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Two Unlikely Characters: Can Education Abroad and Tourism Mix?

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Does tourism nullify the academic component of education abroad? Join a scholarly discussion on how students’ tourist behaviors can be used to enhance course content and cultural development. The session will be driven by exploratory research of a multiphase project that explores students’ academic and travel expectations and motivations as inputs into an education abroad program based on Alexander Astin’s Inputs Environment and Outputs (IEO) model and John Dewey’s concept of play and work in curriculum.

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Two Unlikely Characters: Can Education Abroad and Tourism Mix?

  1. 1. Two Unlikely Characters: Can Education Abroad and Tourism Mix? Kristin Thomas, Ph.D Candidate, Penn State University Janelle Papay, International Programs Advisor, Elon University Dr. Deborah Kerstetter, Penn State University
  2. 2. Collective Knowledge Student Development/Affairs & Higher Ed. Administration Education Abroad & Embedded Programs International Student Integration Experiential Learning & Recreation Travel & Tourism Research
  3. 3. The Plan Gaps in the literature Commonalities between tourism and education abroad A collaborative framework Phase 1: The pilot Results: Next Steps
  4. 4. What we hear students saying… Go to another country Have fun I just want to have fun in another country Meet new people Don’t care about the classes I love to travel!
  5. 5. Gaps in the Literature – Travel/Tourism & EA Analysis of EA using conceptual frameworks from travel/tourism • Cardon, 2011 • Anderson, 2007 • Josephine, 2013 Studies mixing tourism and EA • Nyaupane, 2011 • Van Time, 2011 Tourism on EA
  6. 6. Gaps in the Literature – Motivations in EA Analysis of motivations in Education Abroad • Naffziger, Bott, Mueller, 2004 • Sanchez, 2006 • Relyea, 2008 Outside Education Abroad • Li & Olsen, 2013 •Willis Allen, 2010 Inside Education Abroad
  7. 7. Little consideration for the role travel may play in a meaningful education abroad experience Education Abroad Traveler/ Tourist
  8. 8. Why care about the student as traveler/tourist? Activity!!
  9. 9. The views of some from Education Abroad “…absent data regarding learning outcomes, some critics have contended that short-term study abroad programs are at best tourism with a class course number attached.. (Sutton et al, 2007).” There are many problems associated with the objective of “non-traditional-ism” and one of particular concern is that it defines study aboard too readily in the language of tourism. (Woolf, 2006) "Finding support for both hypothesis, we suggest universities need to do a better job to ensure that students understand that study abroad programs are more than just a chance to travel and have a good time.“ (Relyea, 2008)
  10. 10. What do Travel/Tourism scholars know? Studies and research on: Constraints Liminality King or Queen for a day Behaviors and repeat travel behaviors Novelty
  11. 11. Tourism Scholars on Travel & Tourism Definitions “Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes.” “Tourists any person on a trip between two or more countries or two more localities within his/her country or usual residence. Typically described as visitors. So what’s the problem?
  12. 12. Tourist or Traveler?
  13. 13. Developments in Tourism • Hopeful Tourism • Sustainable Tourism • Social Justice Tourism • Pro-Poor Tourism Frameworks • Alternative Tourism • Eco Tourism • Green Tourism • Community Tourism Applied
  14. 14. Are Tourism & Education Abroad Incompatible? Shared Goals • Culturally and Environmentally Sensitive • Community Involvement Shared Aspirations • Tool for Peace Making • Social & Environmental Justice Shared Frustrations • Informed & Respectful Tourist/Traveler
  15. 15. Connecting Theoretical & Conceptual Frameworks • Cohen (1985) • Lee & Crompton (1992) • Dewey (1916) • Kolb (1984) or Dunn (2000) • Ritchie, 2003 • Weiler, 1992 • Vande Berg, Paige, Lou (2010) • Zull (2010) Interventions Educative Travel Travel As Play and Novelty Play & Education Experiential
  16. 16. Shaken Not Stirred: The Pilot Study
  17. 17. Conceptual Framework Astin’s Input-Environment-Output (IEO) Model Output Environment Input
  18. 18. CONCEPTUAL MODEL Phase 1 Bean and Eaton’s Psychological Model of college Student Retention (2000)
  19. 19. Inputs: Motivation Motivated by… Novelty Seeking in Travel Academics (Deci & Ryan, 2008)(Ryan & Deci, 2000)(Vallerand et al., 1992)
  20. 20. Correspondence Inference Theory Target-based Expectancies Category-based Expectancies Cultural Feeling Rules Inputs: Expectations Jones and McGillis (1976) and Hochschild (1979), in Wilson, Lisle, Kraft, & Wetzel, 1989
  21. 21. Pilot Study Purpose To pilot an instrument that determines students’ motivations for and expectations of their education abroad experience.
  22. 22. Research Questions RQ1: What are students’ expectations for their education abroad experience? RQ1a:Do students expect travel and tourism to be part of their education abroad experience? RQ2: What are students’ motivations for their education abroad experience? RQ2a: Are students motivated by the opportunity to travel during their education abroad experience?
  23. 23. Population • 633 students participating in an education abroad program in spring 2014 Research design • PSU Education Abroad advisers sent intro email • I followed up with an email and link to the survey • Internet-based questionnaire: Survey Gizmo • Motivation and expectation items based on a review of the travel and education abroad literature • Background information collected on college, major, gender, age, and past experience with study abroad. Method
  24. 24. Results Response • Response: 231 • Completed: 169 • 27% response rate Data Analysis • Principle Factor Analysis (PCA) • Varimax rotation • 27 expectation items • 33 motivation items
  25. 25. Results: Expectations RQ1: What are students’ expectations for their educational experience abroad? 6 Factors • Being a tourist • Pleasurable weekends • Experience buying local • Enhanced learning • Testing and assignments • Experience the local community
  26. 26. Results: Expectations RQ1a: Do students expect travel and tourism to be part of their education abroad experience? • Reliabilities ranged from .58 to .75 • Cumulative variance = 60% • “Being a tourist” Mean = 4.82/5.00 • “Enhanced Learning” Mean = 3.29/5.00
  27. 27. Results: Motivations RQ2: What are students’ motivations for their educational experience abroad? 8 Factors 1. Fun and adventure 2. Travel & New Experiences 3. Enhanced learning 4. Learning a language 5. Proof of achievement 6. To Escape 7. Self Development and satisfaction 8. Earn academic credit
  28. 28. Results: Motivations RQ2a: Are students motivated by the opportunity to travel during their educational experience abroad? • Reliabilities ranged from .74 to .92 • Cumulative variance = 69% • “Fun and Adventure” Mean = 4.44/5.00 • “Enhanced Learning” Mean = 3.70/5.00 • ‘To Escape” Mean = 3.19/5.00
  29. 29. Results: Lingering Questions Phase 1 Lingering Questions • Unexpected results • 60% variance • Factor groups did not corroborate with literature • New dimensions • Language, meanings, ideas? Next Steps • Continue Literature Review • Focus Groups
  30. 30. What do the Results Suggest? Students prefer novel travel experiences opposed to strict academic experiences.
  31. 31. What do the Results Suggest? Research in Travel and Tourism (novelty, play, liminality) suggest there are useful theories, paradigms, and conceptual frameworks that could be useful in education abroad.
  32. 32. What do the Results Suggest? A Dewey, Zull , and Falk all approach to developing education abroad programs would be beneficial to the development of education abroad programs: • Play is (can be) an educative process • Is there anything we can learn from “vacation” • Learn more about what students bring into the program (Inputs)
  33. 33. Next Steps Phase 1 1. Revise the questionnaire based on focus feedback 2. Add learning styles 3. Consider other inputs: emotional development? 4. Administer a second pilot for the instrument 5. Identify relationships between the variables and type of program selected
  34. 34. Thank You Contact Info Kristin Thomas KLT16@psu.edu Penn State University Janelle Papay jpapay@elon.edu Elon University For references of citations please contact Kristin Thomas
  35. 35. References Allen, H. W. (2009). What Shapes Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences? A Comparative Case Study of Students' Motives and Goals. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(5), 452-470. doi: 10.1177/1028315309334739 Anderson, B. D. (2007). Students in a global village: The nexus of choice, expectation, and experience in study abroad: ProQuest. Assaker, G., Vinzi, V. E., & O’Connor, P. (2011). Examining the effect of novelty seeking, satisfaction, and destination image on tourists’ return pattern: A two factor, non-linear latent growth model. Tourism Management, 32(4), 890-901. Cardon, P. W., Marshall, B., & Poddar, A. (2011). Using typologies to interpret study abroad preferences of American business students: Applying a tourism framework to international education. Journal of Education for Business, 86(2), 111-118. Cohen, E. (1985). Tourism as Play. Religion, 15(3), 291-304. Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408-424. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: Simon & Brown. Dewey, J. (2007). Experience and education: Simon and Schuster. Dunn, R., & Griggs, S. (2000). Practical appraoches to using learning styles in higher education: The How-to Steps. In R. Dunn, Griggs,Shirley (Ed.), Practical Appraoches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education (pp. 20-32). CT: Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  36. 36. References Dunn, R., & Griggs, S. (2000). Practical appraoches to using learning styles in higher education: The How-to Steps. In R. Dunn, Griggs,Shirley (Ed.), Practical Appraoches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education (pp. 20-32). CT: Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group. Falk, J. H., Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Benckendorff, P. (2012). Travel and learning: A neglected tourism research area. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 908-927. Falk, J. H., Martin, W. W., & Balling, J. D. (1978). The novel field‐trip phenomenon: Adjustment to novel settings interferes with task learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 15(2), 127-134. Godbey, G., Crawford, D. W., & Shen, X. S. (2010). Assessing hierarchical leisure constraints theory after two decades. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(1), 111-134. Gottlieb, A. (1982). Americans' vacations. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 165-187. Hall, C., Michael, & Weiler, B. (1992). What's special about special interest tourism? In C. Hall, Michael, Weiler, Betty (Ed.), Special interest tourism (pp. 1-15). Londno: Belhaven Press. Lee, T.-H., & Crompton, J. (1992). Measuring novelty seeking in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, 732- 751. Naffziger, D., W., Bott, J., P., & Mueller, C., B. (2008). Factors influencing study abroad: Decisions among college of business students. Innternational Business: Research Teaching and Practice, 2(1), 39-51. Nyaupane, G., Paris, C. M., & Teye, V. (2011). Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip attitude formation. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 205-217. doi: 10.1002/jtr.811
  37. 37. References Nyaupane, G., Paris, C. M., & Teye, V. (2011). Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip attitude formation. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 205-217. doi: 10.1002/jtr.811 Pritchard, A., Morgan, N., & Ateljevic, I. (2011). Hopeful tourism: A new transformative perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 941-963. Relyea, C., Cocchiara, F. K., & Studdard, N. L. (2008). The Effect of Perceived Value in the Decision to Participate in Study Abroad Programs. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 19(4), 346-361. doi: 10.1080/08975930802427551 Ritchie, B. (2003). Managing educational tourism. In C. Cooper, C. Hall, Michael, Dr. & D. Timothy, Dr. (Series Eds.), Aspects of Tourism, Sanchez, C., Fornerino, M., & Zhang, M. (2006). Motivations and the intent to study abroad among U.S., French, and Chinese students. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 18(1), 27. doi: 10.1300/J066v18n01_03 Sutton, R., C., Miller, A., N., & Rubin, D., L. (2007). Research design in assessing learning outcomes of education abroad programs. In M. Bollen, C. (Ed.), A guide to outcomes assessment (pp. 23-59). Lancaster, PA: Forum on Education Abroad. Van Tine, R. E. (2011). Liminality and the short term study abroad experience. University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign.
  38. 38. References Vande Berg, M., Paige, M., & Lou, K. H. (2012). Student learning abroad: What our students are learning, what they are not, and what we can do about it: Stylus Publishing. Woolf, M. (2006). Come and see the poor people: the pursuit of exotica. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal on StudyAbroad, XII, 135-146. Zull, J. (2012). The brain, learning, and study abroad. In M. Vande Berg, M. Paige & K. H. Lou (Eds.), Student Learning Abroad: what our students are learning, what they're not, and what we can do about it. Virgina: Stylus Publishing.

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