7[1].2 the respiratory structure


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7[1].2 the respiratory structure

  2. 2. L E A R N IN G OrespiratoryO M E in humans & State the U T C structures S some animals; Make an inference on the various adaptations of the respiratory structures; Describe the characteristics of respiratory surfaces in humans & other organisms; Describe the breathing mechanisms in humans & other organisms. Compare & contrast the human respiratory system with that of other organisms. 2
  3. 3.  BREATHING - Involvement of inhalation of O2 & exhalation of CO2 Each organisms have their special structure with the adaptation for gaseous exchange:-  Large surface area to volume ratio – increase the rate of exchange  Very thin walls – one cell thick  A rich supply of blood – covered with blood capillaries  A moist surface – easier for the gases to diffuse 3
  4. 4. PROTOZOA  Unicellular organisms – Amoeba & Paramecium  Have a large surface area to volume ratio, the external area is fully permeable to the gases  No need specific respiratory sturucture  Gases diffuse in & out of the organisms over the whole cell membrane.  Depends on the concentration of respiratory gases in & out of the cell 4
  5. 5. FISH A bony fish has four pairs of gills,  support by a bony arch  The gills consist of two rows of gill filament  numerous gill lamela  Each gill lamela is folded into gill plate, have thin walls & well supplied with blood capillaries  to increase the surface area of the gills  Characteristics :-  bony/gill arches – to support the filaments  Filaments –numerous (increase the surface area for gaseous exchange)  Thin membrane (to ease the gases absorption)  Many blood capillaries (efficients transportation) 5
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  7. 7. B r e a t h in g M e c h a n is m of F is h Open its mouth – lower the floor of the mouth- volume of the mouth is increased –the pressure inside the mouth falls below that of the external pressure- water with high conc. of O2 enter-operculum close. Floor of the mouth is raise up - Gaseous exchange occurs as water flows past the gills –the pressure in the mouth is increased. – water then passes out though the operculum  operculum then opens 7
  9. 9.  The body is protected by the exoskeleton,IN S E C T S which is impervious to the gases.  Air reaches the body cells via an elaborated system of branching tubes called tracheae (singular : trachea)  Air enters the tracheae through a series of openings along the sides of the body – spiracles  Reinforced with the chitin, the trachea are subdivided in numerous tiny tracheoles (singular : tracheole)  thin, permeable walls & intimate contact with the body cells  Tracheal system provides a large surface area for gaseous exchange  O2 dissolves in the fluid found in the tracheoles & passes directly to the body cells through diffusion 9
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  11. 11. B R E A T H IN G M E C H A N IS M O F I N S E C T S & contraction of  The rhythmic expansion the abdominal wall help to drive the air in & out of the body  Contraction flattens the body, decreases the volume of the trachea, force the air out  Abdomen expands, air is drawn into the trachea through the spiracles  Each spiracle is controlled by a system of valves operated by tiny muscles  The level of CO2 in the body determines the size of the spiracles aperture  Some insect (such as grasshopper) have air sacs connected to the trachea that can pump the air throughout the tracheal system 11
  12. 12. AMPHIBIAN  Respire through 4 different S organs – the gills, lungs, skin & mucous lining of the mouth  have moist surfaces & have a good supplies of the blood capillaries  The tadpoles breathe through the skin & gills.  The adult frog – lungs, skin & mucous lining of the mouth  many blood capillaries  Many folds inside the lung sacs – increase the respiratory surface  In water, O2 enters through its skin 12
  13. 13. A M P H IB I  Inspiration – nostrils open, the mouth closes, the glottis closses AN & the floor of the mouth cavity is lowered  Air pressure inside the mouth reduced. Air is drawn through the nostrils into the mouth cavity  The noistrils close & the floor of the mouth cavity is raised to force the air through the glottis into the lungs.  The lungs expand & gaseous exchange takes place.  Expiration – nostrils open, the muscles of the body wall contract to force the air from the lungs to the mouth cavity & nostrils 13
  14. 14. HUMAN  Consist of a series of tube-like structures connecting a pair of lungs S  Nasal passage, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi (singular : bronchus), bronchioles & alveoli (singular : alveolus)  Lungs – large sac-like organs, made up of mainly the bronchioles, alveoli & a network of blood capillaries  Left lung – 2 lobes, right lungs – 3 lobes  A double membrane called the pleura surrounds each lungs.  Outer pleural membrane attached to the chest wall, inner pleural membrane attached to the lungs.  Each lungs is packed with 1.5 – 2.5 million of alveoli. 14
  15. 15.  Adaptation of the alveoli for gaseous exchange :  A large surface area  Very thin walls  A moist surface  A rich supply of blood 15
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  18. 18. B R E A T H IN G M E C H A N IS M O The diaphragm is a N S  F H U M A dome-shaped sheet of muscles that separates the thorax from the abdomen  2 sets of intercostal muscles are located between the ribs – external & internal intercostal muscles INSPIRATION/INHALATION  The external intercostal contract while the internal relax.  the ribs & sternum move upwards & outwards  The diaphragm muscles contract & flatterns  The movement of the ribs & the diaphragm increase the volume of the thoracic cavity  Increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity until it is less than the atmospheric pressure  air drawn into the lungs 18
  20. 20. E X P I R A T I O N /E X H A L A T I ON The internal intercostal muscles contract while the external relax  ribs & sternum move downwards & inwards back to its resting position The diaphragm muscles relax & arches upwards. The movement of the rib cage & the diaphragm decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity  increases the pressure inside until it is greater than the atmospheric pressure. Air is forced out of the lungs. 20
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  24. 24. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WITH THAT OF OTHERO R G A N I R E S P ORGANISMST B R E A T H I N G IR A C H A R A C T E R IS S M TO R Y IC S O F M E C H A N IS M S TR U C T A D A P T A T IO NProtozoa None URE Large TSA – minute None size PM is thin & moist, >rate of diffusion Fish Gills Numerous lamella - > Action of the the TSA for diffusion. Gill filament – thin, floor of the moist membranes with mouth & the a network of blood operculum capillaries. 24
  25. 25. ORGANI R E S P IR A C H A R A C T E R IS T B R E A T H IN G S M TO R Y IC S O F M E C H A N IS M S TR U C T A D A P T A T IO NInsects Tracheal URE Many fine branches Action of of tracheoles to system increase the TSA abnominal A layer of moisture muscles on the walls of the (rhythmic tracheoles. movement)Amphibia Skin, Thin & moist Action of respiratory surfaces ns mouth, muscles in lungs Network the mouth of blood capillaries in the skin. cavity. 25
  26. 26. ORGANI R E S P IR A C H A R A C T E R IS T B R E A T H IN G S M TO R Y IC S O F M E C H A N IS M S TR U C T A D A P T A T IO NHuman Lungs URE Numerous alveoli Action of Thin & moist alveoli intercostal epithelium Network of blood muscles & capillaries at the diaphragm alveoli of lungs muscles 26
  27. 27. TAMATSemoga segala ilmu yg dikongsi memberimanfaat & penuh barakah… 27