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ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

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ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

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ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR OCB-BUS5110 Presented by:Cihan Baksi
  2. 2. CONTENT  History of OCB  What is OCB ?  The Benefits of OCB  Types of OCB  Article Analysis  Example  Conclusion  References
  3. 3. History of OCB Dennis Organ is generally considered the father of OCB Dennis Organ expanded upon Katz’s(1964) original work on OCB Dennis Organ’s (1988) definition of OCB has generated a great deal of critisim
  4. 4. What is OCB ? Organizational citizenship behavior is the technical psychological term for what can be simply defined as the compilation of individual behaviors in a group setting. It was first defined by Dennis Organ in 1988 as "an individual behavior which is not rewarded by a formal reward system ... but that, when combined with the same behavior in a group, results in effectiveness." In the business world, organizational citizenship behavior has been linked to work productivity, employee effectiveness, and other factors which can impact a business in the short or long
  5. 5. What is OCB ? Common examples of business organizational citizenship behavior occur when employees are grouped together, which may occur on a regular basis or a part of a special or temporary assignment. For example, employees in the marketing department will display organizational citizenship behavior on a regular basis because of they are co-workers in the same department; employees who are put together for a temporary work assignment will also display organizational citizenship behavior, albeit on a temporary basis. OCB can be divided into two categories, behavior that is directed towards other individuals (OCBI) and behavior that is directed towards the organization (OCBO)
  6. 6. The Benefits of OCB OCB has been shown to have a positive impact on employee performance and wellbeing, and this in turn has noticeable flow- on effects on the organisation. The correlations between OCB and job satisfaction is approximately 0.4 (Organ, 1988). There is empirical evidence for the widely-held belief that satisfied workers perform better, but this is correlational, not causal. However, certain types of performance – primarily those related to citizenship behaviour – will be affected by job satisfaction.
  7. 7. Benefits of OCB  Why does OCB seem to have such compelling effects on the individual and the success of an organisation? Organ et al. (2006) has offered the following suggestions. OCB can:
  8. 8. Benefits of OCB Enhance productivity (helping new co-workers; helping colleagues meet deadlines) Free up resources (autonomous, cooperative employees give managers more time to clear their work; helpful behaviour facilitates cohesiveness (as part of group maintenance behaviour)) Attract and retain good employees (through creating and maintaining a friendly, supportive working environment and a sense of belonging) Create social capital (better communication and stronger networks facilitate accurate information transfer and improve efficiency)
  9. 9. Types of OCB Altruism(OCBI)  Altruism is defined as the desire to help or otherwise assist another individual, while not expecting a reward in compensation for that assistance. A common example outside of a business setting would be someone who drives a neighbor to work when their car has broken down, while not expecting gas money or favors in compensation. In a business setting, altruistic behavior is generally related to the work or project that the business group is working on. Someone exhibiting altruistic behavior in a group setting might volunteer to work on certain special projects, voluntarily helping or assisting other employees with their work or with other tasks, and volunteering to do additional work in order to help other employees reduce their own work load. Altruism in the workplace leads to productivity and effectiveness because it encourages good inter-employee relations; it can also reduce the stress load on other employees, such as those who are overwhelmed without a little bit of help, which will in turn increase productivity.
  10. 10. Types of OCB Courtesy(OCBI) Courtesy is defined as behavior which is polite and considerate towards other people. Courtesy outside of a workplace setting includes behavior such as asking how someone's morning has been or asking after the welfare of a neighbor's child. In a business context, courtesy is usually exhibited through behaviors such as inquiring about personal subjects that a coworker has previously brought up, asking if a coworker is having any trouble with a certain work related project, and informing coworkers about prior commitments or any other problems that might cause them to reduce their workload or be absent from work. Courtesy not only encourages positive social interactions between employees, which improve the work environment, but they can reduce any potential stress that might occur from employees who do not have the courtesy to inform their coworkers about issues such as upcoming absences from work—and so on.
  11. 11. Types of OCB Sportmanship(OCBO) Sportsmanship is defined as exhibiting no negative behavior when something does not go as planned--or when something is being perceived as annoying, difficult, frustrating or otherwise negative. Outside of a business context, sportsmanship is most commonly associated with sports and games--poor sportsmanship, for example, might occur when a player on a soccer team swears stomps and argues when their team loses a soccer game. In the context of business, good sportsmanship is usually related to potential complaints about work or workloads in addition to negativity surrounding work-related surprises. For example: Imagine an employee who submits their proposal to their superior may be expecting it to be well-received and accepted—it is rejected, instead, and the employee displays good sportsmanship by not complaining about the situation to other coworkers or individuals who may report their behavior to others working for the business.
  12. 12. Types of OCB Conscientiousness(OCBO) Conscientiousness is defined as behavior that suggests a reasonable level of self-control and discipline, which extends beyond the minimum requirements expected in that situation. In the context of a business setting, conscientiousness is observed when an employee not only meets their employer’s requirements—such as coming into work on time and completing assignments on time—but exceeds them. Exceeding these requirements, and thereby showing conscientiousness, could be observed—for example—by an employee planning ahead to ensure that they, and their coworkers, do not become overwhelmed in their work.
  13. 13. Types of OCB Civic Virtue(OCBO) Civic virtue is defined as behavior which exhibits how well a person represents an organization with which they are associated, and how well that person supports their organization outside of an official capacity. For example, how well someone represents their business and how they may support that business are all examples of someone's civic virtue. Examples of civic virtue in a business setting include speaking positively about the business to friends, family and acquaintances; signing up for business events, such as charity walking events or fundraiser parties; and generally supporting the business by always representing the business to the best of their ability even when they are not working. Civic virtue encourages a sense of community within a business setting, which has been shown to be linked to job performance and job satisfaction in employees. Employees who feel a stronger connection with their place of employment are more likely to be productive and effective workers, when compared to those who do not share a sense of community.
  14. 14. Article Analysis Topic:Sleep and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction We examine sleep as an important factor beyond the work domain that is relevant to organizational citizenship behavior. In a field study of 87 employees from a variety of organizations, an objective measure of sleep quantity predicted organizational citizenship behavior directed toward organizations but not organizational citizenship behavior directed toward individuals. Additionally, job satisfaction mediated this relationship. In a second field study of 85 working college students, we found that natural variation in daily sleep over the course of a work week predicted daily variance in organizational citizenship behavior directed toward both individuals and organizations, and that job satisfaction mediated these relationships. Based on these findings, we discuss theoretical and practical implications of sleep-deprived employees.
  15. 15. OCB Video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8p BbFt9hec0
  16. 16. Article Analysis Sleep and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Employees: Sleep can be defined as a state of immobility with greatly reduced responsiveness (Siegel, 2005) and can be distinguished from a coma or anesthesia by its rapid reversibility. A recent survey of over 66,000 Americans indicates that 30% get less than six hours of sleep per night (Luckhaupt et al., 2010) OCB is defined as behavior not directly recognized by the formal reward system but that contributes to organizational effectiveness (Organ et al., 2006). Because organizational citizenship behavior is not a required part of task performance and is not directly acknowledged by formal reward systems, employees have discretion in whether or not to engage in it. To date, the degree to which engagement in organizational citizenship behavior is influenced by sleep has not been empirically examined. As described below, we draw from previous research to contend that sleep influences engagement in organizational citizenship behavior via its association with job satisfaction.
  17. 17. Article Analysis Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: Sleep quantity is positively associated with organizational citizenship behavior directed toward individuals (OCB-I). Hypothesis 2: Sleep quantity is positively associated with organizational citizenship behavior directed toward organizations (OCB-O). Hypothesis 3: Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between sleep quantity and organizational citizenship behavior directed toward individuals (OCB-I). Hypothesis 4: Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between sleep quantity and organizational citizenship behavior directed toward organizations (OCB-O)
  18. 18. Article Analysis Sample Structure: We conducted two field studies to examine the influence of sleep quantity on organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction. Study 1 measured sleep quantity objectively in a sleep clinic setting and used self-reported ratings of organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction Participants: Participants were 87 individuals (29 female) who voluntarily sought treatment at a sleep clinic located in the East coast of the United States of America. The sleep clinic collects data from individuals who seek treatment for difficulties sleeping in the process of diagnosing the reasons for patients’ sleep difficulties and treating their sleep disorders. The mean age of the respondent was 47.32 years (SD 10.68 years). This clinic routinely collects objective data on sleep, providing a unique opportunity to both measure sleep objectively and to conduct surveys on work behavior. A requirement of study participation was holding full-time employment.
  19. 19. Article Analysis Sample Structure: Measures: •Sleep quantity •Job satisfaction •Age •Organizational citizenship behavior •Caffeine intake
  20. 20. Article Analysis Procedure They collected data from two independent sources. First, laboratory data from the sleep clinic on participants’ sleep quantities were collected by experienced sleep clinicians who were unfamiliar with the study’s hypotheses. Second, a questionnaire assessing job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior was completed by participants after their work shift following their visit to the sleep clinic. In the process of diagnosing sleep difficulties, the sleep clinicians collected objective data on sleep during a laboratory study in which participants slept overnight at the clinic. Patients were instructed to arrive at the sleep clinic on the night of the sleep clinic lab study no later than 9 p.m. After reviewing the protocol of the clinic laboratory procedures, they were placed in a bedroom in the sleep clinic. Participants were then observed throughout the remainder of the night and until 7:00 a.m. the following morning. Participants were not provided any of their sleep data until a scheduled appointment that occurred after the questionnaire. After their night in the sleep laboratory, participants were provided with the self-report questionnaire measuring job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. Only participants who were scheduled to work a shift the day after their night in the sleep laboratory were invited to participate. Participants were instructed to complete the measure after the end of their work shift that same work day, and they were provided with a stamped and addressed return envelope. As an incentive, potential participants were informed that those who participated would be entered into a drawing for $500. Of the 400 questionnaires that were handed out, 87 were completed and returned, for a response rate of 21.8%
  21. 21. Article Analysis Result Table 1 shows the means, standard deviations, and correlations among the measured variables in Study 1. Participants in this study slept an average of five and a half hours, with a standard deviation of a little less than an hour and a half. This mean was approximately two hours less than the population estimate, with a standard deviation approximately 20 minutes less than the population estimate (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010)—a point we return to in the discussion. As indicated by Table 1, the zero order correlations between sleep and OCBI (.02) and OCBO (.17) were not statistically significant.
  22. 22. Article Analysis Result Hypothesis 1 indicated that they expected a positive relationship between sleep quantity and OCB-I. As shown in Table 2, the standardized regression coefficient for the relationship between sleep quantity and OCB-I was .06 (p .05), which was in the direction hypothesized but not significant. Thus, Hypothesis 1 was not supported, in that there was not a significant direct effect of sleep on OCB-I
  23. 23. Article Analysis Result Hypothesis 2 indicated that we expected a positive relationship between sleep quantity and OCB-O. As shown in Table 2, the standardized regression coefficient for the relationship between sleep quantity and OCB-O was .24 (p .05), which was in the direction hypothesized and significant. Hypothesis 2 was supported, in that there was a significant direct effect of sleep on OCB-O. Thus, although there was not a significant zero-order correlation between sleep and OCB-O, there was a significant relationship when controlling for age and caffeine Hypothesis 3 indicated that we expected job satisfaction to mediate the relationship between sleep quantity and OCB-I. To test this hypothesis, we examined the indirect effect of sleep on OCB with a bias-corrected bootstrap 95% confidence interval analysis of the indirect effect (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). A bias-corrected bootstrap 95% confidence interval analysis of the indirect effect of sleep on OCB-I indicated a significant indirect effect that excluded zero, with a lower bound of .0004 and an upper bound of .0035. Thus, although there was not a significant direct effect of sleep on OCB-I, Hypothesis 3 was supported in that there was a significant indirect effect of sleep quantity on OCB-I Hypothesis 4 indicated that we expected job satisfaction to mediate the relationship between sleep quantity and OCB-O. A bias-corrected bootstrap 95% confidence interval analysis of the indirect effect of sleep on OCB-O indicated a significant indirect effect that excluded zero, with a lower bound of .0004 and an upper bound of .0038. Thus, hypothesis 4 was supported, in that there was a significant indirect effect of sleep quantity on OCB-O. Moreover, when controlling for job satisfaction, there was no longer a significant effect of sleep on OCB-
  24. 24. Article Analysis Discussion In Study 1, they found a direct effect of sleep on OCB-O but not OCB-I. However, sleep had significant indirect effects on both OCB-I and OCB-O through the mediator of job satisfaction. This highlights the relationship between sleep as a nonwork based factor that is relevant to organizational citizenship behavior, indicating a spillover effect from home to work. One limitation of this study was the fact that having participants sleep in a laboratory setting may have influenced their sleep patterns. Research indicates some small differences in sleep habits when sleeping alone in comparison to sleeping next to another person. In many cases, especially with women, people sleep better next to their partners than they do alone (Dittami et al., 2007). Moreover, it is possible that sleeping in an unfamiliar context while under observation and hooked up to EEG devices may be disruptive to sleep. Indeed, participants in this study had a restricted range in their sleep quantity, such that our test was a conservative test of the hypotheses. Thus, our lack of support for Hypothesis 1 may have been a Type II error.
  25. 25. Article Analysis Discussion A strength of this study was the objective measure of sleep. Moreover, the participants in this sample were from a broad array of organizations and jobs. However, participants in this study were recruited from a group of people seeking treatment for sleep problems, as highlighted by the fact that their sleep means were lower than population estimates. Although a restriction in range in sleep should statistically work against our findings and make it more difficult to detect a relationship between sleep and OCB, the fact that our sample suffered from sleep problems may still call into question the generalizability of our results. A
  26. 26. OCB Example Millenicom-Employee of the Year  Millenicom HR division annualy selects a worker in OCB criterias.They often use alturism as OCB type  Every division manager offers only one name for election and than they vote offered workes, one worker selected who gets most votes from managers ,he/she is announced internal portal. Employee of the year wins small electronic gift.  My division has 3 awards in last 5 years.
  27. 27. Conclusion Citizenship behaviours come in many distinct shapes and forms. Traditionally thought of as the worker who ‘goes above and beyond’ the minimum requirements, it can also be the employee who takes the initiative and always offers to lend a hand; the knowledgeable, helpful and cooperative colleague; the senior staff member who is able to roll with the punches; or the friendly, approachable manager who shows the new employees around the office and introduces them to other staff. All of these types of OCB should be actively encouraged-employees support the organisation through enhancing each other’s performance and wellbeing, and this is reflected in reduced costs and increased profitability at the organisational level.
  28. 28. References  Zhang, D. ,OCB White Paper.2011, Auckland Universty  Barnes, C, Ghumman, S, & Scott, B 2013, 'Sleep and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction', Journal Of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 1, pp. 16-26, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 April 2015.  Retrived from www: http://www.businessnlpacademy.co.uk/blog/view/5_common_types_of_organizational_citizenship _behavior/

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