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Review literate licture

  1. 1. I.Definition of WastesWaste can be described as "any substance or object the holder discards, intendstodiscard or is required to discard", as defined by the Waste Framework Directive(European Directive (WFD) 2006/12/EC), (amended by the new WFD (Directive2008/98/EC, coming into force in December2010).In the Philippines’ Republic Act No. 9275 (An Act Providing For aComprehensive Water Quality management and for Other Purposes), waste means“anymaterial either solid, liquid, semisolid, contained gas or other forms resultingfromindustrial, commercial, mining or agricultural operations, or from communityand household activities that is devoid of usage and discarded.”II, Classification of WastesThe classification of wastes varies and depends country by country. Waste can bedivided into many different types. The most common method of classification isby their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.1. Solid Waste Solidwaste is broadly defined as including non-hazardous industrial, commercial landdomestic refuse including household organic trash, street sweepings, hospital andinstitutional garbage, and construction wastes; generally sludge and human wasteare regarded as a liquid waste problem outside the scope of MSW (Zerbock,2003).These arewaste materials that contain less than 70% water. Example of thistype of waste are thedomestic or household garbage, some industrial wastes,some mining wastes, and oilfieldwastes such as drill cuttings.2. Liquid WasteTheseare usually wastewaters that contain less than 1%. This type of wastemaycontain high concentration of dissolved salts and metals. Liquid wastes are oftenclassified into two broad types: sewage and toxic wastes. Generally, there arevarioustypes of liquid waste generated in urban centers: human excreta, domestics wastes produced in households, hospital wastes, industrial effluents, agricultural
  2. 2. liquid wastesand nuclear wastes. When improperly handled and disposed of,liquid wastes pose aserious threat to human health and the environment becauseof their ability to enter watersheds, pollute ground water and drinking water (USEPA, 2009).3. SludgeIt is a class of waste between liquid and solid. They usually contain between3%and 25% solid, while the rest of the material is dissolved water.4. Hazardous WasteHazardous wastes are wastes which, by themselves or after coming intocontactwith other wastes, have characteristics, such as chemical reactivity, toxicity,corrosiveness or a tendency to explode, that pose a risk to human health or theenvironment. Hazardous wastes are generated from a wide range of industrial,commercial, agricultural, and to a much less extent, domestic activities. They maytake the form of solids, liquids or sludges, and can pose both acute and chronicpublic health and environmental risks It is a class of waste between liquidand solid. They usually contain between 3%and 25% solid, while the rest of thematerial is dissolved water..III..Waste Management A. Waste Management in Developed CountriesBrought basically by their more developed industries and more advancedtechnology, developed nations have more efficient and standard liquid waste managementplans. Developed countries, however, still employ different methods of wastedisposal (which largely depends on a country’s policies and preferences). Thelarge amount of solid waste (including its collection, transfer and disposal)generated in developed nations has been generally assumed by municipal
  3. 3. governments. The format varies, however, in most urban areas, where garbage iscollected either by a government agency orprivatecontractor, and this constitutes a basic and expected government functionin thedeveloped world. (Zerbock, 2003)1.Solid Waste Management A)Landfill The placement of solid waste in landfills is probably the oldest anddefinitely the most prevalent form of ultimate garbage disposal (Zerbock,2003). Itis to be noted, however, that most landfills refer to nothing more thanopendumps. Nonetheless, in the case of developed countries, waste disposal is often inthe form of sanitary landfills which differ from open dumps by their higherdegree of engineering, planning and administration. Landfills account for thedisposal of 90% of the United States’ solidwastes. It is also the most commondisposal method in the United Kingdom where annually, approximately 111million tones of controlled wastes are disposed in their 4000 landfill sites (Baker,2005).In a modern landfill, refuse is spread thin, compacted layers covered by alayer of clean earth. Pollution of surface water and groundwater is minimized bylining and contouring the fill, compacting and planting the uppermost cover layer,diverting drainage, and selecting proper soil in sites not subject to flooding or highgroundwater levels. The best soil for a landfill is clay because clay is lesspermeable than other types of soil. Materials disposed of in landfill can befurther secured from leakage by solidifying them in materials such as cement, flyash from power plants, asphalt, or organic polymers(Bassis, 2005)Landfills canalso be shifted to another use after their capacities have been reached. The city ofEvanston, Illinois, built a landfill up into a hill and the now-complete “Mt.Trashmore” is a ski area. Golf courses built over land fill sites are also increasinglycommon (Montgomery, 2000).B)Recycling or the3R’sAnother method, which sets off before waste disposal is wastereductionthrough recycling or often coined as the 3 R’s:reuse,reduce,and recycle.On the local or regional level, reducing wastes is accomplished
  4. 4. through these methods by source separation and subsequent material recovery.Currently, the United States recycles about 10% of its glass and 25%of its paperwastes; in countries such as Switzerland and the Netherlands, the proportion inthe glass recycled approaches to 50% while Japan recycles 50%of its paper wastes(Montgomery, 2000)C.)IncinerationSome countries, on the other hand, manage most of their solid waste throughincinerators.Incineration, or the controlled burning of waste at high temperatures to producesteam and ash, is another waste disposal option and an alternativetolandfilling (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009). Incinerators aredesigned for the destruction of wastes and are commonly employed in developed nationswho could afford the costs of the burning facilities, plus its operation andmaintenance (Mc Cracken, 2005).This type of waste disposal is the second largestdisposal method in most developed countries and ranks next to landfills in theUnited States and the United Kingdom. In the UK, approximately 5% of householdwaste, 75 % of commercial waste and 2% of industrial waste is disposed ofthrough this method(Baker,2005)In spite of its huge capital requirements, incineration presents to bea promising option for developed island nations whose small land area makeslandfilling an unsuitable method for their waste disposal. Reduction byincineration,along with sanitary disposal of the residue, has been proven useful in nations suchas Bermuda and the British Virgin Islands (Lett some 1998 as cited by Zerbock2003). A further benefit of incineration can be realized if theheatgenerated thereby is recovered. For years, European cities have generatedelectricity using waste-disposal
  5. 5. incinerators as sources of heat (Montgomery,2000).There are negative issues,however, in the use of this burning method and much of that circulate around itssafety for the environment and to the human health. It is argued that thecombustion process creates air pollution, ash, andwaste water, all of which must be properly managed using technical monitoring,containment, and treatment systems. Harmful pollutants are released into theenvironment whenever these by-products are not controlled (US EPA,2009).Operators of these facilities must be well-trained and certified to ensureproper management.1.Liquid Waste Management A)Management Plans bManagement of liquid waste in developed nations often follows rigorous stepsand phases which commonly involves treatment processes.In BritishColumbia, municipalities are allowed to develop their Liquid WasteManagement Plans. The country adopts a proactive strategy that intends to achievetheir Ministry of Environment’s long-term goal of achieving zero pollution. Part ofthat strategy includes: pollution prevention, Best Available Control Technology(BACT) and the principle of polluter pay. Thisstrategyrepresents a major change in the traditional regulatory approach toenvironmental protection, which attempted to deal with pollution after itoccurred. The future emphasis will be on pollution prevention andoninvolving all stakeholders in an open and consultative approach toenvironmental protection (Environmental Protection Division, Ministry of Environment,Government of British Columbia, 2009).B)WastewaterTreatmentThe strategy employed by the government of British Columbiacombines a number of processes and programs to achieve zero pollution.However, when it comes to liquid waste management, the simplest approach isto control the quality of wastewater at its point of treatment and discharge. This
  6. 6. places regulation and control at the institutional level as treatment is normallyconducted by a public agency.The quality of the discharge can then be regulated to fit the type of use. Thisalternative assumes that the treatment system is well managed and maintainedand produces a reliable quality of effluent. This approach is utilized in the UnitedStates, Canada, andEuropeand in many cases requires an advanced level of treatment technology(Zerbock, 2003).C)Injection wells In the USA, industrial wastes that are primarilyliquid are usually disposed of in injection wells. Injection wells receiving aqueouswastes can be placed in highly permeable, underground geological formations.These formation sare well below 1000 m underground, which is lower than thedepth of most aquifers used as sources of drinking water. Before injection, liquidwastesarefiltered to remove suspended solids and skimmed for phased organiccompounds. Filtration prevents the plugging of the injection formation. If the waste isreactive, it is converted to less reactive compounds before injection.1.HazardousWaste Management Much of the concern of many countries regarding theirwaste management circulates around the disposal of hazardous wastes. Due totheir toxicity andlargethreat to human and environment health, this type of waste requires morestringent and sophisticated methods of disposalbasically, the United States’ s federal regulations classify their wasteintotwo types: hazardous and solid. In 1976, congress adopted the ResourceConservation and Recovery Act, the primary national law for addressing productionwaste (waste generated in the course of ongoing activity or business).In such act,the term ‘solid’ does not necessarily refer to a waste’s physical property and thusthe waste can also be a liquid or a contained gas (National Society of ProfessionalEngineers, USA, 2009). The RCRA provides a stringent classification of hazardouswastes and the necessary treatment that suchwastesshould undergo. Under the law, a ‘comprehensive national “cradle-to-grave” program for regulating the generation, transportation, treatment, storageanddisposal of hazardous wastes is established. Such program includes
  7. 7. a system for tracking the wastes’ point sources and point of disposal, and apermittingsystemto control the operation of treatment, storage and disposal facilities (USEnvironmental Protection Agency).A.Waste Management in Developing Countries Although largely limited in terms ofbudget and technology as compared tothedeveloped nations, developing countries also take their share in implementing waste management policies.1.Solid Waste Management In developing countries,it is common for municipalities to spend 20-50 percent of their available recurrentbudget on solid waste management .Yet, it is also common that 30-60 percent ofall the urban solid wasteindeveloping countries is uncollected and less than 50 percent of the population is served. In some cases, as much as 80 percent of thecollection andtransport equipment is out of service, in need of repairor maintenance. In most developing countries, open dumping with open burningis the norm (The World Bank, 2009).A)Open Dumps Dump s are long-establishedmethod of waste disposal in many countries. Although this method have beenlargely phased-out in most developed countries and replaced by sanitary landfills,many developing nations still rely on this form of disposal. Open dumps are notmuch to been dorsed though. They are unsightly, unsanitary and generally smelly,they attract rats, insects and other pests; they are also fire hazards. Still, behindthese negative aspects, open dumps continue to be prevalent in countries likeIndia, the Philippines and Indonesia.B)
  8. 8. Landfill is also a common method of solid waste disposal in mostdevelopingcountries, although many of them harbors open dumps)Recycling .In many developing countries and countries with economies intransition there are two types of recycling sectors, a formal sector andinformal sector. Formal recycling sector, using efficient technologies and state-of-the-art recycling facilities are rare. As a result, recyclable materials are managedthrough various informal sectors with low-endmanagement alternatives such as manual separation of recyclablecomponents, burning of some components in open pits to recover precious metals, anddumping of residues into surface water bodies. This informal sectorof the economy employs thousands of poor people who are not aware of thehazard of exposure or hazards that exist in some recyclable materials (BaselConvention Report Paper,2009).1.Liquid Waste Management In spite of thecontinuing efforts of many developing nations to cope with the standards of thedeveloped nations, finance andtechnology plus policies still put limit to what they have generally achieved.According to the World Resources Institute, it has been estimated that over 90% of thesewage in developing countries is discharged into surface waters with notreatment conducted. In India, with its 3,100plus cities and towns, only 209 haveeven partial sewage treatment (Montgomery, 2000).Hazardous Waste ManagementIn many countries, current emphasis is more on preventing and minimizing theproduction of hazardous wastes by adopting the ‘pollution preventionhierarchy’.There are several problems that could be associated with poor disposaltechniques and management. One of these problems could bethefact that many developing countries and countries with economies intransitiondo not have the expertise to manage hazardous wastes in anenvironmentally sound manner, and most may not employ proper technologies.Furthermore, many of these countries may not have a systemand infrastructure to ensure that hazardous wastes are managed in a manner
  9. 9. which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effectswhich may result from such wastes. The government soften lack informationabout how much and what types of pollutants are released, and what risk theypose to people and the environment (Basel Convention Paper, 2009).A. WasteManagement: The Philippine Setting1.Philippine Solid Waste Management .In ourcountry, solid waste management is embodied in RA 9003 or the Ecological SolidWaste Management Act of 2000. This law provides “the legal frameworkfor the country’s systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid wastemanagement program that shall ensure protection of public health and theenvironment” (Environmental Management Bureau-DENR, 2009).2. PhilippineLiquid WasteManagementIn the Philippine setting, disposal of wastewater is turning to be anenormous(Magtibay, 2006). The management of liquid wastes requires a coordinatedsystem of policies which covers requisites on drainage, sewers, andwastewater treatment facilities. It is also a complex issue as it traverses acrossvarious sectors:d omestic, industrial, agricultural, etc. Unfortunately, with thecurrent situation of the country, with its political clashes and poverty situation,liquid waste management had largely been centered only in the private sectors(Contreras, 2005). Treatments are largely carried out by industrial groups.Effective domestic liquid waste management occurs mostly in private households.In this area, policies once again govern the actions of the concerned agencies.The treatment and discharge of commercial wastewater (liquid waste generatedby trading or business establishment and or any other related firmsor companies) is regulated and monitored through the provisions of the DENR Administrative Order No. 2002-16 or the DENR-EMB National Environmental User’sFee of 2002, which authors the DENR Wastewater DischargePermittingSystem.2.Philippine Hazardous WasteManagementBefore the enactment of the Clean Air Act (which included in its provisions the banning of incinerators in the country), hazardous wastes such asmedical and laboratory wastes are subjected to burning processes. Some of thewastes are also recycled. In 2003, hazardous waste management shifted to
  10. 10. landfills and open dumping as an answer to the banning of burning. In a casestudy conducted in hospitals in the Cagayan Valley Region, Northern Luzon, themost common method of hazardous waste disposal in the area is throughdumping. Results indicated that proper waste management is not fullyimplemented due to budget constraint (Bernardo, 2008)Vii,Threats and Impacts of Improper Waste Management With the increase of population comes too the increase in consumption, andconsequently, in the amount of wastes we generate. Through time, problemsresulting from improper and irresponsible management of our wastes have arisenand continue to do so. Human and ecosystem health can be adversely affectedby allforms of waste, from its generation to its disposal. Over the years, wastes and wastemanagement responses such as policies, legal, financial, and institutionalinstruments; cradle-to-cradle or cradle-to-grave technological options; and socio-cultural practices have impacted on ecosystem health and human well-being.Examples are evident in all countries. A popular example of how improper wastemanagement and lack of coordination in policies can bring huge environmentaland human impacts is the “Love CanalIncident”. The Love Canal is an areasituated at Niagara Falls, New York. In 1953,the Hooker Chemical Company, thenthe owners and operators of the property, covered the canal with earth and soldit to the city for one dollar.In the late 50s, about 100 homes and a school were built at the site. Twenty fiveyears after theHooker Chemical Company stopped using the Love Canal as an industrial dump,82different compounds, 11 of them suspected carcinogens, have been percolatingupward through the soil, their drum containers rotting and leaching theircontents in to the backyards and basements of 100 homes and a public schoolbuilt on the banks of the canal. What followed was a catastrophe that
  11. 11. caused several deaths, birth defects and abnormalities, lawsuits and ultimately,the evacuation of the residents. Locally, here in the Philippines, the 2001 SmokyMountain tragedy in the Payatas Dumpsite is a constant reminder of howdisastrous the country’s waste management has been regarding the case of thatopen dumpsite. The collapse of that “mountain of trash” due to the severe rainfallhad claimed the lives of many people, both young and old. Aside from suchdisaster caused by the irresponsible management of a former dumping site,wastewater discharges, as shown by studies, can also bring harmful impacts tocoastal areas and other bodies of water. In Fiji Island, for example, it has beenconcluded that the disposal of untreated human and domestic waste has beenthe major contributor to the degradation of the is land’s marine environment.Development to the island had brought a shift in species dominance from hardcoral to macro-algae (Mosley and Aalbersberg, 2005 as cited in the 2005 WHOLiquid Waste Monitoring Project).There is also no need to mention the numerousincidences of mine tail deposits and radioactive discharges in many rivers, lakesand shores that have undoubtedly caused detrimental effects to marine andeven human life the list goes on and onVII. Initiatives for Liquid Waste ManagementWaste management practices and policies over the last three decade haveresultedin positive responses in terms of improvement of ecosystems. Some positive impacts of theresponses identified are: (Information lifted fromSridhar and Baker, 2004)• Waste recycling activities have been found to result in improved resourceconservation andreduced energy consumption as well as reduction of heavymetal contamination of water sources.• In the Baltic Sea, the mercury levels offish caught were reduced by 60% due to stringent pollution control measures.• Major rivers such as the Thames have supported biodiversity, as is evident fromthereappearance of salmon after rigorous pollution control measures. The ten-
  12. 12. year ‘‘clean river’’ program initiated by the Singapore government in 1977 at acost of US $200 million has broughtlife back to the Singapore River and theKallang Basin, with increased dissolved oxygen levelsranging from 2 to 4 mg perliter (UNEP 1997).• Phasing out of lead from gasoline has reduced lead emissions from vehicularsources.• Wetlands have been widely reported to absorb significant amounts ofanthropogenic pollutants.• Ferti-irrigation practices have significantly improved the economic base of low- incomecommunities in urban areas. In the tropical countries in particular,controlled and judicious use of aquatic weeds such as water hyacinth (waterhyacinth treatment plant for wastewater) and blue green algae (wastestabilization ponds) for treating small wastewater flows helped in sanitation andthe by-products provided protein and mineral needs of livestock