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Two Unlikely Characters: Can Education Abroad and Tourism Mix?

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Two Unlikely Characters: Can Education Abroad and Tourism Mix?

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Does tourism nullify the academic component of education abroad? Join a scholarly discussion on how students’ tourist behaviors can be used to enhance course content and cultural development. The session will be driven by exploratory research of a multiphase project that explores students’ academic and travel expectations and motivations as inputs into an education abroad program based on Alexander Astin’s Inputs Environment and Outputs (IEO) model and John Dewey’s concept of play and work in curriculum.

Does tourism nullify the academic component of education abroad? Join a scholarly discussion on how students’ tourist behaviors can be used to enhance course content and cultural development. The session will be driven by exploratory research of a multiphase project that explores students’ academic and travel expectations and motivations as inputs into an education abroad program based on Alexander Astin’s Inputs Environment and Outputs (IEO) model and John Dewey’s concept of play and work in curriculum.

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Two Unlikely Characters: Can Education Abroad and Tourism Mix?

  1. 1. Two Unlikely Characters: Can Education Abroad and Tourism Mix? Kristin Thomas, Ph.D Candidate, Penn State University Janelle Papay, International Programs Advisor, Elon University Dr. Deborah Kerstetter, Penn State University
  2. 2. Collective Knowledge Student Development/Affairs & Higher Ed. Administration Education Abroad & Embedded Programs International Student Integration Experiential Learning & Recreation Travel & Tourism Research
  3. 3. The Plan Gaps in the literature Commonalities between tourism and education abroad A collaborative framework Phase 1: The pilot Results: Next Steps
  4. 4. What we hear students saying… Go to another country Have fun I just want to have fun in another country Meet new people Don’t care about the classes I love to travel!
  5. 5. Gaps in the Literature – Travel/Tourism & EA Analysis of EA using conceptual frameworks from travel/tourism • Cardon, 2011 • Anderson, 2007 • Josephine, 2013 Studies mixing tourism and EA • Nyaupane, 2011 • Van Time, 2011 Tourism on EA
  6. 6. Gaps in the Literature – Motivations in EA Analysis of motivations in Education Abroad • Naffziger, Bott, Mueller, 2004 • Sanchez, 2006 • Relyea, 2008 Outside Education Abroad • Li & Olsen, 2013 •Willis Allen, 2010 Inside Education Abroad
  7. 7. Little consideration for the role travel may play in a meaningful education abroad experience Education Abroad Traveler/ Tourist
  8. 8. Why care about the student as traveler/tourist? Activity!!
  9. 9. The views of some from Education Abroad “…absent data regarding learning outcomes, some critics have contended that short-term study abroad programs are at best tourism with a class course number attached.. (Sutton et al, 2007).” There are many problems associated with the objective of “non-traditional-ism” and one of particular concern is that it defines study aboard too readily in the language of tourism. (Woolf, 2006) "Finding support for both hypothesis, we suggest universities need to do a better job to ensure that students understand that study abroad programs are more than just a chance to travel and have a good time.“ (Relyea, 2008)
  10. 10. What do Travel/Tourism scholars know? Studies and research on: Constraints Liminality King or Queen for a day Behaviors and repeat travel behaviors Novelty
  11. 11. Tourism Scholars on Travel & Tourism Definitions “Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes.” “Tourists any person on a trip between two or more countries or two more localities within his/her country or usual residence. Typically described as visitors. So what’s the problem?
  12. 12. Tourist or Traveler?
  13. 13. Developments in Tourism • Hopeful Tourism • Sustainable Tourism • Social Justice Tourism • Pro-Poor Tourism Frameworks • Alternative Tourism • Eco Tourism • Green Tourism • Community Tourism Applied
  14. 14. Are Tourism & Education Abroad Incompatible? Shared Goals • Culturally and Environmentally Sensitive • Community Involvement Shared Aspirations • Tool for Peace Making • Social & Environmental Justice Shared Frustrations • Informed & Respectful Tourist/Traveler
  15. 15. Connecting Theoretical & Conceptual Frameworks • Cohen (1985) • Lee & Crompton (1992) • Dewey (1916) • Kolb (1984) or Dunn (2000) • Ritchie, 2003 • Weiler, 1992 • Vande Berg, Paige, Lou (2010) • Zull (2010) Interventions Educative Travel Travel As Play and Novelty Play & Education Experiential
  16. 16. Shaken Not Stirred: The Pilot Study
  17. 17. Conceptual Framework Astin’s Input-Environment-Output (IEO) Model Output Environment Input
  18. 18. CONCEPTUAL MODEL Phase 1 Bean and Eaton’s Psychological Model of college Student Retention (2000)
  19. 19. Inputs: Motivation Motivated by… Novelty Seeking in Travel Academics (Deci & Ryan, 2008)(Ryan & Deci, 2000)(Vallerand et al., 1992)
  20. 20. Correspondence Inference Theory Target-based Expectancies Category-based Expectancies Cultural Feeling Rules Inputs: Expectations Jones and McGillis (1976) and Hochschild (1979), in Wilson, Lisle, Kraft, & Wetzel, 1989
  21. 21. Pilot Study Purpose To pilot an instrument that determines students’ motivations for and expectations of their education abroad experience.
  22. 22. Research Questions RQ1: What are students’ expectations for their education abroad experience? RQ1a:Do students expect travel and tourism to be part of their education abroad experience? RQ2: What are students’ motivations for their education abroad experience? RQ2a: Are students motivated by the opportunity to travel during their education abroad experience?
  23. 23. Population • 633 students participating in an education abroad program in spring 2014 Research design • PSU Education Abroad advisers sent intro email • I followed up with an email and link to the survey • Internet-based questionnaire: Survey Gizmo • Motivation and expectation items based on a review of the travel and education abroad literature • Background information collected on college, major, gender, age, and past experience with study abroad. Method
  24. 24. Results Response • Response: 231 • Completed: 169 • 27% response rate Data Analysis • Principle Factor Analysis (PCA) • Varimax rotation • 27 expectation items • 33 motivation items
  25. 25. Results: Expectations RQ1: What are students’ expectations for their educational experience abroad? 6 Factors • Being a tourist • Pleasurable weekends • Experience buying local • Enhanced learning • Testing and assignments • Experience the local community
  26. 26. Results: Expectations RQ1a: Do students expect travel and tourism to be part of their education abroad experience? • Reliabilities ranged from .58 to .75 • Cumulative variance = 60% • “Being a tourist” Mean = 4.82/5.00 • “Enhanced Learning” Mean = 3.29/5.00
  27. 27. Results: Motivations RQ2: What are students’ motivations for their educational experience abroad? 8 Factors 1. Fun and adventure 2. Travel & New Experiences 3. Enhanced learning 4. Learning a language 5. Proof of achievement 6. To Escape 7. Self Development and satisfaction 8. Earn academic credit
  28. 28. Results: Motivations RQ2a: Are students motivated by the opportunity to travel during their educational experience abroad? • Reliabilities ranged from .74 to .92 • Cumulative variance = 69% • “Fun and Adventure” Mean = 4.44/5.00 • “Enhanced Learning” Mean = 3.70/5.00 • ‘To Escape” Mean = 3.19/5.00
  29. 29. Results: Lingering Questions Phase 1 Lingering Questions • Unexpected results • 60% variance • Factor groups did not corroborate with literature • New dimensions • Language, meanings, ideas? Next Steps • Continue Literature Review • Focus Groups
  30. 30. What do the Results Suggest? Students prefer novel travel experiences opposed to strict academic experiences.
  31. 31. What do the Results Suggest? Research in Travel and Tourism (novelty, play, liminality) suggest there are useful theories, paradigms, and conceptual frameworks that could be useful in education abroad.
  32. 32. What do the Results Suggest? A Dewey, Zull , and Falk all approach to developing education abroad programs would be beneficial to the development of education abroad programs: • Play is (can be) an educative process • Is there anything we can learn from “vacation” • Learn more about what students bring into the program (Inputs)
  33. 33. Next Steps Phase 1 1. Revise the questionnaire based on focus feedback 2. Add learning styles 3. Consider other inputs: emotional development? 4. Administer a second pilot for the instrument 5. Identify relationships between the variables and type of program selected
  34. 34. Thank You Contact Info Kristin Thomas KLT16@psu.edu Penn State University Janelle Papay jpapay@elon.edu Elon University For references of citations please contact Kristin Thomas
  35. 35. References Allen, H. W. (2009). What Shapes Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences? A Comparative Case Study of Students' Motives and Goals. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(5), 452-470. doi: 10.1177/1028315309334739 Anderson, B. D. (2007). Students in a global village: The nexus of choice, expectation, and experience in study abroad: ProQuest. Assaker, G., Vinzi, V. E., & O’Connor, P. (2011). Examining the effect of novelty seeking, satisfaction, and destination image on tourists’ return pattern: A two factor, non-linear latent growth model. Tourism Management, 32(4), 890-901. Cardon, P. W., Marshall, B., & Poddar, A. (2011). Using typologies to interpret study abroad preferences of American business students: Applying a tourism framework to international education. Journal of Education for Business, 86(2), 111-118. Cohen, E. (1985). Tourism as Play. Religion, 15(3), 291-304. Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408-424. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: Simon & Brown. Dewey, J. (2007). Experience and education: Simon and Schuster. Dunn, R., & Griggs, S. (2000). Practical appraoches to using learning styles in higher education: The How-to Steps. In R. Dunn, Griggs,Shirley (Ed.), Practical Appraoches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education (pp. 20-32). CT: Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  36. 36. References Dunn, R., & Griggs, S. (2000). Practical appraoches to using learning styles in higher education: The How-to Steps. In R. Dunn, Griggs,Shirley (Ed.), Practical Appraoches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education (pp. 20-32). CT: Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group. Falk, J. H., Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Benckendorff, P. (2012). Travel and learning: A neglected tourism research area. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 908-927. Falk, J. H., Martin, W. W., & Balling, J. D. (1978). The novel field‐trip phenomenon: Adjustment to novel settings interferes with task learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 15(2), 127-134. Godbey, G., Crawford, D. W., & Shen, X. S. (2010). Assessing hierarchical leisure constraints theory after two decades. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(1), 111-134. Gottlieb, A. (1982). Americans' vacations. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 165-187. Hall, C., Michael, & Weiler, B. (1992). What's special about special interest tourism? In C. Hall, Michael, Weiler, Betty (Ed.), Special interest tourism (pp. 1-15). Londno: Belhaven Press. Lee, T.-H., & Crompton, J. (1992). Measuring novelty seeking in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, 732- 751. Naffziger, D., W., Bott, J., P., & Mueller, C., B. (2008). Factors influencing study abroad: Decisions among college of business students. Innternational Business: Research Teaching and Practice, 2(1), 39-51. Nyaupane, G., Paris, C. M., & Teye, V. (2011). Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip attitude formation. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 205-217. doi: 10.1002/jtr.811
  37. 37. References Nyaupane, G., Paris, C. M., & Teye, V. (2011). Study abroad motivations, destination selection and pre-trip attitude formation. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 205-217. doi: 10.1002/jtr.811 Pritchard, A., Morgan, N., & Ateljevic, I. (2011). Hopeful tourism: A new transformative perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 941-963. Relyea, C., Cocchiara, F. K., & Studdard, N. L. (2008). The Effect of Perceived Value in the Decision to Participate in Study Abroad Programs. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 19(4), 346-361. doi: 10.1080/08975930802427551 Ritchie, B. (2003). Managing educational tourism. In C. Cooper, C. Hall, Michael, Dr. & D. Timothy, Dr. (Series Eds.), Aspects of Tourism, Sanchez, C., Fornerino, M., & Zhang, M. (2006). Motivations and the intent to study abroad among U.S., French, and Chinese students. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 18(1), 27. doi: 10.1300/J066v18n01_03 Sutton, R., C., Miller, A., N., & Rubin, D., L. (2007). Research design in assessing learning outcomes of education abroad programs. In M. Bollen, C. (Ed.), A guide to outcomes assessment (pp. 23-59). Lancaster, PA: Forum on Education Abroad. Van Tine, R. E. (2011). Liminality and the short term study abroad experience. University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign.
  38. 38. References Vande Berg, M., Paige, M., & Lou, K. H. (2012). Student learning abroad: What our students are learning, what they are not, and what we can do about it: Stylus Publishing. Woolf, M. (2006). Come and see the poor people: the pursuit of exotica. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal on StudyAbroad, XII, 135-146. Zull, J. (2012). The brain, learning, and study abroad. In M. Vande Berg, M. Paige & K. H. Lou (Eds.), Student Learning Abroad: what our students are learning, what they're not, and what we can do about it. Virgina: Stylus Publishing.

Editor's Notes

  • Name and role
    Masters in Ed leadership in student affairs in higher ed
    Global Engagement Coordinator: promotion and outreach for education abroad, program development for US and international student integration; I created the Global Engagement and Leadership Experience at Penn State
    I’ve worked with a faculty member on developing co-leading short-term embedded program for the last four years on developing curriculum for an embedded program for first year students to Jamaica

    Explain who Deb is.
  • Jp/kt
    Anecdotally, we’ve heard students say:
    Which supports the research of Sanchez and Nauaypane. That students are interested in the non-academic piece. Now keep in mind, we are not saying throw the academic piece out the window. At this point, we are sharing an observation.
    So given this information and our ah-ha moment. What is beneath this?
    What are travel and tourism scholars researching that can help shed light on what has the attention of our students when they get on an airplane?
  • Jp (Should I go into great detail, or just kind of fly by?)
    Studies mixing tourism and EA—discipline specific, seems to be in areas where faculty are becoming more creative in their approach to EA.
    Cardon (Business EA)
    Anderson dissertation
    Josephine (Hospitality on EA)

    Tourism talking about EA—If it seems obvious that tourism would talk about EA, why not the other way around?
    Nyaupane
    Van Time

    Honorable mentions
    Sanchez
    Zull

    The leading journal in education abroad, the Frontiers do not include in articles mentioning any travel and tourism frameworks (check JEL and others)
    Analysis of EA using travel and tourism concepts have been outside the EA conversation and equally few, but fairly recent.
  • Jp (I wasn’t quite sure how to divide this information

    Motivations in Education Abroad
    Naffig… (Biz lit)
    Li & Olsen
    Willis Allen
    Sanchez
    Relyea (expectancy & risk, part of novelty, a motivation)

    The leading journal in education abroad, the Frontiers do not include in articles mentioning any travel and tourism frameworks (check JEL and others)
    Analysis of EA using travel and tourism concepts have been outside the EA conversation and equally few, but fairly recent.
  • jp
    Despite what we’ve all known to be true
    Despite what U.S. students are saying about their education abroad experience
    Researchers, faculty, and staff have not considered or accounted for the role travel may play in a meaningful education abroad experience
  • activity
  • Kt
    It is not that we do not understand what they mean.
    This sort of view or division sets up silos.
    It states that clearly tourism or some sort of travel for is something dichotomous to education abroad.
    I think this underlying mindset has kept us away from some important research that could be potentially very insightful and useful to anyone involved in education abroad.
  • KT

    In general, there is much there is much we can learn from travel and tourism scholars. Some research topics have been:
    Constraints, which we term as barriers…have we explored this, could constraints theory help us increase education abroad #s
    Liminality –behavior and thinking in a temporary “in between reality”
    King/Queen for a day -
    Novelty
    Behaviors
    Repeat travel behaviors
    All of these themes could shed light on education abroad participant behaviors and mentality

  • So what is tourism?
    Defining tourism is tedious and difficult. According to Goeldner and Ritchie, the problem is not trivial, and attempts have been made over the decades by scholars and organizations like the United Nations.
    The United Nations World Tourism Organization defines tourism and tourist as:
    But these definitions are not the problem. It is clear that education abroad fit into the parameter of these definitions

    So what is the problem?
  • To be specific, I do not mean mass tourism itself, although it could be a problem.
    More specifically, I mean the views, perspectives, and connotations associated with mass tourism.

    Identify some characteristics of mass tourism:
  • A new identity emerged, a traveler as opposed to a tourist, both in academia and popular understanding.

    A traveler is (QUOTE NEW ARTICLE, Week (2012). Naturally, because education abroad involves travel for students, the conflict embedded in this dichotomy exist within the education abroad context, although not spoken in the same disciplinary parlance. The debates are intensified by the need to assess academic learned outcomes. Administrators and governing bodies’ attention on formal educational travel increases the pressure for education abroad (EA) practitioners and faculty members to prove that EA is more than a hedonic tourist venture under the guise of an educational experience.

    “Tourist themselves have experienced a growing discomfort with mass tourism, catalyzed by the proliferation of stereotypes that depict tourists as demanding, ostentatious, and culturally insensitive. (Bowen and Clark in Weeks, 2012)
  • (Ask the question to the audience?) Perhaps it’s like my sister and me when we were young, we share a lot of things, but I wouldn’t have necessarily called us compatible. Tourism and Education abroad share some of the same goals, aspirations and frustrations:

    Shared Goals: immersion and community involvement, cultural and environmental sensitivity
    Share Aspirations: Medium through which to build and improve cross-cultural relationships as well as empower individuals towards social and environmental justice
    Shared Frustrations: How many times have I reminded students to “make smart decisions?” There is surely a shared frustration with lack of respect and consideration amongst participants.

    Shared Outcomes:

    Standards of Good Practice: FORUM
    4 learning outcomes
    Intercultural Understanding
    Language and intercultural communication skills
    Academic growth
    Student development (e.g. leadership skills, service orientation, maturity, tolerance for ambiguity)

    NAFSA concept of “Global Learning”
    Questions of social justice, interconnections, power, and privilege. Attention to such issues makes global learning closely related to diversity work as well as civic engagement work.


  • This is what we looked that gave us the conceptual and theoretical frameworks to move forward with considering the partnership between Travel & Tourism and Education Abroad.
    Educative Travel – What can formal (credit-bearing) and informal educational travel learn from one another?
    Interventions on Education Abroad
    Vande Berg – we need to consider a paradigm shift in Ed abroad (he didn’t suggest tourism, I’m suggesting travel and tourism as a lens), interventions
    Zull – suggestion looking at what travel experiences student bring to the EA program, and asking is there something we can learn from travel or vacation travel
    Which overlaps with Dewey
    Play & Education and Experiential Education – who discusses considering what a student brings into the educational environment and overlaps with scholars like Kolb and Dunn in experiential learning, and the need for active, engaged, participatory learning
    Dewey also emphasizes the importance for play in education, for adults, this may be work, but work/education should not be dichotomous
    Lastly
    Travel as Play and Novelty Seeking Travel
  • At this point, what have we done or talked about
    Gaps in the Literature
    Commonalities between Tourism and Ed Abroad?

    We are not saying that we should become travel agents and cater to every whim of the students, what I am saying is what can we learn fromT & T that will help optimize the SA experience. What are the travel scholars said happens during that liminal space when the student is traveling?
  • jp
    Why I chose these three

    I
  • In phase I
    Focus on an instrument to identify expectations and motivations for travel and academics
    Which will be the focus of this discussion
    After selecting or writing the items that are valid and reliable, will add learning styles.
    Also considering “emotional development” as a input variable, based on Zull’s connection between cognitive, emotion and learning.
    Lastly, we will review results to determine if certain types of students are attracted to certain types of programs.

    For now however, the focus is on expectations and motivation
  • Novelty of Travel and academics are the two main dimensions of motivation at which I was looking
    Novelty is touted by Berlyne as being the curator of creativity, innovation, and imagination
    Zull stated that during novel experience is when the brain is most engaged and primed for learning
    The travel experience is novel in and of itself…and are we taking advantage of this.
    Novel according to Lee & Crompton include
    Thrill seeking
    Alleaviate boredom
    Change or routine/escape
    Surprise
    Then Academics. Academics is not considered on the travel side and these two need to be considered together to address the overlap in the Vinn diagram
  • Quotes from Wilson, Lisle, Kraft & Wetzel (1989)
    Target-based Expectancy - which are expectations based on one's own previous reactions to stimulus. Thus, a person may expect like the new Woody Allen film because he or she has liked all the previous ones.
    Category-based Expectancy - category-based expectancies, which are based on people's knowledge of how others reacted to a stimulus. Thus, a person may never have seen a Woody Allen film but expect to like the new one because all of his or her friends said they enjoyed it
    Cultural Feeling Rules. These are cultural norms dictating how people expect to feel in different social situations (e.g. happy at weddings and sad at funerals)
  • My goal is to bridge the gap within the literature. To open the door for EA researchers and practitioners to look to the Travel researchers and vice versa.

    Specifically, the purpose of this pilot study was to determine the importance of travel and education to the education abroad experience
    (NOTE TO DEB: I realize the proposal said “decision to study abroad” I did not catch that. One of the specifications I had early on was not to look at students decision “to” study abroad, that has been researched a lot, but to look at their travel behaviors (which we decided is influenced by expectations and motivations). The wording on the instrument is below.
    Instrument: Please indicate to what extent you feel that each item represents an expectation you have for your study abroad experience using a scale from 1 (Not at All) to 5 (Definitely).

    We selected expectations and motivations as the two variables to begin our exploratory study because we support the concept that expectations and motivations influence behavior and decision making (FIND A SOURCE)

  • To try to get at expectations and motivations (novelty and academic) I asked two main questions with 1 sub question each.

    RQ1 What are students’ expectations for their educational experience abroad?
    RQ1a Do students expect travel and tourism to be part of their study abroad experience?
    RQ2 What are students’ motivations for their educational experience abroad?
    RQ2a To what extent are students motivated by the opportunity to travel during their educational experience abroad?
  • Bullet statements
    Pull from the proposal

    Exploratory at Penn State
    Questionnaire created after extensive review of travel and education literature
    3 expectations, motivations, student background
    All items pulled from the Lit (talk through the process)
    Explain expectations and motivations (just a sentence nothing long)
    633 confirmed / expected to study abroad sp 2014
    Email sent, giving the access to the online questionnaire
    Email sent by adviser, then me to increase chances


  • 169 students completed the survey
    27% response rate
    State that they were representative the typical study abroad population (female, age..etc) (fits best on other slide)
    Principle Factor analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was used to determine relationships among the 27 expect items 33 motivation items
  • Have a hand out with the expectation & motivation items on the back

    On the Slide (Reference pg 7)
    6 factors emerged from the data
    being a tourist, pleasurable weekends, experiences buying local, enhanced learning testing, and assignments, and experience the local community.
    There were three striking outcomes
    the first was the strength of factor 1, being a tourist. It has the strongest reliability evidenced by a Chronbach’s alpha of .75. The M of the factor grouping is 4.82 on a 5-point Likert scale meaning students were in high agreement that tourist activities is an important component or expectation while on education abroad.
    Second, the significant drop in eigenvalue and percentage of variance explained with the remaining factors, however, mean values continued to run high or in the mid-range per factor. There will be more discussion on this later.
    Lastly, the cumulative variance was 60.147 which means that the instrument captured or explained only 60% of the phenomenon in question
    <END NOTES WITH DEB 3/27/2014>
  • Question for Deb 4/1/2014
    Triple checking my understanding: In terms of saying “least important” we’re saying the one that had the lowest eigenvalue, meaning it did not group very well? It explained only 4.57%

    There were three striking outcomes

    the first was the strength of factor 1, being a tourist. It has the strongest reliability evidenced by a Chronbach’s alpha of .75. The M of the factor grouping is 4.82 on a 5-point Likert scale meaning students were in high agreement that tourist activities is an important component or expectation while on education abroad.
    Second, the significant drop in eigenvalue and percentage of variance explained with the remaining factors, however, mean values continued to run high or in the mid-range per factor. There will be more discussion on this later.
    Lastly, the cumulative variance was 60.147 which means that the instrument captured or explained only 60% of the phenomenon in question

  • Question for Deb 4/1/2014
    I was not sure if we should include the last factor. I believe we thought it had no face value. We did not believe the two items grouped well.
    “to better learn about human civilization”
    “to help be able to work in another country in the future”


    Duplicate expectations slides with motivation info
    The nine factor groupings emerged from the data for motivations: fun and adventure, pleasurable weekends, experience and buy local, enhanced learning, testing and assignments, and experience the local community, self-development, earn academic credit and _____ (Table 2)
    <END NOTES WITH DEB 3/27/2014>
  • Deb: based on what we choose (face value of 9th factor) data will change on this slide to:
    Range .63 to .92
    Least important factor “Unnamed” with a mean of 3.82/5.00
    Do what you for previous slide
    A particularly notable outcome is the low eigenvalues for self-development, academic credit and _____.
    Second, similar to expectations, there is a significant drop in the eigenvalue and percentage variance between factor one, fun and adventure, and the remaining factors.
  • So what

    Although previously tested items were used in this study with similar groupings, the factor analysis did not result in the same factors produced by previous researchers.
    Factor groupings did not corroborate, factor groupings that we did not understand
    Because they were not studying study abroad, we knew it would not be perfect, but we did expect that it would be more closely related
    We had to modify so maybe that is why responses did not turn out the way we expected (concerned with the wording)

  • Research in Travel and tourism on novelty, travel as play, constraints, liminality that suggest there is useful theories, paradigms and conceptual frameworks that describe traveler/tourist behavior that are or could be useful for in education abroad.
    Results of the questionnaire strongly suggest that students are more interested in the travel and tourism components of education abroad as opposed to the pure academic component (depending on the program)
    Thomas and Papay suggest taking a Dewey and Zull approach
    Dewey- incorporating play as a means to education, content learning, knowledge building.
    Zull proposed the question "if we accept nature's message that cognition and emotion go together...we may need to ask questions such as 'Is anything learned on a vacation? or 'What might students learn at a party--academically?“ – not to say that education abroad is a vacation, but what can we learn from a fun experience?
    Berlyne espouses that novelty ___ innovation, curiousity,

    Taking Dewey, Zull and the work in Travel and Tourism on travel & tourist behavior,
    into consideration

  • Research in Travel and tourism on novelty, travel as play, constraints, liminality that suggest there is useful theories, paradigms and conceptual frameworks that describe traveler/tourist behavior that are or could be useful for in education abroad.
    Results of the questionnaire strongly suggest that students are more interested in the travel and tourism components of education abroad as opposed to the pure academic component (depending on the program)
    Thomas and Papay suggest taking a Dewey and Zull approach
    Dewey- incorporating play as a means to education, content learning, knowledge building.
    Zull proposed the question "if we accept nature's message that cognition and emotion go together...we may need to ask questions such as 'Is anything learned on a vacation? or 'What might students learn at a party--academically?“ – not to say that education abroad is a vacation, but what can we learn from a fun experience?
    Berlyne espouses that novelty ___ innovation, curiousity,

    Taking Dewey, Zull and the work in Travel and Tourism on travel & tourist behavior,
    into consideration

  • Research in Travel and tourism on novelty, travel as play, constraints, liminality that suggest there is useful theories, paradigms and conceptual frameworks that describe traveler/tourist behavior that are or could be useful for in education abroad.
    Results of the questionnaire strongly suggest that students are more interested in the travel and tourism components of education abroad as opposed to the pure academic component (depending on the program)
    Thomas and Papay suggest taking a Dewey and Zull approach
    Dewey- incorporating play as a means to education, content learning, knowledge building.
    Zull proposed the question "if we accept nature's message that cognition and emotion go together...we may need to ask questions such as 'Is anything learned on a vacation? or 'What might students learn at a party--academically?“ – not to say that education abroad is a vacation, but what can we learn from a fun experience?
    Berlyne espouses that novelty ___ innovation, curiousity,

    Taking Dewey, Zull and the work in Travel and Tourism on travel & tourist behavior,
    into consideration
  • Kate questions
    Shows what we know and building a framework
    At what point do we say that you want to travel, the real priority is your academic experience

    Not clear from the beginning that I was leading up to the pilot study** want to know earlier on about the pilot
  • ×