in from blood vessels in underlying connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean for especially thick epithelia? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good nerve supply </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid cell division; responsive to environmental stresses </li></ul><ul><li>Named according to the shape and arrangement of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List the general functions of epithelial tissues. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 14. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Cells rarely touch due to usually large amount of intercellular material (extra cellular matrix ) </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix(fibers & ground substance) secreted by cells </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency varies from liquid or gel to solid </li></ul><ul><li>Function is to support, connect, protect and insulate </li></ul><ul><li>Good nerve & blood supply except cartilage & tendons </li></ul>
  11. 16. What are the three major cell types often found in connective tissues, and what are their functions? Areolar c.t.
  12. 17. Adipose Tissue <ul><li>Peripheral nuclei due to large fat storage droplet </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper layer of skin, organ padding, yellow marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces heat loss, energy storage, protection </li></ul>
  13. 18. Bones
  14. 19. Blood
  15. 20. Muscle
  16. 22. Cardiac Muscle
  17. 23. Skeletal Muscle
  18. 24. Smooth Muscle
  19. 25. Nervous tissues
  20. 26. Organs <ul><li>Two or more types of tissues working together to perform a particular function </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>Kidney Brain Lung
  21. 28. Systems <ul><li>Several organs that works together </li></ul>
  22. 30. cell organisation in plant
  23. 32. Tissues <ul><li>2 main types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meristematic: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cambium – actively dividing cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermal: outmost layer of cells – cover leaves, stems and roots. Protective tissues. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ground:(cortex) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchyma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collenchyma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sclerenchyma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phloem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 34. Meristematic tissues
  25. 35. Root Apical Meristem
  26. 36. Epidermal
  27. 38. Ground tissue Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma
  28. 41. Vascular tissue <ul><li>transportation of water and minerals from the roots to shoot systems </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation food that is synthesized in leaves to whole plant. </li></ul>
  29. 44. Organs
  30. 45. Systems
  31. 46. Regulating internal environment By Hasimah Azit
  32. 47. The Boundary Organ Concept
  33. 48. What is internal environment? <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interstitial fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood plasma </li></ul></ul>Our cells surrounding
  34. 50. <ul><li>The necessity to maintain optimal internal environment so that cells can function optimally </li></ul><ul><li>Internal factors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osmotic pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul></ul>The process to regulate and maintain internal environment >>>> HOMEOSTASIS
  35. 51. Homeostasis of Body Fluids <ul><li>Separation of fluid compartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intracellular fluid (ICF) = within cells = cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extracellular fluid (ECF) = outside cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intercellular fluid = tissue fluid = interstitial fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plasma = fluid portion of blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition of fluids change as substances move between compartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nutrients, oxygen, ions and wastes move in both directions across capillary walls </li></ul></ul>
  36. 52. How is this (homeostasis) controlled?
  37. 53. feedback process . positive : >> increase >> increase . Negative: >> increase >>> decrease
  38. 54. Components of Feedback Loop <ul><li>Receptor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monitors a controlled condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determines next action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>receives directions from the control center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces a response that changes the controlled condition </li></ul></ul>
  39. 55. Eg. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure <ul><li>Pressure receptors in walls of certain arteries detect an increase in BP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood Pressure = force of blood on walls of vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brain receives input and signals heart and blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate slows and arterioles dilate (increase in diameter) </li></ul><ul><li>BP returns to normal </li></ul>
  40. 57. Uniqueness of cells
  41. 58. Why these cells are so unique? <ul><li>They can perform their function optimally! </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cell – without nucleus – they have a lot of spaces for hemoglobin so a lot of oxygen can be carried. </li></ul><ul><li>Bone – they have calcium </li></ul>