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ESTUDIO DE UN PROGRAMA DE
FORMACIÓN DE MAESTROS
ACERCA DE SU PREPARACIÓN PARA
ATENDER LA DIVERSIDAD EN EL
SALÓN DE CLASE
Dra. Annette G. López, Dra. Claudia X. Alvarez, Dr. Víctor E. Bonilla,
Dr. Edwin Vega, Profa. Elenita Irizarry
Introduction
Diversity
The concept includes: “(1) Individual differences (e.g., personality, interests, learning
modalities, and life experiences),and (2) group differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, ability, gender
identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, nationality, language, religion, political affiliation,
and socio-economic background)” (InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards, p. 21).
Classroom Diversity
Migration has changed communities throughout the world and has redefined the teaching
profession (Philpott, Furey, & Penney, 2010).
Classrooms are increasingly diverse with unique characteristics that present challenges to
teachers. Challenges include: multiple languages, different values, respect for individual and
social differences regardless of sex, creed, race and nationality. Goodwin (2010)
Multicultural education
Gollnick & Chinn (2009) establish multicultural education as a strategy which incorporates
cultural differences and provides equality and social justice in schools.
Banks and Banks (2004) defines multicultural education as “a field of study designed to
increase educational equity for all students that incorporates, for this purpose, content,
concepts, principles, theories, and paradigms from history, the social and behavioral sciences,
and particularly from ethnic studies and women studies” (p. xii).
Objectives • Analyze teacher candidates perceived
competency level to:
– address diversity issues that arise in the
classroom
– include diversity issues or topics in their
teaching
• Examine teacher candidates perception of how
diversity topics are addressed in the teacher
preparation program.
• Provide recommendations on how to improve the
teacher preparation program.
Questionnaire Development
Spanish version
• Item development,
response scale
selection, sections
organization:
UPRRP research
team (individually,
group discussions)
Revisions
• UPRRP research
team (individually,
group discussions)
& MSUD Spanish
speaking research
team members
(individually,
recommendations
sent via email)
English version
• Translation: UPRRP
research team
(individually, group
discussions)
• Revision: MSUD
research team
(individually,
recommendations sent
via email)
Note. The translation process was decentralized. Both the
original (Spanish) and the translated (English) versions
were modified until they were as equivalent as possible.
Data
Collection
Authorization
• Institutional Review Board
• School of Education
• Consent forms
Questionnaire Administration
• Paper and pencil administration
• General Orientation for students enrolled in practicum (beginning of
the semester; students at the end of the program)
Reliability
Pilot Study
• 1st Response scale changes
• 2nd Three items were eliminated
UPRRP (n = 66)
Question Items Cases CA
8 16 56 .933
9 11 65 .943
10 9 65 .883
11 10 64 .958
12 12 65 .965
13 6 65 .864
14 10 63 .944
15 12 65 .914
16 10 64 .913
19 6 63 .789
George y Mallery (2003, in
Gliem & Gliem, 2003, p. 87)
provide the following guide to
classify reliability coefficients:
> 0.9 Excellent
> 0.8 Good
> 0.7 Acceptable
> 0.6 Questionable
> 0.5 Poor
< 0.5 Not acceptable
Administration
• n = 102 of 128
• Response rate: 79.69%
UPRRP
Cases CA
91 .930
97 .942
101 .934
102 .958
99 .954
98 .936
99 .940
99 .939
101 .948
97 .909
Note. CA = Cronbach’s Alpha.
Factor
Analysis
Question Items Explained Variability Factors
8 16 67.21% 1) Gender, sexual orientation, and
socioeconomic status 2)
Race/ethnicity, 3) Language
9 11 60.15% 1) Race/ethnicity
10 9 61.83% 1) Language
11 10 69.89% 1) Socioeconomic aspects
12 12 72.24% 1) Rights/Discrimination, 2) Gender
13 6 71.64% 1) Religion/Spirituality
14 10 62.21% 1) Special Education Rights and
Strategies
15 12 56.76% 1) Special Education Conditions
16 10 66.71% 1) Embracing Diversity in the
Classroom
19 6 63.53% 1) Teacher Preparation Program
Components
Demographic
Data
Females
• 74.5%
Age
• 21-25 87.2%
Disability
• 7.8%
Speak more than one language at home
• 82.4%
First person to attend a post-secondary institution
• 10.8%
Demographic
Data
WHAT WAS THE MAIN REASON FOR
CHOOSING EDUCATION AS A
PROFESSION?
UPRRP
This is my calling. 32 (31.4)
I come from a family of educators. 2 (2.0)
The opportunity to develop citizens. 24 (23.5)
My teachers inspired me. 15 (14.7)
The need to join the workforce
immediately after graduation.
0 (0.0)
This was not my first study option and I
would like to change to another field.
13 (12.7)
Other; please specify 10 (9.8)
Note.The number outside the parenthesis is the frequency ,
while the number inside the parenthesis is the percentage.
Questionnaire Structure
• SECTION I: DEMOGRAPHIC DATA (7 Items)
– 1. Age
– 2. Gender
– 3. Disabilities
– 4. Spoken languages
– 5. First generation in post secondary institution
– 6. Reason for studying education
– 7. Program
• SECTION II: COMPETENCE TO WORK WITH
DIVERSE STUDENTS
– 8. Indicate the level of competency that you have to
work with diverse students (16 items). This section
includes: Race and Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Aspects,
Gender, and Language.
• SECTION III: COMPETENCY LEVELS TO
INCORPORATE DIVERSITY ISSUES OR
TOPICS IN THE TEACHING PROCESS
– 9. Race and Ethnicity (11 items)
– 10. Language (9 items)
– 11. Socioeconomic (10 items)
– 12. Gender (12 items)
– 13. Religion and Spirituality (6 items)
– 14. Special Education (10 items)
– 15. Indicate your level of competency to
work with Special Education students
diagnosed with … (12 items)
– 16. In general terms, indicate your
competency level to … (Diversity
Spectrum; 10 items)
• SECTION IV: PERCEPTION OF HOW DIVERSITY TOPICS ARE HANDLED IN THE TEACHER
PREPARATION PROGRAM
– 17. How important do you think it is to address topics and issues related to diversity in the
Teacher Preparation Program?
– 18. Which of the following topics do you think should not be addressed in the classroom? Please
explain the reason for your selection.
– 19. Indicate to which degree diversity issues were addressed by the different Teacher Preparation
Program components. (6 items)
• SECTION V: POST-GRADUATION PLANS
– 20. Do you plan to work as a teacher after graduating from the Teacher Preparation Program?
– 21. Please explain the answer you provided in question #20 (even if the answer is “No”).
PRE BASIC
I do not have the theoretical knowledge nor the practical skills necessary to
approach this topic in school.
BASIC
I have some theoretical knowledge, but I do not have the practical skills to
address this topic in school.
INTERMEDIATE
I have sufficient theoretical knowledge and some practical skills to address this
topic in school.
ADVANCED
I have advanced theoretical knowledge and the necessary practical skills to
address this topic in school.
Response Scale
Presentation of
findings
Categories were collapsed:
1. Pre Basic + Basic
2. Intermediate + Advanced
Results are presented as Strength or Opportunity areas
instead of presenting individual frequencies and
percentages:
1. Strength – Combined percentages of Intermediate and
Advanced categories is equal or greater than 70%
2. Opportunity – Combined percentages of Pre Basic and
Basic categories is greater than 30%
To construct graphs, we computed the percentage of items
classified as a Strength and the percentage of items
classified as an Opportunity. For example, question 9 has
11 items. Of these items, 6 were classified as Strength
(6÷11x100=54.55%) and 5 as Opportunity (45.45%).
QUESTION 8: Indicate the level of competency that you have to work with students… UPRRP
RACE AND ETHNICITY
whose ethnic background differs from yours. S
whose racial background differs from yours. S
who come from interracial families. S
who come from interethnic families. O
SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS
who are from a socio-economic level different from yours. S
who are homeless. O
GENDER
whose sex is different from yours. S
whose gender identity is different from yours. S
whose beliefs regarding biological sex are different from yours. S
whose beliefs regarding gender identity are different than yours. S
who are raised by parents of the same gender. S
who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or queer. S
who identify as transgender, transsexual, or transvestite. O
LANGUAGE
who do not speak Spanish as a first language. O
who speak Spanish with linguistic limitations. S
whose parents do not speak Spanish. O
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
90.00
100.00
Q9. Race and
Ethnicity
Q10. Language Q11.
Socioeconomic
Aspects
Q12. Gender Q13. Religion
and Spirituality
Q14. Special
Education Rigths
and Strategies
UPRRP Areas of Strength and Opportunity
S O
Note. Students were asked to indicate their competency level to include these topics or issues in the teaching process.
QUESTION 15: Indicate your level of competency to work with Special
Education students diagnosed with… UPRRP
Autism O
Hearing impairments, deafness, or hearing loss O
Low Vision or Legal Blindness O
Behavioral and Emotional Disorders O
Cognitive Impairments O
Orthopedic Impairments O
Learning Disabilities O
Speech Impairments O
Attention Deficit and Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) O
Health conditions like Diabetes, Epilepsy, etc. O
Giftedness O
Multiple Disabilities O
QUESTION 16: ln general terms, indicate your competency level to … UPRRP
Include the history, narratives, and contributions of diverse groups into the curriculum. S
Use students’ strengths as a starting point when planning your teaching to promote their
development. S
Incorporate multiple perspectives in the content discussion, including personal, family and
community experiences, and cultural norms. S
Incorporate language development tools in planning and teaching. S
Manage discrimination issues among students. S
Manage discriminatory comments and bullying among students. S
Manage harassment and bullying that you witness related to the diverse nature of groups. S
Help students learn and understand the importance of tolerating people from diverse
groups. S
Make all students feel valued. S
Make all students learn to value others. S
QUESTION 17: How important do
you think it is to address topics
and issues related to diversity in
the Teacher Preparation
Program?RESPONSE UPRRP
Extremely
important
91 (89.2)
Very important 6 (5.9)
Moderately
important
3 (2.9)
Not that
important
1 (1.0)
Not important 1 (1.0)
QUESTION 18: Which of the following topics do
you think should not be addressed in the
classroom?
TOPICS
SHOULD NOT BE
ADDRESSED
UPRRP
Race
Ethnicity
Language 1 (1.0)
Socioeconomic Status 1 (1.0)
Gender 4 (3.9)
Sexual Orientation 7 (6.9)
Religion and Spirituality 18 (17.6)
Special Needs 1 (1.0)
Reasons for responses:
1. All topics should be addressed: a) values should be
included and discussed; and b) we live in a diverse society.
2. Some topics should not be addressed: a) they are
personal; and b) should be discussed at home.
Notes. *Psychology, Sociology, Philosophy.
**Specialized content area courses. For example: Science, mathematics.
QUESTION 19: Indicate to which degree diversity issues were addressed by the
different Teacher Preparation Program components. UPRRP
Curriculum and teaching methodology courses O
Foundation Courses * S
Technology courses O
Field Experiences S
Clinical Experiences S
Content Courses ** O
QUESTION 20: Do you plan to work as
a teacher after graduating from the
Teacher Preparation Program?
RESPONSE UPRRP
Yes 79 (77.5)
No 21 (20.6)
• 10 or more years (40.3%)
• 5 or less (12.8%)
For how many years?
Where (UPRRP)?
RESPONSE UPRRP
Puerto Rico 46 (45.1)
Abroad 10 (9.8)
Both 20 (19.6)
In what type of school?
RESPONSE UPRRP
Public 31 (30.4)
Private 9 (8.8)
Both 32 (31.4)
Implications
• The instrument can provide valuable
information for curriculum revision:
– At the beginning of the program: can allow to
assess and identify areas that will need more
emphasis within the curriculum.
– At the end of the program: can allow for the
identification of areas that need to be
addressed (improved) in the curriculum.
– Both at the beginning and at the end of the
program: can provide information regarding
changes in teacher candidates’ competency
level perception.
• Groups within the population can be compared.
For example, special education teacher
candidates versus candidates from other
disciplines.
Future studies
• Compare the results of a program that includes a
course on multicultural education to those of a
program that include the topics within different
courses. The instrument must be administered at
the same time in both institutions.
• In-depth study (qualitative) of the meaning teacher
candidates assign to the vocabulary used to refer
to different aspects of diversity. For example: what
is classism?
• Administer the instrument to in-service teachers to
identify areas that can be addressed through
professional development.
• Can be adapted to be administered to other
professionals. For example, the Response Scale
can read “in the workplace” instead of “in school”
and questions can read “with clients/people”
instead of “with students”.
CONTACT INFORMATION
University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras
• Dr. Annette G. López de Méndez
annette.lopez1@upr.edu
• Dr. EdwinVega-Milán
edwin.vega1@upr.edu
• Dr.Víctor E. Bonilla-Rodríguez
victor.bonilla3@upr.edu
• Dr. Claudia X. Alvarez-Romero
claudia.alvarez1@upr.edu

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Estudio de un programa de formación de maestros acerca de su preparación para atender la diversidad en el salón de clase

  • 1. ESTUDIO DE UN PROGRAMA DE FORMACIÓN DE MAESTROS ACERCA DE SU PREPARACIÓN PARA ATENDER LA DIVERSIDAD EN EL SALÓN DE CLASE Dra. Annette G. López, Dra. Claudia X. Alvarez, Dr. Víctor E. Bonilla, Dr. Edwin Vega, Profa. Elenita Irizarry
  • 2. Introduction Diversity The concept includes: “(1) Individual differences (e.g., personality, interests, learning modalities, and life experiences),and (2) group differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, ability, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, nationality, language, religion, political affiliation, and socio-economic background)” (InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards, p. 21). Classroom Diversity Migration has changed communities throughout the world and has redefined the teaching profession (Philpott, Furey, & Penney, 2010). Classrooms are increasingly diverse with unique characteristics that present challenges to teachers. Challenges include: multiple languages, different values, respect for individual and social differences regardless of sex, creed, race and nationality. Goodwin (2010) Multicultural education Gollnick & Chinn (2009) establish multicultural education as a strategy which incorporates cultural differences and provides equality and social justice in schools. Banks and Banks (2004) defines multicultural education as “a field of study designed to increase educational equity for all students that incorporates, for this purpose, content, concepts, principles, theories, and paradigms from history, the social and behavioral sciences, and particularly from ethnic studies and women studies” (p. xii).
  • 3. Objectives • Analyze teacher candidates perceived competency level to: – address diversity issues that arise in the classroom – include diversity issues or topics in their teaching • Examine teacher candidates perception of how diversity topics are addressed in the teacher preparation program. • Provide recommendations on how to improve the teacher preparation program.
  • 4. Questionnaire Development Spanish version • Item development, response scale selection, sections organization: UPRRP research team (individually, group discussions) Revisions • UPRRP research team (individually, group discussions) & MSUD Spanish speaking research team members (individually, recommendations sent via email) English version • Translation: UPRRP research team (individually, group discussions) • Revision: MSUD research team (individually, recommendations sent via email) Note. The translation process was decentralized. Both the original (Spanish) and the translated (English) versions were modified until they were as equivalent as possible.
  • 5. Data Collection Authorization • Institutional Review Board • School of Education • Consent forms Questionnaire Administration • Paper and pencil administration • General Orientation for students enrolled in practicum (beginning of the semester; students at the end of the program)
  • 6. Reliability Pilot Study • 1st Response scale changes • 2nd Three items were eliminated UPRRP (n = 66) Question Items Cases CA 8 16 56 .933 9 11 65 .943 10 9 65 .883 11 10 64 .958 12 12 65 .965 13 6 65 .864 14 10 63 .944 15 12 65 .914 16 10 64 .913 19 6 63 .789 George y Mallery (2003, in Gliem & Gliem, 2003, p. 87) provide the following guide to classify reliability coefficients: > 0.9 Excellent > 0.8 Good > 0.7 Acceptable > 0.6 Questionable > 0.5 Poor < 0.5 Not acceptable Administration • n = 102 of 128 • Response rate: 79.69% UPRRP Cases CA 91 .930 97 .942 101 .934 102 .958 99 .954 98 .936 99 .940 99 .939 101 .948 97 .909 Note. CA = Cronbach’s Alpha.
  • 7. Factor Analysis Question Items Explained Variability Factors 8 16 67.21% 1) Gender, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status 2) Race/ethnicity, 3) Language 9 11 60.15% 1) Race/ethnicity 10 9 61.83% 1) Language 11 10 69.89% 1) Socioeconomic aspects 12 12 72.24% 1) Rights/Discrimination, 2) Gender 13 6 71.64% 1) Religion/Spirituality 14 10 62.21% 1) Special Education Rights and Strategies 15 12 56.76% 1) Special Education Conditions 16 10 66.71% 1) Embracing Diversity in the Classroom 19 6 63.53% 1) Teacher Preparation Program Components
  • 8. Demographic Data Females • 74.5% Age • 21-25 87.2% Disability • 7.8% Speak more than one language at home • 82.4% First person to attend a post-secondary institution • 10.8%
  • 9. Demographic Data WHAT WAS THE MAIN REASON FOR CHOOSING EDUCATION AS A PROFESSION? UPRRP This is my calling. 32 (31.4) I come from a family of educators. 2 (2.0) The opportunity to develop citizens. 24 (23.5) My teachers inspired me. 15 (14.7) The need to join the workforce immediately after graduation. 0 (0.0) This was not my first study option and I would like to change to another field. 13 (12.7) Other; please specify 10 (9.8) Note.The number outside the parenthesis is the frequency , while the number inside the parenthesis is the percentage.
  • 10. Questionnaire Structure • SECTION I: DEMOGRAPHIC DATA (7 Items) – 1. Age – 2. Gender – 3. Disabilities – 4. Spoken languages – 5. First generation in post secondary institution – 6. Reason for studying education – 7. Program • SECTION II: COMPETENCE TO WORK WITH DIVERSE STUDENTS – 8. Indicate the level of competency that you have to work with diverse students (16 items). This section includes: Race and Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Aspects, Gender, and Language. • SECTION III: COMPETENCY LEVELS TO INCORPORATE DIVERSITY ISSUES OR TOPICS IN THE TEACHING PROCESS – 9. Race and Ethnicity (11 items) – 10. Language (9 items) – 11. Socioeconomic (10 items) – 12. Gender (12 items) – 13. Religion and Spirituality (6 items) – 14. Special Education (10 items) – 15. Indicate your level of competency to work with Special Education students diagnosed with … (12 items) – 16. In general terms, indicate your competency level to … (Diversity Spectrum; 10 items)
  • 11. • SECTION IV: PERCEPTION OF HOW DIVERSITY TOPICS ARE HANDLED IN THE TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM – 17. How important do you think it is to address topics and issues related to diversity in the Teacher Preparation Program? – 18. Which of the following topics do you think should not be addressed in the classroom? Please explain the reason for your selection. – 19. Indicate to which degree diversity issues were addressed by the different Teacher Preparation Program components. (6 items) • SECTION V: POST-GRADUATION PLANS – 20. Do you plan to work as a teacher after graduating from the Teacher Preparation Program? – 21. Please explain the answer you provided in question #20 (even if the answer is “No”).
  • 12. PRE BASIC I do not have the theoretical knowledge nor the practical skills necessary to approach this topic in school. BASIC I have some theoretical knowledge, but I do not have the practical skills to address this topic in school. INTERMEDIATE I have sufficient theoretical knowledge and some practical skills to address this topic in school. ADVANCED I have advanced theoretical knowledge and the necessary practical skills to address this topic in school. Response Scale
  • 13. Presentation of findings Categories were collapsed: 1. Pre Basic + Basic 2. Intermediate + Advanced Results are presented as Strength or Opportunity areas instead of presenting individual frequencies and percentages: 1. Strength – Combined percentages of Intermediate and Advanced categories is equal or greater than 70% 2. Opportunity – Combined percentages of Pre Basic and Basic categories is greater than 30% To construct graphs, we computed the percentage of items classified as a Strength and the percentage of items classified as an Opportunity. For example, question 9 has 11 items. Of these items, 6 were classified as Strength (6÷11x100=54.55%) and 5 as Opportunity (45.45%).
  • 14. QUESTION 8: Indicate the level of competency that you have to work with students… UPRRP RACE AND ETHNICITY whose ethnic background differs from yours. S whose racial background differs from yours. S who come from interracial families. S who come from interethnic families. O SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS who are from a socio-economic level different from yours. S who are homeless. O GENDER whose sex is different from yours. S whose gender identity is different from yours. S whose beliefs regarding biological sex are different from yours. S whose beliefs regarding gender identity are different than yours. S who are raised by parents of the same gender. S who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or queer. S who identify as transgender, transsexual, or transvestite. O LANGUAGE who do not speak Spanish as a first language. O who speak Spanish with linguistic limitations. S whose parents do not speak Spanish. O
  • 15. 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 Q9. Race and Ethnicity Q10. Language Q11. Socioeconomic Aspects Q12. Gender Q13. Religion and Spirituality Q14. Special Education Rigths and Strategies UPRRP Areas of Strength and Opportunity S O Note. Students were asked to indicate their competency level to include these topics or issues in the teaching process.
  • 16. QUESTION 15: Indicate your level of competency to work with Special Education students diagnosed with… UPRRP Autism O Hearing impairments, deafness, or hearing loss O Low Vision or Legal Blindness O Behavioral and Emotional Disorders O Cognitive Impairments O Orthopedic Impairments O Learning Disabilities O Speech Impairments O Attention Deficit and Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) O Health conditions like Diabetes, Epilepsy, etc. O Giftedness O Multiple Disabilities O
  • 17. QUESTION 16: ln general terms, indicate your competency level to … UPRRP Include the history, narratives, and contributions of diverse groups into the curriculum. S Use students’ strengths as a starting point when planning your teaching to promote their development. S Incorporate multiple perspectives in the content discussion, including personal, family and community experiences, and cultural norms. S Incorporate language development tools in planning and teaching. S Manage discrimination issues among students. S Manage discriminatory comments and bullying among students. S Manage harassment and bullying that you witness related to the diverse nature of groups. S Help students learn and understand the importance of tolerating people from diverse groups. S Make all students feel valued. S Make all students learn to value others. S
  • 18. QUESTION 17: How important do you think it is to address topics and issues related to diversity in the Teacher Preparation Program?RESPONSE UPRRP Extremely important 91 (89.2) Very important 6 (5.9) Moderately important 3 (2.9) Not that important 1 (1.0) Not important 1 (1.0) QUESTION 18: Which of the following topics do you think should not be addressed in the classroom? TOPICS SHOULD NOT BE ADDRESSED UPRRP Race Ethnicity Language 1 (1.0) Socioeconomic Status 1 (1.0) Gender 4 (3.9) Sexual Orientation 7 (6.9) Religion and Spirituality 18 (17.6) Special Needs 1 (1.0) Reasons for responses: 1. All topics should be addressed: a) values should be included and discussed; and b) we live in a diverse society. 2. Some topics should not be addressed: a) they are personal; and b) should be discussed at home.
  • 19. Notes. *Psychology, Sociology, Philosophy. **Specialized content area courses. For example: Science, mathematics. QUESTION 19: Indicate to which degree diversity issues were addressed by the different Teacher Preparation Program components. UPRRP Curriculum and teaching methodology courses O Foundation Courses * S Technology courses O Field Experiences S Clinical Experiences S Content Courses ** O
  • 20. QUESTION 20: Do you plan to work as a teacher after graduating from the Teacher Preparation Program? RESPONSE UPRRP Yes 79 (77.5) No 21 (20.6) • 10 or more years (40.3%) • 5 or less (12.8%) For how many years? Where (UPRRP)? RESPONSE UPRRP Puerto Rico 46 (45.1) Abroad 10 (9.8) Both 20 (19.6) In what type of school? RESPONSE UPRRP Public 31 (30.4) Private 9 (8.8) Both 32 (31.4)
  • 21. Implications • The instrument can provide valuable information for curriculum revision: – At the beginning of the program: can allow to assess and identify areas that will need more emphasis within the curriculum. – At the end of the program: can allow for the identification of areas that need to be addressed (improved) in the curriculum. – Both at the beginning and at the end of the program: can provide information regarding changes in teacher candidates’ competency level perception. • Groups within the population can be compared. For example, special education teacher candidates versus candidates from other disciplines. Future studies • Compare the results of a program that includes a course on multicultural education to those of a program that include the topics within different courses. The instrument must be administered at the same time in both institutions. • In-depth study (qualitative) of the meaning teacher candidates assign to the vocabulary used to refer to different aspects of diversity. For example: what is classism? • Administer the instrument to in-service teachers to identify areas that can be addressed through professional development. • Can be adapted to be administered to other professionals. For example, the Response Scale can read “in the workplace” instead of “in school” and questions can read “with clients/people” instead of “with students”.
  • 22. CONTACT INFORMATION University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras • Dr. Annette G. López de Méndez annette.lopez1@upr.edu • Dr. EdwinVega-Milán edwin.vega1@upr.edu • Dr.Víctor E. Bonilla-Rodríguez victor.bonilla3@upr.edu • Dr. Claudia X. Alvarez-Romero claudia.alvarez1@upr.edu

Editor's Notes

  1. Principal Axis Factoring with Varimax rotation Analyses met Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity.