Bullying basics, Jan Perry Evenstad

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What is Bullying, how to describe and identify it, and what to do about harassment and aggressive behaviors.

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Bullying basics, Jan Perry Evenstad

  1. 1. Jan Perry Evenstad, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Secondary Education Metropolitan State University of Denver University of Puerto Rico – Rio Piedras June 16-20, 2014
  2. 2. What is your definition of bullying? What examples of bullying have you seen, witnessed, experienced, or heard about in school or workplace?
  3. 3. “Bullying is when someone repeatedly and on purpose says or does mean or hurtful things to another person who has a hard time defending himself or herself.” Olweus Definition of Bullying:
  4. 4.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUJlB7OSzBw
  5. 5. Federal Civil Rights Laws Title VI (Race, Color, and National Origin) Title IX (Sex/ Gender) 504 (Conditions of Disabilities) Dear Colleague Letters found on USDOE Office for Civil Rights website State Laws State Board Policies
  6. 6. Harassment is unwelcomed, unwanted, and unsolicited conduct that is based on race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin (including language), age (40 or older), or disability. Harassment becomes unlawful (quid pro quo and hostile environment),
  7. 7. 1. Involves an aggressive behavior 2. Typically involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time 3. Imbalance of power or strength OBBP 2012
  8. 8. OBBP 2012 Who Bullies? What? When/ Where? Why? How? Who is Bullied?
  9. 9. OBBP 2012
  10. 10. Direct--Hitting, taunting, name calling Indirect—Rumors, exclusion, cyber bullying OBPP 2012
  11. 11. © 2012 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, US Bullying Rough-and- Tumble Play Real Fighting 11
  12. 12. Rough Play Real Fighting Bullying Usually friends; often repeated (same players) Usually not friends; typically not repeated Typically not friends; generally repeated Balance of power Power relatively equal Unequal power No intent to harm Intentional harm doing Intentional harm doing Affect is friendly; positive, mutual Affect negative; aggressive, tense, hostile affect Affect negative; aggressive & differs for victim and aggressor Adapted from Teacher Handbook – Chapter 4; Pages 14-15. OBPP 2010
  13. 13. © 2012 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, US 1. For students and their futures 2. For a healthy school /work climate 3. For the larger community 4. For the purposes of risk management for schools 5. It’s a wise investment
  14. 14. Lower self-esteem Depression & anxiety Absenteeism & lowered school achievement Thoughts of suicide Illness OBPP 2012
  15. 15. Bullied Not Bullied Headache 16% 6% Sleep problems 42% 23% Abdominal pain 17% 9% Feeling tense 20% 9% Anxiety 28% 10% Feeling unhappy 23% 5% Depression scale moderate indication 49% 16% strong indication 16% 2% 15
  16. 16. © 2012 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, US Children who bully are more likely to: • Get into frequent fights • Be injured in a fight • Steal, vandalize property • Drink alcohol, smoke • Be truant, drop out of school • Report poorer academic achievement • Perceive a negative climate at school • Carry a weapon 16
  17. 17. Bullying may be part of a conduct- disordered behavior pattern This pattern may continue into young adulthood Olweus study: Bullies were 4 times as likely to have 3 or more convictions by age 24 OBPP 2013
  18. 18.  Bystanders may feel: • Afraid • Powerless to change the situation • Guilty for not acting • Diminished empathy for victims over time •
  19. 19. © 2012 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, US Creates a climate of fear and disrespect Interferes with student learning Students may feel insecurity and not like school as well Students may perceive lack of control/caring 19
  20. 20. It’s a question of rights.
  21. 21. Research suggests two categories of bullied children: “submissive” or “passive victims” “provocative victims” or “bully-victims”
  22. 22. Cautious, sensitive, quiet, & withdrawn Anxious, insecure, have low self-esteem Physically weaker than peers (boys) Physically mature earlier (girls) Have few friends--find it easier to associate with adults
  23. 23. Share characteristics with bullied children Share characteristics with students who bully Be less effective in bullying than other Students who bully Behave in ways that cause irritation and attract negative attention
  24. 24. Students with disabilities, special needs, and health problems Students who are obese Students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or who are questioning their identities
  25. 25. Have positive attitudes toward violence Be impulsive and have quick tempers Show little empathy for victims Be aggressive to adults Be involved in other antisocial or rule- breaking activities Be physically stronger than peers (boys)
  26. 26. “Students and adults who bully are loners.” “Student and adults who bully have low self-esteem.”
  27. 27. Like to dominate others in a negative way Gain satisfaction from inflicting injury and suffering Receive “rewards” by bullying others (prestige, attention, possessions)
  28. 28. What Roles Do Students/Adults Play In Bullying Situations? B C D H G E F A Start the bullying and take an active part Take an active part, but do not start the bullying Support the bullying, but do not take an active part Like the bullying, but do not display open support Dislike the bullying and think they ought to help, but don’t do it Dislike the bullying, help or try to help the bullied student The one who is being bullied Student Who Is Bullied Students Who Bully Followers Supporters Passive Supporters Disengaged Onlookers Possible Defenders Defenders TG, p. 24
  29. 29. Social contagion Weakening inhibitions against aggression Decreased sense of individual responsibility Gradual changes in the view of bullied student(s)
  30. 30. Lack of parental warmth and involvement Lack of parental supervision Harsh discipline/physical punishment Overly-permissive parenting
  31. 31. Lack of supervision during breaks Students have indifferent or accepting attitudes Staff have indifferent or accepting attitudes towards bullying
  32. 32. 32 A Word About …. Adults Who Bully
  33. 33. A malicious attempt to force a person out of the workplace through unjustified accusations, humiliation, general harassment, emotional abuse, and/or terror. It is a “ganging up” by the leader(s)- --organization, superior, co-worker, or subordinate who rallies others into systematic and frequent “mob-like” behavior. Because the organization ignores, condones, or even instigates the behavior, it can be said that the victim , seemingly helpless against the powerful and many, is indeed “mobbed.” (Davenport, et al., 1999, p. 40)
  34. 34.  Vicarious bullying was coined by Leah Hollis. Often a leader or manager empowers a secretary, assistant, or fellow staffer to wield his or her power. While this manager is not directly showing aggression, his/her power is extended through an appointed subordinate. (Hollis, 2012, p. 5)
  35. 35.  Hollis Workplace Bullying in the Academy Survey (WBAS) 2012  62% of respondents reported having been bullied  53% were actively trying to leave their position  45% were the target or witness of vicarious bullying  African Americans, women, and members of the LGBT community experience more frequent occurrences of bullying than other groups
  36. 36. Olweus Bully Prevention Program 2012 Program Components School Classroom Individual Community Parents
  37. 37. © 2012 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, US Simple, short-term solutions “Program du jour approaches” Group treatment for children who bully Anger management or self-esteem enhancement for children who bully Zero tolerance policies for bullying Mediation/conflict resolution to resolve bullying issues Selecting inappropriate supplemental materials 37
  38. 38. OBPP 2012 1. Stop the bullying 2. Support student who has been bullied 3. Name bullying behavior & refer to school rules or organizational policies and procedures 4. Engage the bystanders 5. Impose immediate & appropriate consequences 6. Take steps to ensure bullied student will be protected from future bullying
  39. 39.  Rules about bullying (policies & procedures)  Survey  Refine Supervisory System  Partner with Parents K-12  Partner with Administration, Faculty, Staff, and Students  Train and inform everyone on the policies and procedures 39
  40. 40.  The label used to describe an incident (e.g., bullying, hazing, teasing) does not determine how a school is obligated to respond. Rather, the nature of the conduct itself must be assessed for civil rights implications. So, for example, if the abusive behavior is on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or disability, and creates a hostile environment, a school is obligated to respond in accordance with the applicable federal civil rights statutes and regulations enforced by OCR.
  41. 41.  When the behavior implicates the civil rights laws, school administrators should look beyond simply disciplining the perpetrators. While disciplining the perpetrators is likely a necessary step, it often is insufficient. A school’s responsibility is to eliminate the hostile environment created by the harassment, address its effects, and take steps to ensure that harassment does not recur. Put differently, the unique effects of discriminatory harassment may demand a different response than would other types of bullying.
  42. 42. Books • Hollis, L. P.. (2012). Bully in the Ivory Tower. Patricia Berkly LLC. • Olweus, D (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Victoria, AS: Blackwell Publishing.
  43. 43. Other Resources Dear Colleague Letter Bullying October 26, 2010 http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/lette rs/colleague-201010.pdf Dear Colleague Letter Bullying and Special Education August 20, 2013 http://www2.ed.gov/policy/speced/guid/idea/ memosdcltrs/bullyingdcl-8-20-13.pdf
  44. 44. Other Resources • Bullying and Children and Youth with Disabilities and Special Health Needs file:///C:/Users/evenstad/Downloads/BullyingTi pSheet%20For%20Special%20Education%20(1). pdf GLSEN: The 2011 National School Climate Survey http://glsen.org/sites/default/files/2011%20Nat ional%20School%20Climate%20Survey%20Full% 20Report.pdf
  45. 45. Other Resources Dear Colleague Letter Race http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/gu idance-ese-201111.pdf Website Olweus Bully Prevention Program http://www.clemson.edu/olweus International Bully Prevention Association http://www.stopbullyingworld.org

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