Article review dr johan


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Article review dr johan

  1. 1. 1 Title : Levels, Causes and Coping Strategies of Stress during Teaching Practice Name of the Journal : Journal of Law and Psychology ISSN : 2078-1083 Page Number : 17 – 23 Year Published : September, 2010 To : Dr. Johan Eddy Luaran Submitted by : Siti Khalijah binti Zainol (2013977165) 1. Overview: This journal is about levels, causes and coping strategies of stress during teaching practice. The teaching practice is the most crucial period for student-teachers. During this time, they are assigned to the respective schools for about 12 weeks to undergo for teaching practice. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Dictionary, 2006), teaching practice is the part of a course for people who are training to become a teacher, which involves teaching classes of the students. Teaching practice is important because it provides student-teachers with real situation which provides pre-service teachers to experience and enter the real world of teaching. Teaching profession is one of the stress professions. In Malaysia, there was a survey conducted in 2011 by The Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia Medical Centre showed that teaching was in the fourth place. Teaching is a stressful profession because the teachers not only teach, but they need to do another task, such as plan and prepare the lesson plan and materials, manage the behaviour of the students and mark books. The highest degree of stress to student-teachers is because of the lack of classroom control and management. According to (Marzano, September 2003) classroom management has the largest impact on the students’ achievement and behaviour. Nevertheless, this situation is normal for the student-teachers during their teaching practice. Before this they were only learnt about it from books and reading materials, but during this time, they need to experience it.
  2. 2. 2 However, classroom management is not the only causes of stress. Another stresses related to the evaluation, pedagogical and staff relation factors. According to (Capel, 1997) students-teachers stress related to the evaluation during the teaching practice is common in many countries. Because the stress of the evaluation may differ to every student-teacher. It depends on the student-teachers’ personality and how their reaction towards the evaluation. Thus, this journal explored on level of stress, their causes and coping strategies adjusted by the student-teachers during their teaching practice. This finding is important to help student-teachers to support them with knowledge, improve themselves and prepare them to become an effective teacher when they become a “real” teacher someday. 2. Description of Methodology: The approach of this research is quantitative. The design of this research is survey. The participants of this research are from International Islamic University, Pakistan. The number of the respondents is 95, which include 15 males and 80 females who studied in Bachelor of Education and Master of Education. The students had completed 90% of their courses. Therefore, they were selected to take part in this survey. The questionnaire was designed to know more about the level of student-teachers stress, the causes of the stress and how to cope with the stress. The questionnaire wanted to know what did the student-teachers do to overcome their stress and helped them to improve during the teaching practicum. Student-teachers have been suggested some of the suggestions and solutions through open-ended questions.91 out of 95 students completed the questionnaire and attended a concluding session. 3. Evaluation : This questionnaire contained four parts; level of stress, the sources of the stress, coping strategies and the suggestion to improve practicum. The first part of the questionnaire was developed by Cohen. It is used to measure the degree to which situations can be considered as stressful. It is the most widely used psychological instruments to measure the level of stress.
  3. 3. 3 The second part of the questionnaire consisted 30 items related to the causes of the stress during teaching practice. The third part of the questionnaire focused on the coping strategies that have been frequently adopted to overcome the stress during teaching practice. There were eight items in this part. Last but not least, the fourth part contained an open-ended question that encouraged student-teachers to give their opinion on how to improve and reduce the stress during practicum. The data were analysed by using a percentage calculation of the responses. 9% of the student-teachers thought that teaching practice was less stress. However, 86% of them thought that it was moderate stress, meanwhile 5% of them agreed that teaching practice was giving them high stress. According to the writer, there were four major causes of stress. The first cause was heavy work load. As we know, as student-teachers they need to prepare a lot of things such as interesting lesson plan and teaching aids. Most of them complained that they were required to burn the midnight oil in order to complete the lesson plans and teaching aids. Therefore, 80% of them agreed that heavy work load made them stress. Besides, the second cause that contributed to the stress was being observed and evaluated by supervisor and teacher. 76% of the respondents found that being observed and evaluated by their supervisor and teacher made them stress. The respondents felt nervous and their self-confidence would be shaken during the observation because they were trying to avoid mistakes. Thus, the third cause of the stress was the inadequacy in classroom management. 74% of the respondents reported that they were having major problems to control and manage the classroom. It happened because they were lack of knowledge and experience in handling the discipline problems among the students. It required some times to polish their skills.
  4. 4. 4 Last but not least, 57% of the respondents said that writing detailed lesson plans was also becoming the cause of the stress to them. Student-teachers need to plan two different lesson notes for two different subjects every day. They were required to write the lesson in details and also they must prepare the suitable teaching aids. Sometimes, the lessons that they planned failed to reach the objectives. Coping strategies adapted by student-teacher during teaching practice was the third part in the questionnaire. According to the author, the term coping strategies was best described as the ways that student-teachers took in order to relieve their stress. 58% of the respondents stated that communication with a supervisor or teacher and getting guidance or feedbacks were the best way to relieve the stress. It could be the best way because they need positive supports and feedbacks from those who can help them to improve themselves to be better. 54% of the respondents found that they could release their stress by talking to their friends and family. Teaching practice was the compulsory pre-service component in order to complete their study. Therefore, getting support from the family and friends are very important for them because they show their sympathy and lend their ears to listen to the problems. However, 49% of them agreed that the use of self-management skills such as preparation, planning and organizational skills could help them to relieve the stress. The respondents agreed that they need to plan the lesson early and prefer not to do the last minute work. The final part of the questionnaire was suggestions from the respondents. According to the survey, some of the suggestion suggested by the respondents were they need more guidance before start of the teaching practice, more coordination between university supervisor and cooperating teacher is required, assigned schools should take student-teachers as internees and doing the formative assessment instead of final lesson assessment. 4. Discussion of Implication This study has been done to reflect the teaching practice of the student-teachers from education programs in Pakistan. This study is important to provide the best foundation for the future teachers. It is because in this study, the author focused on the level of the stress, the causes and how to cope with the stress.
  5. 5. 5 It is important to gather the information from the practical experience because it can equip the future teachers. According to Percy and Elliot (2004), students view isnecessary, but more importantly, these views need to be acted upon. I agree with their statements. The finding from the survey can be used to improve the teaching practicum. It is useful for the universities, teaching colleges, schools and also the ministry in order to improve the program and make the changes if necessary. It cannot be denied that teaching practicum can cause stress to the student-teachers. However, it is normal because everyone will stress out at the beginning of their teaching practicum because they have a lack of experience. The best way to overcome and reduce the level of the stress are prepare the lesson and teaching aids earlier and do not be too ambitious. The student-teachers also need to work hand in hand with their supervisors and the cooperating teachers who will guide them in the school. They are advised to talk and share about their problems and seek for the guidance, especially on how to control and manage the classroom. By doing this, they will have some ideas on how to handle the inadequacy classroom and tackle the behaviour problems among the students. Moreover, the student-teachers also can reduce the level of their stress by keeping the journal during the teaching practice. It will help them to reflect on their teaching and try to find the solution to improve. Nowadays, teaching profession is very tough and challenging. The teachers must be ready to be versatile and able to cope with the stress. With this survey, the author hopes that the university supervisor and the cooperating teachers will work as a harmonious team to help the student-teachers to prepare themselves before entering the real teaching life. The less stress student-teachers, will increase their performance and the better they will be.