Extentialism and Education Part A


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ontology, epistemology, ethics and being

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Extentialism and Education Part A

  2. 2. PART A ontology, epistemology, ethics and being Ren Guray PART B August 13, 2009 teaching and learning, EDFD 201 curriculum, critique Dr. Mike Muega Gelai Florendo College of Education
  3. 3. Existentialism Existentialism, broadly defined, is a set of philosophical systems concerned with free will, choice, and personal responsibility. It is also an act of philosophizing; a sensibility.
  4. 4. General Concepts • Mankind has free will. • Life is a series of choices, creating stress. • Few decisions are without any negative consequences. • Some things are irrational or absurd, without explanation. • If one makes a decision, he or she must follow through. - The Existentialist Primer
  5. 5. The Existentialist Themes 1. Subjectivity 2. Choice 3. Authenticity 4. Passion 5. Angst 6. Alienation
  6. 6. THE EXISTENTIALISTS Søren Kierkegaard Karl Jaspers Friedrich Nietzsche Martin Heidegger Albert Camus Jean-Paul Sartre Simone de Beauvoir Gabriel Marcel
  7. 7. Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) “Faith is the highest passion in a human being. Many in every generation may not come that far, but none comes further.”
  8. 8. Søren Kierkegaard Danish religious philosopher. A precursor of modern existentialism, he insisted on the need for individual decision and leaps of faith in the search for religious truth.
  9. 9. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) “I know my fate. One day there will be associated with my name the recollection of something frightful …I am not a man, I am dynamite.”
  10. 10. Friedrich Nietzsche German philosopher who refused to belong to any school of thought, renounced the adequacy of any body of beliefs. He opposed philosophic systems, and was dissatisfied with traditional philosophy as superficial, academic, and remote from life.
  11. 11. Karl Jaspers (1883-1969) “Experience is not adequate per se, for it becomes significant only by virtue of him who possesses it.”
  12. 12. Karl Jaspers German psychiatrist, philosopher, and theologian. He encouraged active “philosophizing”. He merged the basic ideas of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. This grew into modern existentialism or, as he prefers to say, Existenzphilosophie.
  13. 13. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) “We mean that man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world- and defines himself afterwards.”
  14. 14. Jean-Paul Sartre French philosopher, playwright, novelist and the leading exponent existentialism. His writings examine man as a responsible but lonely being, burdened with a terrifying freedom to choose, and set adrift in a meaningless universe. He coined the term “existentialism”.
  15. 15. Existentialist Ontology What is Real?
  16. 16. Existence precedes essence. - Jean-Paul Sartre
  17. 17. Man has the final responsibility to decide for himself who and what he is, and by extension, what his reality is. - Morris, p. 76
  18. 18. There is no significance to things or events other than the meaning we as humans give to them. - Kneller, p. 49
  19. 19. Existentialist Epistemology What is True?
  20. 20. The thing is to find a truth that is true for me… - Søren Kierkegaard
  21. 21. Assumes that the individual is responsible for his own knowledge… It originates in, and is composed of, what exists in the individual’s consciousness and feelings as a result of his experiences and the projects he adopts in the course of his life. - Kneller, p. 59
  22. 22. Experiences result to Projects Consciousness chooses Feelings compose KNOWLEDGE
  23. 23. Existentialist epistemology emerges from the recognition that human experience and knowledge are subjective, personal, rational and irrational. - Gutek, p. 119
  24. 24. Existentialist Ethics What is Good?
  25. 25. Man is condemned to be free. - Jean-Paul Sartre
  26. 26. The highest morality is a recognition of freedom; the lowest morality is the subjection of individual consciousness to standards or principles which have been preordained. - Karl Jaspers as quoted by Kneller, p. 65
  27. 27. I am therefore ultimately responsible for my own choices. The individual is the author of his own good. He can make himself accountable to no other moral force or factor. - Morris, p. 277
  28. 28. What is good? -- All that heightens the feeling of power, the will to power, power itself in man. - Friedrich Nietzsche
  29. 29. The Existentialist Man Who is the authentic man?
  30. 30. I am that which must overcome itself again and again. - Friedrich Nietzsche
  31. 31. Human Development Pre-existential Period - prior to puberty, elementary period - not yet conscious of personal identity Existential Moment - awareness of presence in the world - insight into his own consciousness and responsibilities - Van Cleve Morris in Gutek, p.118
  32. 32. Existential Moment Realizations - life is a series of choices - our choices will define us - we are only accountable to ourselves - we are responsible for the choices we make - we choose for all - that death is the inevitable conclusion for existing (called angst or anxiety)
  33. 33. Being A self-aware and self-choosing individual. realization that he freedom to decide exist, and he is who and what he conscious of this is; the ultimate fact; the “is-ness” power of choice
  34. 34. References Gutek, Gerald. Philosophical and Ideological Perspective on Education, Second Edition. USA: Allyn and Bacon, 1997. Kneller, George F. Existentialism and Education. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1967. Morris, Van Cleve. Philosophy and the American School: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961. Morris, Van Cleve. “Personal Choice.” Teaching and Learning. Ed. Donald Vandenberg. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1969 Palmer, Joy A. (Ed.) Fifty Major Thinkers on Education (From Confucius to Dewey). London: Routledge, 2001. Stokes, Philip. Philosophy 100 Essential Thinkers. New York: Enchanted Lions, 2002. Sartre, Jean-Paul. Existentialism is Humanism. Online. http://scribd.com. 1 Aug. 2009. Soccio, Douglas J. The Archetypes of Wisdom, Sixth Edition. California: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007. Thibadeau, Gene. Existentialism and Open Education: Divorce American Style. Paper presented at the National Conference American of the Educational Studies Association,. San Francisco, October 31, 1975.
  35. 35. Next: Existentialism and its Implications on Education - Teaching and Learning - Curriculum Development - Critique