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Hsp chemistry frm5

  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications CHEMISTRY Form 5 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2006
  2. 2. Copyright © 2006Ministry of Education MalaysiaFirst published 2006All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,including photocopying, and recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from theDirector of Curriculum Development Centre, Level 4-8, Block E9, Government Complex Parcel E, 62604 Putrajaya, Malaysia.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page vThe National PhilosophyNational Philosophy of Education viiNational Science Education Philosophy ixPreface xiIntroduction 1Aims and Objectives 2Scientific Skills 3Thinking Skills 4Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 8Teaching and Learning Strategies 10Content Organisation 13
  4. 4. THEME: INTERACTION BETWEEN CHEMICALS Learning Area: 1. Rate Of Reaction 14 Learning Area: 2. Carbon Compounds 18 Learning Area: 3. Oxidation And Reduction 34 Learning Area: 4. Thermochemistry 40THEME: PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF MANUFACTURED CHEMICALS Learning Area: 1. Chemicals For Consumers 46Acknowledgements 50Panel of Writers 52
  5. 5. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her people; maintaining a democratic way of life;creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared; ensuring a liberal approach to her rich anddiverse cultural traditions; building a progressive society which shall be oriented towards modern science and technology.We, the people of Malaysia, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles:BELIEF IN GODLOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRYSUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTIONRULE OF LAWGOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY v
  6. 6. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integratedmanner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmoniousbased on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who areknowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a highlevel of personal well being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, society and thenation at large. vii
  7. 7. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and ableto master scientific knowledge and technological competency. ix
  8. 8. PREFACE In a recent development, the Government has made aThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction insociety depends on science and technology. It is envisaged the teaching and learning of science and mathematics. Thisthat success in providing quality science education to measure will enable students to keep abreast ofMalaysians from an early age will serve to spearhead the developments in science and technology in contemporarynation into becoming a knowledge society and a competitive society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tap theplayer in the global arena. Towards this end, the Malaysian diverse sources of information on science written in theeducation system is giving greater emphasis to science and English language. At the same time, this move would alsomathematics education. provide opportunities for students to use the English language and hence, increase their proficiency in the language. Thus, inThe Chemistry curriculum has been designed not only to implementing the science curriculum, attention is given toprovide opportunities for students to acquire science developing students’ ability to use English for study andknowledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking communication, especially in the early years of learning.strategies, and to apply this knowledge and skills in everydaylife, but also to inculcate in them noble values and the spirit of The development of this curriculum and the preparation of thepatriotism. It is hoped that the educational process en route to corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the workachieving these aims would produce well-balanced citizens of many individuals over a period of time. To all those whocapable of contributing to the harmony and prosperity of the have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, onnation and its people. behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended.The Chemistry curriculum aims at producing active learners.To this end, students are given ample opportunities to engagein scientific investigations through hands-on activities andexperimentations. The inquiry approach, incorporatingthinking skills, thinking strategies and thoughtful learning, (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR SMP, AMP)should be emphasised throughout the teaching-learning Directorprocess. The content and contexts suggested are chosen Curriculum Development Centrebased on their relevance and appeal to students so that their Ministry of Education Malaysiainterest in the subject is enhanced. xi
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION As articulated in the National Education Policy, education in The elective science subjects prepare students who areMalaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of more scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science at post-individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce secondary level. This group of students would take up careers inindividuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and the field of science and technology and play a leading role in thisphysically balanced and harmonious. The primary and secondary field for national development.school science curriculum is developed with the aim of producingsuch individuals. For every science subject, the curriculum for the year is articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the curriculum As a nation that is progressing towards a developed nation specifications. The syllabus presents the aims, objectives and thestatus, Malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically outline of the curriculum content for a period of 2 years for electiveoriented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a high capacity for science subjects and 5 years for core science subjects. Thechange, forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to scientific curriculum specifications provide the details of the curriculum whichand technological developments in the future. In line with this, there includes the aims and objectives of the curriculum, briefis a need to produce citizens who are creative, critical, inquisitive, descriptions on thinking skills and thinking strategies, scientificopen-minded and competent in science and technology. skills, scientific attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning strategies, and curriculum content. The curriculum content provides The Malaysian science curriculum comprises three core the learning objectives, suggested learning activities, the intendedscience subjects and four elective science subjects. The core learning outcomes, and vocabulary.subjects are Science at primary school level, Science at lowersecondary level and Science at upper secondary level. Electivescience subjects are offered at the upper secondary level andconsist of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Additional Science. The core science subjects for the primary and lowersecondary levels are designed to provide students with basicscience knowledge, prepare students to be literate in science, andenable students to continue their science education at the uppersecondary level. Core Science at the upper secondary level isdesigned to produce students who are literate in science,innovative, and able to apply scientific knowledge in decision-making and problem solving in everyday life. 1
  10. 10. AIMS 5. Face challenges in the scientific and technological world and be willing to contribute towards the development of scienceThe aims of the chemistry curriculum for secondary school are to and technology.provide students with the knowledge and skills in chemistry andtechnology and enable them to solve problems and make decisions 6. Evaluate science- and technology-related information wiselyin everyday life based on scientific attitudes and noble values. and effectively.Students who have followed the secondary science curriculum will 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and good moralhave the foundation in science to enable them to pursue formal and values.informal further education in chemistry and technology. 8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence among livingThe curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic and things and the management of nature for survival ofprogressive society with a science and technology culture that mankind.values nature and works towards the preservation and conservationof the environment. 9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology towards national development and the well-being of mankind.OBJECTIVES 10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mentalThe chemistry curriculum for secondary school enables students to: capabilities to understand natural phenomena for the betterment of mankind.1. Acquire knowledge in science and technology in the context of natural phenomena and everyday life experiences. 11. Create awareness on the need to love and care for the environment and play an active role in its preservation and2. Understand developments in the field of science and conservation. technology.3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills.4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical manner for problem solving and decision-making. 2
  11. 11. SCIENTIFIC SKILLS Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data.Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry andproblem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are utilised. Communicating Using words or graphic symbols such asScientific skills are important in any scientific investigation such as tables, graphs, figures or models to describeconducting experiments and carrying out projects. an action, object or event.Scientific skills encompass science process skills and manipulative Using Space- Describing changes in parameter with time.skills. Time Examples of parameters are location, Relationship direction, shape, size, volume, weight andScience Process Skills mass. Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations about an object,Science process skills enable students to formulate their questions event or pattern derived from collected data.and find out the answers systematically. Defining Defining concepts by describing what must Operationally be done and what should be observed.Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: Controlling Identifying the fixed variable, manipulated Variables variable, and responding variable in anObserving Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell, investigation. The manipulated variable is taste and sight to collect information about changed to observe its relationship with the an object or a phenomenon. responding variable. At the same time, the fixed variable is kept constant.Classifying Using observations to group objects or events according to similarities or Hypothesising Making a general statement about the differences. relationship between a manipulated variable and a responding variable in order to explainMeasuring and Making quantitative observations using an event or observation. This statement canUsing numbers and tools with standardised units. be tested to determine its validity.Numbers Measuring makes observation more accurate. Experimenting Planning and conducting activities to test a certain hypothesis. These activities include Inferring Using past experiences or previously collecting, analysing and interpreting data collected data to draw conclusions and and making conclusions. make explanations of events. 3
  12. 12. Manipulative Skills evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is ableManipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas andthat enable students to: products.? use and handle science apparatus and laboratory substances Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that involve correctly. various steps. Each step involves various critical and creative? handle specimens correctly and carefully. thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies is the? draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory substances ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching and accurately. learning process.? clean science apparatus correctly, and? store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly Critical Thinking Skills and safely. A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows:THINKING SKILLS Attributing Identifying criteria such as characteristics, features, qualities and elements of a concept or an object.Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to integrateknowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand the Comparing and Finding similarities and differences basedenvironment. Contrasting on criteria such as characteristics, features, qualities and elements of aOne of the objectives of the national education system is to concept or event.enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can beachieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful learning. Grouping and Separating and grouping objects orTeaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is a Classifying phenomena into categories based onfoundation for thoughtful learning. certain criteria such as common characteristics or features.Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved inthe teaching and learning process. Activities should be organised to Sequencing Arranging objects and information in orderprovide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in based on the quality or quantity ofconceptualisation, problem solving and decision-making. common characteristics or features such as size, time, shape or number.Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills andcreative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always 4
  13. 13. Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order Making Making a general conclusion about a based on their importance or priority. Generalisations group based on observations made on, or some information from, samples of the Analysing Examining information in detail by group. breaking it down into smaller parts to find implicit meaning and relationships. Visualising Recalling or forming mental images about a particular idea, concept, situation or Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions that have the vision. tendency to support or oppose something Synthesising Combining separate elements or parts to in an unfair or misleading way. form a general picture in various forms Evaluating Making judgements on the quality or value such as writing, drawing or artefact. of something based on valid reasons or evidence. Making Making a general statement on the Hypotheses relationship between manipulated Making Making a statement about the outcome of variables and responding variables in Conclusions an investigation that is based on a order to explain a certain thing or hypothesis. happening. This statement is thought to be true and can be tested to determine its validity.Creative Thinking Skills Making Analogies Understanding a certain abstract or complex concept by relating it to a simplerA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: or concrete concept with similar characteristics. Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a discussion. Inventing Producing something new or adapting Relating Making connections in a certain situation something already in existence to to determine a structure or pattern of overcome problems in a systematic relationship. manner. Making Using past experiences or previously Inferences collected data to draw conclusions and make explanations of events. Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data. 5
  14. 14. Thinking Strategy Further information about phases of implementing TSTS can be found in the guidebook “ Buku Panduan Penerapan KemahiranDescription of each thinking strategy is as follows: Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Sains”(Curriculum Development Centre, 1999).Conceptualising Making generalisations based on inter- related and common characteristics in order to construct meaning, concept or model. Figure 1 : TSTS Model in ScienceMaking Decisions Selecting the best solution from various alternatives based on specific criteria to achieve a specific aim. Thinking SkillsProblem Solving Finding solutions to challenging or unfamiliar situations or unanticipated difficulties in a systematic manner. Critical Creative ? Attributing ? Generating ideasBesides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies, another ? Comparing and ? Relatingskill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skill used in making contrasting ? Making inferenceslogical, just and rational judgements. Mastering of critical and ? Grouping and ? Predictingcreative thinking skills and thinking strategies is made simpler if an classifying Reasoning ? Makingindividual is able to reason in an inductive and deductive manner. ? Sequencing hypothesesFigure 1 gives a general picture of thinking skills and thinking ? Prioritising ? Synthesisingstrategies. ? Analysing ? Making ? Detecting bias generalisations Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS) ? Evaluating ? Visualisingthrough the teaching and learning of science can be developed ? Making ? Making analogiesthrough the following phases: conclusions ? Inventing 1. Introducing TSTS. 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’ guidance. s Thinking 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’ guidance. s Strategies 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’ guidance. s 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish ? Conceptualising thinking tasks. ? Making decisions ? Problem solving 6
  15. 15. Relationship between Thinking Skills andScience Process Skills Science Process Skills Thinking SkillsScience process skills are skills that are required in the process offinding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematic Predicting Relatingmanner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative, Visualisinganalytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process Using Space-Time Sequencingskills and the possession of suitable attitudes and knowledge Relationship Prioritisingenable students to think effectively. Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting Analysing The mastering of science process skills involves the Detecting biasmastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that are Making conclusionsrelated to a particular science process skill are as follows: Generalising Evaluating Defining operationally RelatingScience Process Skills Thinking Skills Making analogy Visualising AnalysingObserving Attributing Controlling variables Attributing Comparing and contrasting Comparing and contrasting Relating Relating AnalysingClassifying Attributing Comparing and contrasting Grouping Making hypothesis Attributing and classifying Relating Comparing and contrasting GeneratingMeasuring and Using Relating ideasNumbers Comparing and contrasting Making hypothesis PredictingMaking Inferences Relating Synthesising Comparing and contrasting Experimenting All thinking skills Analysing Making inferences Communicating All thinking skills 7
  16. 16. Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUESand Scientific Skills Science learning experiences can be used as a means to inculcateThis science curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning based on scientific attitudes and noble values in students. These attitudesthinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking skills and and values encompass the following:scientific skills are integrated with the acquisition of knowledge inthe intended learning outcomes. Thus, in teaching and learning, ? Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment.teachers need to emphasise the mastery of skills together with the ? Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data.acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation of noble values and ? Being diligent and persevering.scientific attitudes. ? Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the environment.The following is an example and explanation of a learning outcome ? Realising that science is a means to understand nature.based on thinking skills and scientific skills. ? Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. ? Appreciating the balance of nature. ? Being respectful and well-mannered. Example: ? Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. ? Being thankful to God. Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast metallic ? Having critical and analytical thinking. elements and non-metallic elements. ? Being flexible and open-minded. ? Being kind-hearted and caring. ? Being objective. Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting ? Being systematic. ? Being cooperative. ? Being fair and just. Explanation: ? Daring to try. ? Thinking rationally. To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge of the ? Being confident and independent. characteristics and uses of metals and non-metals in everyday life are learned through comparing and contrasting. The mastery The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important as the occurs through the following stages: knowledge about the elements of metal and the elements of non-metal. ? Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. 8
  17. 17. ? Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.? Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble Suggested Learning Carry out some daily activities related to values. Activities factors affecting the rate of reaction. When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers Collect and interpret data on scientists’need to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the contribution in enhancing the quality ofcontinuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and life.values. For example, during science practical work, the teachershould remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments in Carry out problem solving activitiesa careful, cooperative and honest manner. involving rate of reaction in the field of science and technology through Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of experiment and research.scientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Beforethe first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers should Appreciating the contribution of scienceexamine all related learning outcomes and suggested teaching- Scientific attitudes and and technology.learning activities that provide opportunities for the inculcation of noble valuesscientific attitudes and noble values. Being thankful to God. The following is an example of a learning outcome Having critical and analytical thinking.pertaining to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data Example: Year: Form 5 Inculcating Patriotism Learning Area: 1. Rate of Reaction The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the development Learning Objective: 1.4 Practising scientific knowledge to and strengthening of patriotism among students. For example, in enhance quality of life learning about the earth’ resources, the richness and variety of s Learning Outcome: living things and the development of science and technology in the A student is able to apply knowledge on country, students will appreciate the diversity of natural and human factors affecting the rate of reaction in resources of the country and deepen their love for the country. everyday activities, and adopt problem solving approaches and make rational decisions based on research. 9
  18. 18. TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and principles directly to students.Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum Constructivismemphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process thathelps students acquire knowledge and master skills that will help Constructivism suggests that students learn about something whenthem develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful learning they construct their own understanding. The important attributes ofcan occur through various learning approaches such as inquiry, constructivism are as follows:constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning. Learningactivities should therefore be geared towards activating students’ ? Taking into account students’prior knowledge.critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or ? Learning occurring as a result of students’own effort.rote learning. Students should be made aware of the thinking skills ? Learning occurring when students restructure theirand thinking strategies that they use in their learning. They should existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones.be challenged with higher order questions and problems and be ? Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas andrequired to solve problems utilising their creativity and critical experiences, and reflecting on their learning.thinking. The teaching and learning process should enable studentsto acquire knowledge, master skills and develop scientific attitudes Science, Technology and Societyand noble values in an integrated manner. Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learning with their daily experiences. Meaningful learning occurs in learningTeaching and Learning Approaches in Science approaches such as contextual learning and Science, Technology and Society (STS).Inquiry-Discovery Learning themes and learning objectives that carry elements of STS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach suggests thatInquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences. Inquiry science learning takes place through investigation and discussiongenerally means to find information, to question and to investigate a based on science and technology issues in society. In the STSphenomenon that occurs in the environment. Discovery is the main approach, knowledge in science and technology is to be learnedcharacteristic of inquiry. Learning through discovery occurs when with the application of the principles of science and technology andthe main concepts and principles of science are investigated and their impact on society.discovered by students themselves. Through activities such asexperiments, students investigate a phenomenon and drawconclusions by themselves. Teachers then lead students to Contextual Learningunderstand the science concepts through the results of the inquiry.Thinking skills and scientific skills are thus developed further during Contextual learning is an approach that associates learning withthe inquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not be daily experiences of students. In this way, students are able tosuitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it may appreciate the relevance of science learning to their lives. In 10
  19. 19. contextual learning, students learn through investigations as in the The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and learninginquiry-discovery approach. methods.Mastery Learning ExperimentMastery learning is an approach that ensures all students are able An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. Into acquire and master the intended learning objectives. This experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations toapproach is based on the principle that students are able to learn if discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting anthey are given adequate opportunities. Students should be allowed experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and manipulativeto learn at their own pace, with the incorporation of remedial and skills.enrichment activities as part of the teaching-learning process. Usually, an experiment involves the following steps:Teaching and Learning Methods ? Identifying a problem. ? Making a hypothesis.Teaching and learning approaches can be implemented through ? Planning the experimentvarious methods such as experiments, discussions, simulations, - controlling variables.projects, and visits. In this curriculum, the teaching-learning - determining the equipment and materials needed.methods suggested are stated under the column “ Suggested - determining the procedure of the experiment and theLearning Activities.” However, teachers can modify the suggested method of data collection and analysis.activities when the need arises. ? Conducting the experiment. ? Collecting data.The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods can enhance ? Analysing data.students’ interest in science. Science lessons that are not ? Interpreting data.interesting will not motivate students to learn and subsequently will ? Making conclusions.affect their performance. The choice of teaching methods should be ? Writing a report.based on the curriculum content, students’ abilities, students’repertoire of intelligences, and the availability of resources and In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding studentsinfrastructure. Besides playing the role of knowledge presenters to do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers should provideand experts, teachers need to act as facilitators in the process of students with the opportunities to design their own experiments.teaching and learning. Teachers need to be aware of the multiple This involves students drawing up plans as to how to conductintelligences that exist among students. Different teaching and experiments, how to measure and analyse data, and how tolearning activities should be planned to cater for students with present the outcomes of their experiment.different learning styles and intelligences. 11
  20. 20. Discussion Visits and Use of External ResourcesA discussion is an activity in which students exchange questions The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in theand opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced throughconducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers should play the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, sciencethe role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions centres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and factories.that stimulate thinking and getting students to express themselves. Visits to these places make the learning of science more interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learningSimulation opportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may be involved in the planning process and specific educational tasks should be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is completeIn simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is without a post-visit discussion.carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and theuse of models. In role-play, students play out a particular role basedon certain pre-determined conditions. Games require proceduresthat need to be followed. Students play games in order to learn a Use of Technologyparticular principle or to understand the process of decision-making.Models are used to represent objects or actual situations so that Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in enhancingstudents can visualise the said objects or situations and thus the learning of science. Through the use of technology such asunderstand the concepts and principles to be learned. television, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be made more interesting and effective.Project Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for the teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts.A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by anindividual or a group of students to achieve a certain learning Computer simulation and animation can be presented throughobjective. A project generally requires several lessons to complete. courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as wordThe outcome of the project either in the form of a report, an artefact processors, graphic presentation software and electronicor in other forms needs to be presented to the teacher and other spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation ofstudents. Project work promotes the development of problem- data.solving skills, time management skills, and independent learning. The use of other tools such as data loggers and computer interfacing in experiments and projects also enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning of science. 12
  21. 21. CONTENT ORGANISATIONThe science curriculum is organised around themes. Each themeconsists of various learning areas, each of which consists of a The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the scopenumber of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or more and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are given with thelearning outcomes. intention of providing some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity may cover one or moreLearning outcomes are written based on the hierarchy of the learning outcomes. At the same time, more than one activity maycognitive and affective domains. Levels in the cognitive domain are: be suggested for a particular learning outcome. Teachers mayknowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style of learningevaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be aware of, to be of their students. Teachers are encouraged to design otherin awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love, to practise, and to innovative and effective learning activities to enhance the learninginternalise. Where possible, learning outcomes relating to the of science.affective domain are explicitly stated. The inculcation of scientificattitudes and noble values should be integrated into every learningactivity. This ensures a more spontaneous and natural inculcationof attitudes and values. Learning areas in the psychomotor domainare implicit in the learning activities.Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurablebehavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for a particularlearning objective are organised in order of complexity. However, inthe process of teaching and learning, learning activities should beplanned in a holistic and integrated manner that enables theachievement of multiple learning outcomes according to needs andcontext. Teachers should avoid employing a teaching strategy thattries to achieve each learning outcome separately according to theorder stated in the curriculum specifications. 13
  22. 22. THEME : INTERACTION BETWEEN CHEMICALSLEARNING AREA : 1. RATE OF REACTION Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.1 A student is able to:Analysing rate ofreaction Discuss: ? state what rate of reaction is, reactant – bahan (a) the meaning of rate of reaction, tindak balas (b) some examples of fast reactions, (c) some examples of slow product- reactions. hasil tindak balas Discuss to identify observable changes ? identify observable changes to rate of reaction – to reactants or products and its method reactants or products for kadar tindak of measurement in order to determine determining rate of reaction, balas the rate of reaction. observable Carry out an activity involving a reaction ? determine average rate of change – between zinc and acid, and plot a graph reaction, The rate of reaction perubahan yang to determine average rate of reaction at any given time is dapat and the rate of reaction at any given ? determine the rate of reaction also known as diperhatikan time. at any given time from a graph, instantaneous rate of reaction. Carry out problem solving activities ? solve numerical problems involving rates of reaction. involving average rate of reaction, ? solve numerical problems involving rate of reaction at any given time. 14
  23. 23. LEARNING AREA : 1. RATE OF REACTION Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.2 A student is able to:Synthesisingfactors affecting Discuss possible factors affecting the • design experiments to catalyst –the rate of rate of reaction. investigate factors affecting the mangkinreaction rate of reaction, Design and carry out activities to decomposition- investigate factors affecting the rate of penguraian reaction, i.e. size of reactant, concentration, temperature and Using examples catalyst. discuss the • give examples of reactions that meaning and Some suggested reactions: are affected by size of reactant, characteristics of (a) a reaction between calcium concentration, temperature and catalyst. carbonate, CaCO3, and catalyst, hydrochloric acid, HCl, Size of reactants is (b) a reaction between sodium related to the total thiosulphate, Na2S2O3, and surface area. sulphuric acid, H2SO4, (c) decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, in the presence of a catalyst. View computer simulations to • explain how each factor affects investigate how the movement and the rate of reaction, collision of particles in a reaction are affected by temperature, size of reactant, pressure, concentration and catalyst. • describe how factors affecting Collect and interpret data to explain the rate of reaction are applied factors affecting the rate of reaction in in daily life and in industrial processes, 15
  24. 24. LEARNING AREA : 1. RATE OF REACTION Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives the following: (a) combustion of charcoal, (b) storing food in a refrigerator, (c) cooking food in a pressure cooker, (d) industrial production of ammonia, • solve problems involving sulphuric acid and nitric acid. factors affecting rate of reaction. Solve problems involving rate of reaction.1.3 A student is able to: effective collisionSynthesising – perlanggaranideas on collision Carry out simulations on: • relate reaction with energy berkesantheory (a) movement and collision of particles produced by movement and in chemical reactions, effective collision of particles, activation energy- (b) movement and collision of tenaga particles in reaction affected by pengaktifan temperature, size of reactant, pressure, concentration and catalyst. frequency- frekuensi / • describe activation energy, kekerapan Collect, interpret data and discuss the following: • sketch and describe energy energy profile (a) collision, profile diagram, diagram- (b) effective collision, rajah profil (c) activation energy, • relate the frequency of tenaga (d) collision frequency, effective collisions with the rate (e) effective collision frequency, of reaction, (f) energy profile diagram. 16
  25. 25. LEARNING AREA : 1. RATE OF REACTION Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Discuss to conceptualise collision • relate the frequency of theory. effective collisions with factors influencing the rate of reaction, • describe how a certain factor affects the collision of particles in a reaction.1.4 A student is able to:Practisingscientific Carry out some daily activities related to • apply knowledge on factorsknowledge to factors affecting the rate of reaction. affecting the rate of reactionenhance quality in everyday activities,of life Collect and interpret data on scientists’ contribution in enhancing the quality of life. Carry out problem solving activities • adopt problem solving involving rate of reaction in the field of approaches and make rational science and technology through decisions based on research. experiment and research. 17
  26. 26. THEME : INTERACTION BETWEEN CHEMICALSLEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.1 A student is able to:Understandingcarbon Collect and interpret data on: • state what carbon compound is, saturated –compounds (a) the meaning of carbon compound, tepu • state that carbon compounds The term ‘ organic’ (b) the meaning of organic compound can be classified into two should not be unsaturated – with respect to its sources, content and groups, i.e. organic and limited to carbon tak tepu combustion products, inorganic, compounds derived (c) the meaning of hydrocarbon, from living combustion - inclusive of saturated and • state what organic compound organisms. pembakaran unsaturated hydrocarbons, is, (d) sources of hydrocarbon, (e) examples of organic and inorganic • gives examples of organic and compounds. inorganic carbon compounds, • state what a hydrocarbon is, • list the sources of hydrocarbon, • identify the combustion products Carry out an activity to identify the of organic carbon compounds. products of the combustion of organic compounds, i.e. carbon dioxide and water. 18
  27. 27. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.2 A student is able to:Analysingalkanes Collect and interpret data on: • state what alkane is, (a) the meaning of alkane, (b) the meaning of structural formula, • state what structural formula is, Carry out an activity to construct • deduce the molecular formulae molecular models and draw structural of the first ten alkanes, formulae of the first ten straight-chain alkanes. • draw the structural formulae for straight-chain the first ten straight-chain alkane – alkanes, alkana rantai lurus Construct a table showing names, • deduce the general formula of molecular formulae, structural formulae alkanes, substitution - and physical properties of the first ten penukargantian straight-chain alkanes. • name the first ten alkanes, Collect and interpret data on: • relate changes in physical (a) physical properties of alkanes, i.e. properties with increase in the melting and boiling points, density, number of carbon atoms in physical state at room temperature, alkane molecules, solubility in water and electrical conductivity, • explain the effect of the increase Methane may be used (b) chemical properties of alkanes, i.e. in number of carbon atoms in as examples for combustion, substitution reactions with alkane molecules on the combustion and halogen. molecules boiling points, substitution reactions. 19
  28. 28. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Discuss: • describe complete and (a) the relationship between changes in incomplete combustion of physical properties with increase in alkanes, the number of carbon atoms in alkane molecules, • describe the substitution (b) the effect on boiling points of reaction of alkanes, alkanes due to increase in the number of carbon atoms in alkane molecules, (c) the complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes, (d) the substitution reactions of alkanes. Write chemical equations for • write chemical equations for combustion and substitution reactions combustion and substitution of methane. reactions of methane. • describe how methane affects Discuss that decomposition of organic everyday life. matter produces methane and how this may cause fire in land fills and peat swamps. 20
  29. 29. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.3 A student is able to:Analysingalkenes Collect and interpret data on the • state what alkene is, meaning of alkene, • deduce the molecular formulae Carry out an activity to construct of the first nine alkenes, molecular models and draw structural formulae of the first nine straight-chain • deduce the general formula of alkenes with one double bond. alkenes, addition – penambahan Construct a table showing names, • name the first nine alkenes, molecular formulae, structural formulae sootiness – and physical properties of the first nine • draw the structural formulae for kejelagaan straight-chain alkenes. the first nine straight-chain alkenes, Collect and interpret data on: • relate changes in physical (a) physical properties of alkenes, properties with increase in the i.e. melting and boiling points, number of carbon atoms in density, physical state at room alkene molecules, temperature, solubility in water and electrical conductivity, • explain the effects on boiling Restrict to the first (b) chemical properties of alkenes, i.e. points of alkenes due to three members of combustion, addition reaction and increase in the number of alkene. polymerisation. carbon atoms in alkene molecules, Discuss: (a) the relationship between changes of • describe chemical properties of physical properties with increase in alkenes, the number of carbon atoms in alkene molecules, 21
  30. 30. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives (b) how the increase in the number of carbon atoms in alkenes, affect their boiling points, (c) the combustion of alkenes, (d) the addition reaction of alkenes, (e) the polymerisation of alkenes. Write chemical equations for combustion, addition and polymerisation reactions of alkenes. Investigate addition reactions of alkenes • compare and contrast alkanes Hexene or through computer simulation. with alkenes. cyclohexene can be used. Carry out activities to compare • relate the reactivities of alkanes properties of alkanes and alkenes and alkenes to their chemical having the same number of carbon bonds. atoms such as hexane, C6H14, and hexene, C6H12, with respect to: (a) sootiness of flame, (b) reactions with bromine, Br2, (c) reaction with acidified potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4. Compare qualitatively the sootiness of flame during combustion of an alkane with the corresponding alkene. 22
  31. 31. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Discuss to generalise the • generalise the characteristics of characteristics of homologous series in homologous series based on terms of having the same general alkanes and alkenes. formula, can be made by similar methods, steady changes in physical properties, and similar chemical properties.2.4 A student is able to: IUPACSynthesising nomenclature-ideas on Construct all possible models and draw • construct various structural sistemisomerism structural formulae for a particular formulae of a particular alkane penamaan alkane and alkene. and alkene, IUPAC Construct a table showing names and (a) Examples of formulae of alkyl groups. isomers should not include cyclic Discuss isomerism. • explain what isomerism is, carbon compounds. Discuss the existence of isomers. • use IUPAC nomenclature to (b) Examples of name isomers. alkanes and Draw structural formulae of alkane and alkenes should alkene isomers and name them. not exceed five carbon atoms. Examine isomerism through models or computer simulations. 23
  32. 32. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives2.5 A student is able to:Analysing functionalalcohols Carry out an activity to derive the • state the general formula of group- general formula of alcohols and identify alcohols, kumpulan the functional group. berfungsi • identify the functional group of alcohols, odour – Construct a table of names and • list the names and the bau molecular formulae for the first four molecular formulae of the first alcohols. four alcohols, fermentation- penapaian Carry out an activity to draw various ? draw structural formulae for possible structural formulae of the first isomers of propanol (C3H7OH) distillation – four alcohols and name them. and butanol (C4H9OH), penyulingan ? name isomers of propanol and volatility – butanol using IUPAC kemeruapan nomenclature, Collect and interpret data on the dehydration- industrial production of ethanol, • describe the industrial pendehidratan production of ethanol, Carry out an activity on the preparation of ethanol in the laboratory through • describe the preparation of fermentation and distillation. ethanol in the laboratory, Collect and interpret data on the physical properties of ethanol • state the physical properties of (C2H5OH), i.e. colour, odour, boiling ethanol, point, physical state at room temperature, volatility and solubility, 24
  33. 33. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out activities to investigate the • describe the chemical chemical properties of ethanol in terms properties of ethanol, of: (a) combustion, (b) oxidation, (c) dehydration. Write chemical equations for the above • predict the chemical properties reactions involving ethanol, propanel of other members of alcohols, and butanol. Carry out an activity to predict the • explain with examples the uses chemical properties for other members of alcohols in everyday life, of alcohols. • explain the effects of the misuse Collect and interpret data on: and abuse of alcohols. (a) uses of alcohols in everyday life, (b) effects of alcohol misuse and abuse.2.6 A student is able to:Analysingcarboxylic acids Carry out an activity to derive the • state the general formula of general formula of carboxylic acids and carboxylic acids, identify the functional group. • identify the functional group of carboxylic acids, 25
  34. 34. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Construct a table with names and • list the names and molecular molecular formulae of the first four formulae of the first four members of carboxylic acid, and draw members of carboxylic acid, their structural formulae ? draw structural formulae of the first four members of carboxylic acid and name them using the IUPAC nomenclature, Collect and interpret data on the • describe the preparation of preparation of ethanoic acid ethanoic acid in the laboratory, (CH3COOH) in the laboratory, Collect and interpret data on the • state the physical properties of physical properties of ethanoic acid, i.e. carboxylic acids, colour, odour, boiling point, physical state at room temperature and solubility in water, Carry out activities to investigate the • state the chemical reactions of chemical properties of ethanoic acid ethanoic acid with other through its reactions with: chemicals, (a) base, (b) metallic carbonate, (c) metal, (d) alcohol. 26
  35. 35. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out an activity to write chemical equations for the above reactions involving propanoic acid (C2H5COOH) and butanoic acid (C3H7COOH). • predict the chemical properties Carry out an activity to predict the for other members of carboxylic chemical properties of other members acid, of carboxylic acids. • explain with examples the uses Collect and interpret data on the uses of of carboxylic acids in everyday carboxylic acids in everyday life. life.2.7 A student is able to: The separationAnalysing esters process is not needed Carry out an activity to derive the ? state the general formula of in the preparation of general formula of esters and identify esters, ethyl ethanoate. the functional group. • identify the functional group of esters, Construct a table of molecular formulae • list the names and molecular Esterification involves and names of esters. formulae of simple esters, molecules requiring catalyst, whereas ? draw structural formulae of neutralisation involves simple esters and name them ions to form water. using the IUPAC nomenclature, 27
  36. 36. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Carry out an activity to prepare ethyl • describe the preparation of Limit discussion to esterification – ethanoate (CH3COOC2H5) in the ester in the laboratory, esterification reactions pengesteran laboratory. between the first four members of alcohols Carry out an activity to investigate the • state the physical properties of and the first four physical properties of ethyl ethanoate, ethyl ethanoate, members of extraction - i.e. the odour and solubility. carboxylic acids. pengekstrakan Discuss to predict the esters produced • predict the ester produced from from the esterification between various the esterification reaction, carboxylic acids and alcohols. Write equations for esterification • write equations for the reactions. esterification reactions, Collect and interpret data on: • state the natural sources of (a) natural sources of ester, ester, (b) uses of ester in everyday life. • state the uses of ester in Carry out a project to extract esters everyday life. from plants.2.8 A student is able to:Evaluating fats Collect and interpret data on: Suggested fatty acids: (a) what oils and fats are, • state what oils are, (b) why our body needs oils and fats, Palmitic acid, (c) sources and the uses of oils • state what fats are, CH3(CH2)14COOH and fats, (d) the difference between oils and fats • state the importance of oils and Stearic acid, at room temperature in terms of fats for body processes, CH3(CH2)16COOH physical state, 28
  37. 37. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives (e) structural formulae for fat • state the sources of oils and molecules of certain fatty acids. fats, Linoleic acid, CH3(CH2)4CH=CH • list the uses of oils and fats, CH2CH(CH2)7 -COOH • state the differences between Oleic acid, oils and fats, CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH ? identify structural formulae for 2)7COOH fat molecules of certain fatty acids, Students are not Collect and interpret data on: • state what saturated fats are, required to know how (a) what saturated and unsaturated to draw the structural fats are, • state what unsaturated fats are, formulae of fat (b) sources and compositions of molecules. saturated and unsaturated fats, • compare and contrast between (c) the differences between saturated saturated and unsaturated fats, Margarine can also be and unsaturated fats, produced by the (d) the need to convert unsaturated to • describe the process of mechanical squeezing saturated fats, changing unsaturated fats to method. (j) effects of fats on health. saturated fats, • describe the effects of eating food high in fats on health, 29
  38. 38. LEARNING AREA : 2. CARBON COMPOUNDS Chemistry - Form 5 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Discuss the production of margarine by • describe the industrial hydrogenation, extraction of palm oil, Visit a palm oil factory, margarine manufacturing plant or palm oil research institute. Discuss: • justify the use of palm oil in food (a) the advantages of palm oil as production. compared to other vegetable oils, (b) research on oil palm in Malaysia, (c) the importance of palm oil industry to the development of the country. 30

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