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INTRODUCTION
Do you know that MalaysiaÊs foreign relations with other countries began since
the Malacca Sultanate? At the ...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 203
(b) Tun Abdul Razak Hussein (1970-1976), MalaysiaÊs foreign policy emphasises
develop...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY204
(d) National Security
Security is an important element in any country became surely, n...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 205
12.1.3 Objectives of the National Foreign Policy
Briefly, the objectives of the forei...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY206
REGIONAL COOPERATION12.3
12.3.1 What is Regional Cooperation?
In facing the ever-incre...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 207
It is hoped that the forming of an Asean Community will create a single market
and lo...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY208
Successes Achieved by Asean
(a) Concept of ZOPFAN
ZOPFAN, or the Zone of Peace, Freedo...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 209
(g) Asean + 3
Asean + 3 is a cooperation between Asean, China, Japan and Korea. It is...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY210
MalaysiaÊs role in the OIC:
(a) Established the Islamic Development Bank;
(b) Criticis...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 211
12.4.3 Commonwealth
The Commonwealth is an organisation comprising countries that wer...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY212
competitiveness of Malaysian goods compared to the goods from other
countries in the m...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 213
To implement the agenda of the UN, several secretariats have been formed
through the ...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY214
Malaysia is currently the Chairman of the 13th NAM Summit until 2006,
with 114 member ...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 215
August 2004. In the latter, a consensus was reached on the drafting of a
Statement on...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY216
(e) Standardise goods and services trade through the General Agreement on
Tariffs and ...
TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 217
Bajet. (2006). Berita Harian.
www.utusan.com.my/utusan/SpecialCoverage/RMK9/bahasa/Ba...
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Topic 12 national foreign policy

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OUM Malaysia Module

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Topic 12 national foreign policy

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION Do you know that MalaysiaÊs foreign relations with other countries began since the Malacca Sultanate? At the time, the Malacca Sultanate had trade relations with countries like India, Siam, China, Persia, Arabia, Japan and the countries around the Malay Archipelago. This tradition continued until Malaya achieved her independence. In this modern age, especially in the era of globalisation, a country cannot exist in isolation. The current demands calls for countries to depend on one another for mutual benefits, especially politically, economically and socially. Hence, every country in todayÊs world needs to have relations with other countries to achieve this objective. However, every country is free to determine its own foreign policies based on cultural factors and credibility. DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY AFTER INDEPENDENCE MalaysiaÊs foreign policy, which was formed since independence, has gone through four stages between different leaders. (a) Tunku Abdul Rahman (1957-1970), MalaysiaÊs foreign policy was Pro- Western and anticommunist considering the nation had only just achieved independence and faced the threat of communism. 12.1 TTooppiicc  1122 National Foreign   Policy  3. Discuss the importance of having foreign relations. 2. Discuss current issues involving MalaysiaÊs foreign relations; and LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this topic, you should be able to: 1. Identify MalaysiaÊs foreign policies since Independence;
  2. 2. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 203 (b) Tun Abdul Razak Hussein (1970-1976), MalaysiaÊs foreign policy emphasises development and social integration by having diplomatic ties with all countries without bias on political ideologies. (c) Tun Hussein Onn (1976-1981), foreign policy emphasised on defence cooperation and national security. (d) Tun Mahathir Mohamad (1981-2003), the national foreign policy placed importance on economic ties and maintaining previous policies. Issues of peace and international social justice were also important agendas. 12.1.1 The Approach of Malaysia’s Foreign Policy The two main approach were: (a) Bilateral involves relations with one country only; and (b) Multilateral involves relations with several countries as a group, such as the UN, Asean, OIC and so on. 12.1.2 Drafting of National Foreign Policy Why the need for a foreign policy? Let us look at the following concerns: (a) Geostrategic Environment MalaysiaÊs location is very strategic, being at the maritime crossroad between the Pacific and Indian Oceans that are the main passages for the Southeast Asia region. Most trade between the Middle East and Far East passes through the Straits of Malacca. This is why it is necessary for Malaysia to maintain friendly ties with foreign countries to ensure the StraitsÊ waters are peaceful, safe and free from external pressures. (b) Political Structure of the Country MalaysiaÊs democratic political system always maintains avenues to foster ties with other countries. Malaysia practises a democratic system that supports freedom and prosperity of the people. Malaysia also practises freedom in having ties with any country, specifically countries that offer benefits to the development of Malaysia. (c) Demographics Demographically, Malaysia comprises many races and ethnicities. Each race is entitled to receive equal rights, as the Bumiputras. The many races of the country have ties with their original homelands, like China and India. This further strengthens ties between Malaysia and those countries.
  3. 3. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY204 (d) National Security Security is an important element in any country became surely, no one would like to be threatened by enemies. Thus, national security is an important agenda that influences MalaysiaÊs foreign policy. Malaysia, being in a strategic position, has to be guarded against infiltration by pirates and terrorists. With that in mind, Malaysia has to foster ties with foreign nations to jointly combat terrorism. (e) Historical Factors Relations with foreign countries are also linked to historical backgrounds. For example, MalaysiaÊs ties with Indonesia, Singapore and Brunei are important, as historically, those countries were part of the Malay cluster. The same applies to MalaysiaÊs relations with the Commonwealth nations, as member countries are also former colonies of the British. MalaysiaÊs ties with West Asia and East Asia are also related to historical links during the Malacca Sultanate. (f) Economic Factors In this era, the progress of a country is determined by its economic success. Due to this factor, Malaysia maintains ties with other countries to boost her economy. Foreign policy also enables technology to be transferred to Malaysia. As trading partnerships can only be formed through diplomatic ties, thus the need for foreign policy. (g) International Laws As member of the international community, Malaysia respects the principles of the United Nations Charter as well as laws set by other international organisations. Hence, international relations are necessary to ensure the sovereignty of the nation is always assured. (h) Globalisation Factor In this era of globalisation, a country has to forge ties with foreign countries for political, economic and social interests. We ourselves are aware that the conflicts that happen in other countries have a direct effect on Malaysia. In this case, a proactive and visionary foreign policy is vital in maintaining the countryÊs interests and sovereignty. Malaysia also needs to stand shoulder- to-shoulder with other countries to ensure her views are always taken into consideration.
  4. 4. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 205 12.1.3 Objectives of the National Foreign Policy Briefly, the objectives of the foreign policy, among others, are to: (a) Preserve, defend and develop MalaysiaÊs interests in the international arena; (b) Preserve and defend the independence, sovereignty and security of Malaysia; (c) Defend the principles of mutual respect of independence and sovereignty of territories through a policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries; (d) Face political, economic, security and social developments and challenges in the world stage; (e) Defend and advance the rights, interests and aspirations of Malaysia in all fields; and (f) Cultivate cordial relations and increase cooperation with other countries. WHICH MINISTRY IS RESPONSIBLE?12.2 12.2.1 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs National foreign relations are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This Ministry manages matters related to political ties, economic affairs, security and social and cultural promotion. Among the objectives of the Ministry are to: (a) Manage two-way relations, regional relations and multiple-way relations with foreign countries and international organisations. These relations encompass politics, economics and culture; (b) Promote investment and trade with other countries; (c) Carry out informative activities to project the image of the country abroad; and (d) Handle support activities, including services, general administration, finance, consular, security and communication. 12.2.2 Mission The mission of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is to protect and develop MalaysiaÊs interests and contribute to a free and just international community through the practice of proactive diplomacyÊ.
  5. 5. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY206 REGIONAL COOPERATION12.3 12.3.1 What is Regional Cooperation? In facing the ever-increasing competition due to the impact of globalisation, developing cooperation with other countries is necessary to execute ideas, best practices and experiences, other than drafting suitable policies for mutual benefits. In finance and trade, Malaysia continues to develop two-way and multiple-way cooperation with other countries. Regional cooperation is mainly focused on the development of Asean. Priorities are primed towards increasing competitiveness and developing regional financial sectors. This includes developing Asean as a class asset, enhancing the liberalisation of financial services, strengthening building capabilities and increasing the subsidising of facilities. In 2004 and 2005, Asean promoted the region as the main destination for investment by taking into account closer regional economic integration. To strengthen Asean as a relevant organisation, there are several efforts that need to be taken: (a) Cultivate Âthe we feelingÊ; (b) Reduce the gap in development between member states in Asean; (c) Absorb values on equality in matters like democracy, human rights and good governance; (d) Fortify the Asean institution; and (e) Increase greater awareness and deeper knowledge of Asean among citizens in the Asean countries. With this is mind, Asean has also taken steps to create an Asean Community by 2020. To create such a community, each member state shares the responsibility to maintain the peace, security and stability of the region. To achieve this aim, several steps have to be taken: (i) Resolving any conflict peacefully through negotiations; (ii) Overcoming cross-border challenges that can negatively affect the development and well-being of the citizens; and (iii) Ensuring the region is free of weapons of mass destruction and the threat they bring.
  6. 6. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 207 It is hoped that the forming of an Asean Community will create a single market and local production centre where goods, services, investments, labour and investment capital can flow freely among Asean countries. To expand the economies of the Asean countries, several efforts are being implemented to create a Free Trade Area (FTA) between Asean and neighbouring countries like the PeopleÊs Republic of China, Japan, Republic of Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand. The creation of the Free Trade Area will greatly benefit Asean countries, while increasing supply and demand from outside Asean at the same time. ACTIVITY 12.1 In your opinion, what are the noble values that need to be practised by a country when having relations with other countries, in order to have an effective foreign policy? MALAYSIA AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS 12.4 12.4.1 ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) Asean was formed on 8 August 1967 when several countries, including Malaysia, signed the declaration of the forming of Asean in Bangkok. Now, Asean is made up of 10 member countries, including Brunei, Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar. Through Asean, Malaysia has formed many trade and industrial relations, economic cooperation, political cooperation, social and cultural cooperation, cooperation on education and health, social interests and more with other Asean countries. SELF-CHECK 12.1 What is Asean and when was it formed? What are the roles played by Asean and what are its successes to date? Discuss.
  7. 7. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY208 Successes Achieved by Asean (a) Concept of ZOPFAN ZOPFAN, or the Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality, is practised by all member nations. (b) South East Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (SEANWFZ) Concept This concept refers to the entire Asean region being free of nuclear weapons and nuclear weapons testing. (c) Economic Projects Cooperation in economics encompasses the urea fertiliser project, the hepatitis B vaccine project and such. In terms of economic integration, Asean can be proud of efforts to abolish tariffs on 11 main sectors, due to be implemented by Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Brunei in 2007; and by Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam in 2012. (d) Cooperation in Social and Cultural fields This encompasses aspects of culture and arts, sports and telecommunications. For example, the hosting of the SEA Games, ASEAN Film Fest, ASEAN Cultural Fest, news exchange and joint TV/Radio broadcasting between RTM and TVRI and RTB. In the tourism field, there was the Visit ASEAN Year 1996. (e) Cooperation in Education This aims to share expertise that will be learnt by students from member states. Asean formed the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO). Implementation duties were allocated among several Asean countries, which included RESCAM to train Science and Mathematics teachers in Penang, RELC to train officers in increasing the command of English in Singapore, INOTEC to produce agriculture researchers in the Philippines, and TROMPED to conduct public health research in Thailand. Other countries also cooperate in research on diseases like dengue, hepatitis and coxsackie B. (f) Asean Vision 2020 The forming of ASEAN Vision 2020 to create an Asean economic region that is highly competitive, developed and stable by ensuring the free movement of goods, services, investments, capital and economic development, as well as eradicating poverty.
  8. 8. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 209 (g) Asean + 3 Asean + 3 is a cooperation between Asean, China, Japan and Korea. It is AseanÊs ambitions to use the Asean + 3 as a stepping-stone to create an East Asia Community. Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi outlined MalaysiaÊs three new approaches in increasing economic cooperation within Asean more effectively, to ensure the region remains dynamic and continues to attract investors, at the Asean Summit in Laos recently. The three approaches are: (i) Continue economic integration on a wider scale; (ii) Expand the network with trading partners; and (iii) Promote regional development initiatives. ACTIVITY 12.2 Since independence, how many organisations is Malaysia a part of? Also mention examples of international programmes handled in Malaysia. 12.4.2 Malaysia and the OIC (Organisation of Islamic Countries) Did you know that the OIC was established based on suggestions by Malaysia? In fact, Malaysia was given the honour of providing the first Secretary-General of the OIC, Tunku Abdul Rahman. The OIC Secretariat is in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It was formed in 1971 and comprises 57 Islamic countries from the three biggest regions Asia, Middle East and Africa where the people constitute one-fifth of the worldÊs population. The OIC is a specific forum that unites all Islamic countries in the world for mutual good. Purpose of Forming OIC This organisation aims to foster cooperation among all Islamic countries in fields such as socio-culture, politics, science and technology, exchange of financial information and such to elevate the Muslim status. The OIC also functions to oppose sinister elements that oppress Muslims around the world. The OIC also serves as the reference in overcoming any confusion about the laws of Islam among Muslims.
  9. 9. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY210 MalaysiaÊs role in the OIC: (a) Established the Islamic Development Bank; (b) Criticised Soviet interference in Afghanistan; (c) Supports the struggle of Palestinians; (d) Condemned the ethnic cleansing of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina; (e) Developing African economies and society by building development and economic infrastructures; (f) Investing in several OIC member states, for example Petronas in Iran; (g) Organises the annual Musaqabah al-Quran to strengthen and foster closer friendships among OIC countries; (h) The OIC has also developed education among Muslims throughout the world by the establishment of universities like the Al-Azhar University, International Islamic University and more; (i) Malaysia has also played host to many important Summits and Meetings, among which are the Extraordinary Session of Foreign Ministers of Islamic Countries on Violence (1-3 April 2002), the Sierra Leone Group Meeting (13- 14 June 2002), follow-up Meeting of Senior Officials on Tourism (5-7 September 2003), the 27th OIC Summit of Foreign Ministers (27 June 2000), the 10th PIC Summit (16-18 October 2003) and various meetings at ministerial, senior officialdom and committee levels, under the auspices of the OIC; and (j) Malaysia organised the Special Meeting of OIC Foreign Ministers on the Middle East in April 2004 to discuss the problems in Palestine and Iraq. This meeting proved MalaysiaÊs resolve in finding a solution to the conflict plaguing the Middle East. Malaysia was also entrusted to lead the OIC Minister-level delegation, in accordance with the mandate given by the Special Meeting, to meet with members of the Quartet (EU, Russia, US and the Secretary-General of the UN) and urge them to take immediate steps in solving the Israel-Palestine conflict.
  10. 10. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 211 12.4.3 Commonwealth The Commonwealth is an organisation comprising countries that were former British colonies. The members are made up of former British colonies, including Malaysia. Malaysia joined upon achieving independence in 1957. Commonwealth was aimed to create friendship and unity, and economic, education, defence, agriculture and legal development among all former British colonies. MalaysiaÊs Role in the Commonwealth (a) Put forth challenges in international trade, colonialism and opposition to the Apartheid issue in South Africa. In the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Bahamas (1985) and Vancouver (1987), Malaysia called on this world body to play a more aggressive role in overcoming issues of unfair world trade, political and economic colonialism as well as the scourge of Apartheid. (b) Malaysia was chosen as the host for CHOGM in 1989. The issues discussed were Apartheid, independence of Namibia, drugs, famine and poverty in Africa, international economy, West Asia conflict, Afghanistan and Cambodia conflicts and environmental issues. As a result of the decline and pollution of the environment, the Commonwealth Heads of Government outlined several plans and actions that covered the: (i) Creation of an international fund for the preservation of the environment; (ii) Management of forests and agriculture in developed and developing nations; (iii) Reduction of marine pollution; and (iv) Overcoming the problem of the thinning of the ozone layer. (c) Benefits of cooperation in defence, trade, development of science and technology, agriculture, education, finance and many more. In defence, for instance, Malaysia received military aid specifically for 10 years after independence. (d) Conducting joint military training with several Commonwealth nations. Malaysia also obtained the support of developed nations in the Commonwealth. For example, Malaysian goods were granted the Generalised System of Preference (GSP). Through this system, tariffs on Malaysian goods are reduced, and this indirectly increases the
  11. 11. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY212 competitiveness of Malaysian goods compared to the goods from other countries in the market. (e) The introduction of the Colombo Plan further enhanced MalaysiaÊs stature, where Malaysia received advice on education, agriculture, health and such. For example, in education, the Commonwealth nations provided advice on the establishment of teaching colleges, A-Levels and HSC. Socially, unity among Commonwealth nations is fostered through sporting activities, like the Commonwealth Games, which were hosted by Malaysia in 1998. 12.4.4 Group of 15 (G-15) The G-15 comprises Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Venezuela and Zimbabwe. Objectives of Forming the G-15 The G-15 was formed to cultivate better understanding and cooperation among developing countries, especially in the fields of investment, trade and technology. 12.4.5 United Nations (UN) The reasons for the establishment of the UN and its roles are well-known. Malaysia joined the UN on 17 September 1957 after achieving independence. Objectives of the UN The principles of the UN are to assure the sovereignty and rights of all member states, and ensuring no country interferes in the affairs of another. The UN also aims to create a world community that is peaceful. To achieve this, cooperation in many fields is required. The UN plays a role in two matters pertaining to world politics: (a) UN general Assembly; and (b) Security Council.
  12. 12. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 213 To implement the agenda of the UN, several secretariats have been formed through the years, like: • World Health Organisation (WHO) • International Labour Organisation (ILO) • United Nation Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) • International Monetary Fund (IMF) MalaysiaÊs Involvement Malaysia was previously chosen to lead the G-77 countries, who were tasked to discuss on world development issues. Malaysia was also chosen to lead the ICDATT, an international agency tasked with fighting the abuse of drugs. Further, Malaysia was involved in providing opinions and views and reprimanding the world body, as well as implementing UN policy, such as sending peacekeepers to the Congo (1961), Somalia (1995), Bosnia (1996) and the Iran-Iraq border (1990). 12.4.6 NAM (Non-Aligned Movement) NAM, or the Non-Aligned Movement, was established in 1961 in conjunction with the first NAM Summit in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. The Movement was formed as a reaction to the arms race by the two world super powers of the era, the US and the Soviet Union. This organisation held strongly to its neutral stand, favouring neither the Western Bloc nor the Eastern Bloc. In this matter, NAM principles included respecting the independence and sovereignty of a nation and not interfering in the internal affairs of other nations. (a) MalaysiaÊs Involvement Malaysia joined NAM in 1969, and has been actively involved in the organisation. This is because the policies of NAM are in-line with MalaysiaÊs stand on global issues. Malaysia would like to interact with all countries, regardless of their political ideologies, to reap benefits. Malaysia was given the honour of being elected as the Vice Chairman of NAM during its summit in Belgrade in 1989. In the summit, Malaysia was appointed to join the G-15 which was an elite group tasked with discussing issues on political and economic cooperation among NAM members. In February 2003, Malaysia was chosen as the host for the NAM Summit.
  13. 13. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY214 Malaysia is currently the Chairman of the 13th NAM Summit until 2006, with 114 member states that comprise two-thirds of the total membership in the UN. (b) MalaysiaÊs Role in NAM (i) Chairman of NAM. Through this organisation, Malaysia functions to provide able leadership to represent the member states, the majority of whom are developing nations, in voicing out issues; and to also take practical and effective steps towards maintaining world peace by promoting peace through political platforms, diplomatic approaches, multilateralism and especially via world bodies like the UN and the UN Security Council. (ii) Malaysia also focuses on matter concerning economics and trade, South-South Cooperation, development and eradication of poverty, as well as common social and humanities development and issues of interest to NAM. (c) Why was Malaysia Chosen as the Chairman of NAM? (i) MalaysiaÊs capability in providing able leadership to NAM when many questioned the relevance of NAM in the post-Cold War era. (ii) MalaysiaÊs ability to raise unity and togetherness among member states when under pressure from developed nations wielding more power and influence. (iii) MalaysiaÊs effectiveness in promoting and strengthening multiple-way diplomatic mechanisms to counter unilateral efforts preferred by powers like the US. (iv) Ability to voice out and promote the interests of developing nations in aspects like politics economics, trade and socio-culture in the international stage. (v) MalaysiaÊs ability in introducing the ÂNAM E-Secretariat PortalÊ which acts as a database for all issues related to NAM to improve communication and coordination, quicken decision-making and bridge the digital divide and unity between NAM member states. This initiative was taken as Malaysia realised that ICT plays an important role in economic development, especially in the context of globalisation where most NAM members are still lagging behind. (vi) Malaysia organised the NAM Ministerial-Level Special Meeting on Palestine on 13 May 2004 in Putrajaya as an immediate reaction to the violent conflict in the Palestinian territories, followed by the NAM Minister-Level Meeting on Palestine in Durban, South Africa on 18
  14. 14. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 215 August 2004. In the latter, a consensus was reached on the drafting of a Statement on Palestine that was later merged into the Final Document. 12.4.7 South-South Cooperation The South-South Cooperation was established to preserve the economic interests of developing countries and avoid pressures from developed nations like the US, Japan and the UK. The developed nations usually applied pressure by controlling the raw materials market. Thus, raw materials from developing nations face difficulty in penetrating the market. In this case, the developed nations will buy the raw materials from the developing nations at a low price, and this will make the developing nations poorer should this practice keep continuing. This practice also results in developing nations incurring large debts to developed nation, who impose strict conditions that burden their poorer counterpart. Due to this, Malaysia suggested the forming of the South-South Cooperation. Its concept was first put forward by Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad in 1981 in Zimbabwe. Among the resolutions presented for the forming of the South-South Cooperation: (a) To improve the economic conditions of developing nations; (b) To overcome uncertainties in prices of raw materials due to pressure by developed nations; (c) To strive to find ways to settle debts of developing nations; and (d) To present recommendations to avoid pressure by developed nations. 12.4.8 APEC The Asia-Pacific Economic Caucus (APEC) was established in 1989 due to the increase in non-dependence among the economies of the Asia Pacific nations and the lack of cooperation among these economies which made up nearly half of the world trade. Malaysia was the chairman of the APEC Annual Meeting in 1998. Objectives of the Creation of APEC: (a) To maintain and control the increase in economic activity in the region and world; (b) Increase positive aims by encouraging the fluid movement of goods, services, capital and technology within the region; (c) Develop and strengthen multilateral open trade system; (d) Reduce trade barriers; and
  15. 15. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY216 (e) Standardise goods and services trade through the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) principle. The three main strengths of APEC are trade and investment liberalisation, trade and investment facilities and economic and technical cooperation. What are your views on the interference of superpowers in this era of globalisation? Discuss. ACTIVITY 12.3 • MalaysiaÊs involvement in the international arena has so far been something to be proud of. • What more as Malaysia is increasingly growing in stature in the eyes of the world? This is a result of the role of the Malaysian government, and political stability in the country. • These factors have aided tremendously in Malaysia developing her economy and politics as well as attracting investors. • Thus, Malaysia has managed to lift herself to be side-by-side with developed nations, specifically through international relations. • What is more important is MalaysiaÊs success in preserving her identity and maintaining a stand in any given issue. Asean Asia-Pacific Economic Caucus (APEC) Commonwealth National Foreign Policy Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Organisation of Islamic Countries (OIC) United Nations (UN)
  16. 16. TOPIC 12 NATIONAL FOREIGN POLICY 217 Bajet. (2006). Berita Harian. www.utusan.com.my/utusan/SpecialCoverage/RMK9/bahasa/Bab27.pdf Hasnah Hussiin & Mardiana Nordin. (2002). Pengajian Malaysi. (Edisi Kedua). Fajar Bakti, Sdn. Bhd.

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