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Measuring Linguistic Gains in Immersion 
Settings: Empirical Studies from French and 
Spanish as a Second Language 
Dennis M. Wiseman 
Council for International Education Exchange 
Annual Conference 
Breaking Barriers: Cost, Curriculum, Culture 
Baltimore, Md 
November 19-22, 2014
Wofford College 
• Four-year, private, liberals arts college 
• Founded in 1854 
• Methodist affiliated 
• Phi Beta Kappa 
• # 4 in the Open Doors survey 
• 1600 students
National Survey of Student Engagement
National Survey of Student Engagement
National Survey of Student Engagement
National Survey of Student Engagement
Linguistic Gains: High Impact 
Practices 
All French or Spanish students in these data 
have engaged in at least one of the following 
activities in study abroad. 
– Home stay 
– Language course work 
– Internship 
– Volunteer or service learning
Methodology 
• OPIc 
• Immediately upon return from study abroad, 
set / proctored 
• French students 
– Paris, Nantes, Rennes, Bordeaux, Aix-en- 
Provence, Dijon, Arles 
• Spanish students 
– Spain, Argentina, Panama, Chile, Dominican 
Republic, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Honduras, 
Nicaragua
SPAIN 
LAT. AMER. 
SPANISH_STUDY_ABROAD_2007_'13 
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 
LAT. AMER. SPAIN 
Series1 118 77
ACTFL_OPI_DID_NOT_PARTICIPATE_# 
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 
SPAIN DNT 
SPAIN 
LAT. AMER DNT 
LAT. AMER. 
LAT. AMER. LAT. AMER DNT SPAIN SPAIN DNT 
Series1 118 16 77 29
SPANISH_LAT._AMER._ACTFL_2007_2013_# 
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 
DNT 
IL 
IM 
IH 
AL 
AM 
AH 
AH AM AL IH IM IL DNT 
Series1 1 6 31 44 18 2 16
SPANISH_SPAIN_ACTFL_2007_2013_# 
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 
DNT 
IL 
IM 
IH 
AL 
AM 
AH 
AH AM AL IH IM IL DNT 
Series1 1 7 25 15 29
SPANISH_LAT._AMER._ACTFL_2007_2013_% 
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 
DNT 
IL 
IM 
IH 
AL 
AM 
AH 
AH AM AL IH IM IL DNT 
Series1 0.8 5.17 26.27 37.28 15.25 1.6 13.56
SPANISH_SPAIN_ACTFL_2007_2013_% 
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 
DNT 
IL 
IM 
IH 
AL 
AM 
AM AL IH IM IL DNT 
Series1 1.3 9.1 32.47 19.48 37.66
French_ACTFL_2007_2013 
AH, 3 
AM, 6 
AL, 21 
IH, 16 
IM, 12 
IL 
IM 
IH 
AL 
AM 
AH 
0 5 10 15 20 25
French_ACTFL_’09_’13 
AH, 3 
AM, 4 
AL, 19 
IH, 13 
IM, 7 
IL 
IM 
IH 
AL 
AM 
AH 
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
French_ACTFL_’11_’13 
AH, 3 
AM, 2 
AL, 11 
IH, 10 
IM, 4 
IL 
IM 
IH 
AL 
AM 
AH 
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
French_ACTFL_’12_’13 
AH, 3 
AM, 1 
AL, 7 
IH, 6 
IL 
IM 
IH 
AL 
AM 
AH 
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
French_ACTFL_2013 
AH, 2 
AM, 1 
AL, 6 
IH, 1 
IL 
IM 
IH 
AL 
AM 
AH 
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
French_ACTFL_Advanced_2007_ 
2013 
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 
2013 
2012_2013 
2011_2013 
2009_2013 
2007_2013
Spanish_ACTFL_Advanced_2007 
_2013 
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 
2013 
2012_2013 
2011_2013 
2009_2013 
2007_2013
What is COPI telling us about Spanish 
improvement in the study abroad 
context? 
CIEE Conference 
Baltimore, November 2014 
Vera Cerqueiras, BA Spanish Coordinator
CONTENTS 
• Describe the process of training, 
implementation and correction of the exam; 
• Analyze the progress made by students between 
their entrance COPI and their exit COPI; 
• Show some of the challenges and the 
subsequent effects (washback) resulting from 
this evaluation. 
2
What is COPI (Computer based Oral Proficiency Interview)? 
3 
• The COPI exam is a computerized 
semi-adaptive exam aimed at 
determining the ability for using 
oral spanish language at a 
specific moment taking into 
account the ACTFL Guidelines. 
• It is intended for high school 
students, college students, and 
professionals whose native 
language is English or who have 
an advanced English level 
• Standarized exam 
• Measuring linguistic production 
holistically 
• Providing feedback to both the 
test takers and their professors. 
• Exam results can be used to show 
the progress of a student after a 
semester of study. 
• It cannot be used to make 
decisions to pass or fail Spanish 
courses 
Characteristics
Evaluation Levels 
4 
1. Superior: The candidate gives opinions, hypothesizes, and uses abstract language in unfamiliar 
language situations 
2. Advanced: The candidate narrates and describes situations with some level of complication 
3. Intermediate: The candidate demonstrates creative use of the language in simple and everyday 
situations 
4. Novice: The candidate uses fixed expressions, short phrases and lists of memorized words 
The three latter levels are subdivided into 3 sublevels: 
High: The candidate does not have the ability to reach and maintain the next level 
Medium: Represents the prototypical level 
Low: The candidate has difficulty in meeting the level requirements
Administration of the Exam 
The exam has the following components: 
• A CD for the administration of the COPI exam 
• An application for the certification of the exam 
• Lab with PC`s ,Computers, headset with microphone and Speaker, 
keyboards 
• The candidates must select their Spanish level taking in account the 
summary description of each level given by the program 
• The program selects from 7 to 11 tasks 
• The candidates must complete the exam by recording their answers 
• Teachers / Raters should be in the computer 
lab to assist. 
• The exam lasts between 45/60 minutes 
5
Interview Evaluation and Grading and Final Report of the Evaluation 
of the level reached by the candidate. 
6 
• The program saves the 
candidate’s activities. 
• A double assessment is 
performed by two certified 
professors who correct all the 
activities completed by each 
candidate. 
• The evaluator assigns a 
corresponding level for each 
answer he/she listens to, taking 
into account the level assigned 
by the student or the program 
• The evaluator has the option to 
write comments about the 
activity, which the program then 
saves as part of the evaluation. 
• The program establishes an 
overall average after the 
evaluator assigns a level for each 
of the activities performed by 
the candidates. 
• A final report with the 
certification of each candidate’s 
obtained level is generated by 
the program including the 
overall average and a description 
of the proficiency
Exam and Certification of COPI Evaluators 
• Evaluators are trained by using a kit provided by CAL 
(Center of applied linguistics) 
• They have to pass an exam according to ACTFL 
Guidelines 
• This exam consists of 15 comprehensive COPI exams 
that should be rated 
• Evaluators approve the exam if at least 60% (9/15) 
scores coincide with those indicated by the CAL 
experts. 
7
8
>197 %
10
11
Why COPI implementation represents a challenge? 
12 
• BECAUSE it implies working with 
isolated language samples that 
must be analyzed without 
consideration of neither its 
production context nor its 
acquisition process. 
• BECAUSE the evaluator's work 
needs permanent training and 
peer feedback in order to adjust 
and perfect the administration, 
correction and considerations of 
the exam. 
• The internalization of the practices 
incorporated by giving the COPI 
exam allow us to focus on the 
elaboration of evaluation 
instructions and on the importance 
that the "knowledge of the world" 
has towards the successful 
achievement of that instruction. 
• The progress data between entry 
exams and exit exams tests the 
results obtained by the very same 
students in the evaluations of the 
Spanish courses they take as part of 
their immersion program studies. 
Until now they are consistent. In 
other words, those students who 
advance the most are the same 
students who achieve the highest 
grades in their Spanish courses. 
Washback Effects
Effects of International 
Service-Learning on the 
Development of Spanish Oral 
Proficiency 
CIEE Conference: Breaking Barriers 
November 19-22, 2014, Baltimore 
Francisco Salgado-Robles, Ph.D. 
The City University of New York
Overview of presentation 
① Goal 
② Community Service-Learning 
a) General notions 
b) SL in higher education 
c) SL in the Spanish classroom 
d) SL at-home: Linguistic gains 
e) SL abroad: Linguistic gains 
③ Research Questions 
④ Instrument 
⑤ Participants 
⑥ Blogging & Service-Learning 
⑦ Results 
⑧ Discussion 
⑨ Conclusions 
⑩ Challenges & Recommendations
GOAL 
¡ Gain further insight into the effects of context 
(i.e., service-learning in an international 
setting) on the L2 acquisition process (i.e., the 
development of Spanish oral proficiency) 
through a case-control study analysis of 
participants’ experiences enrolled in a 
Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) course 
(i.e., Spanish for the working environment) 
during a summer semester abroad. 
3
SERVICE-LEARNING (SL): 
GENERAL NOTIONS 
¡ SL? “Experiential education that engages students in 
activities that address human and community needs 
together with structured opportunities intentionally 
designed to promote student learning and 
development” (Jacoby, 1996) 
¡ Students’ service experiences are tied to the academic 
content of an on-campus course or curriculum (Giles, 
Honnet, & Migliore, 1991) 
¡ From the tenets of experiential education and 
constructivist theories that advocate for learning through 
first-hand discovery (Furco, 2001) 
¡ “One of the most effective approaches for engaging 
students and boosting learning” (Learn and Serve 
America, 2011) 
¡ Shape learners’ knowledge and cultural beliefs, 
professional aspirations, and community engagement. 
4
SL IN HIGHER EDUCATION 
¡ Based on statistics from 2009-2010, ½ + of 
community colleges and approximately ¼ of all 
universities integrate SL in different academic 
curricula (Learn and Serve America, 2011) 
¡ SL pedagogy has been adopted not only due to 
the overwhelming amount of research in support 
of this type of educational experience, but also 
because it has been witnessed how life-changing 
these opportunities can be for their students 
(Jeandron & Robinson, 2010) 
5
SL IN THE SPANISH CLASSROOM 
¡ The incorporation of SL in Spanish curricula follows 
similar trends observed in other disciplines in higher 
education 
¡ Community engagement has been a “growing 
presence in Spanish classes” and that there is 
presently “significant activity and interest within our 
ranks (Hellebrandt & Jorge, 2013) 
¡ Rapidly expanding Hispanic population in the United 
States (Rabin, 2009; Zlotkowski, 1999) 
¡ Convincing evidence of the positive impact SL can 
have on students taking Spanish as a second or 
heritage language (Petrov, 2013) 
6
SL AT-HOME: L2 GAINS 
¡ Offer students authentic communicative contexts in 
the target language 
¡ Communicative competence improved from regular 
interaction with NSs after participating in SL 
(Barreneche, 2011; Navarro, 2012; Olazagasti-Segovia, 
2004; Salgado-Robles, 2014) 
¡ Facilitate linguistic improvements in the L2 (Hale, 1999; 
Mullaney, 1999; Overfield, 1997) 
¡ Spanish SL students scored higher on L2 reading, 
speaking, and writing tasks (Malkin, 2010) 
¡ Students increased their use of Spanish outside the 
classroom and felt more confident speaking in Spanish 
(Pellettieri, 2011) 
7
¡ SL as an effective way enhance student’ language 
skills, knowledge of the host country, intercultural 
sensitivity, and global competence (Kiely, 2011) 
¡ Students gained confidence in their Spanish skills, 
developed intercultural skills (Kopischke Smith & 
Moreno-López, 2012) 
¡ Facilitate linguistic improvements in the L2 (Cubillos, 
2013) 
¡ Students perceived a positive relationship between 
their participation in SL projects and the 
development of their linguistic and cultural 
proficiency (Brown & Purmensky, 2014) 
8 
SL ABROAD: L2 GAINS
RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
① What is the effect of a community-enhanced 
Spanish for Specific Purpose course on the oral 
proficiency at the Intermediate-level? 
② What aspects of oral proficiency are most and least 
influenced by the community engagement 
experience? 
9
INSTRUMENT 
10
PARTICIPANTS (CONT’D) 
Experimental group 
22 students (14 f / 8 m) 
19-21 yrs old 
3rd year Spanish 
Spanish minors/majors 
Spanish for the Professions 
Control group 
18 students (11 f / 7 m)* 
19-23 yrs old 
3rd year Spanish 
Spanish minors/majors 
Spanish for the Professions 
* 1 heritage speaker removed 
11
PARTICIPANTS 
Experimental group Control group 
12
13 
BLOGGING & SPANISH FOR THE 
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
BLOGGING & SPANISH FOR THE 
WORKING ENVIRONMENT (CONT’D) 
14
BLOGGING & SPANISH FOR THE 
WORKING ENVIRONMENT 
15
RESULTS (CONT’D) 
ü Pre & Post Score Comparison (Experimental Group, N=22) 
16
RESULTS (CONT’D) 
ü Pre & Post Score Comparison (Control Group, N=18) 
17
RESULTS 
Post 
Mean 
p-value 
Mastery sentence 43.10 50.00 0.0003*** 
Experimental Vocabulary 36.77 51.22 <0.0001*** 
Group Fluency 45.52 54.19 <0.0001*** 
(+SL) Pronunciation 46.18 57.30 0.0003*** 
Mastery sentence 43.94 46.04 0.0002*** 
Control Vocabulary 39.75 52.76 <0.0001*** 
Group Fluency 47.00 49.15 0.1320 
(-SL) Pronunciation 44.60 48.63 0.0302 
*** High Statistical Significance 
Pre 
Mean 
ü Paired t-tests run to determine significance of trends over time 
18
DISCUSSION 
① What is the effect of a community-enhanced Spanish 
for Specific Purpose course on the oral proficiency at 
the Intermediate-level? 
ü A statistically significant impact on the proficiency level of 
Intermediate-level learners. 
ü Just one participant experienced L2 gains towards the 
advanced-low proficiency level in this experiment. 
② What aspects of oral proficiency are most and least 
influenced by the community engagement 
experience? 
ü SL had an observable and statistically significant impact on all 
sub-skills of oral proficiency measured by the Versant Test. 
19
CONCLUSIONS 
① The incorporation of the SL component into a Spanish 
for Specific Purposes course in an international setting 
had a significant effect on oral proficiency; 
② The learning conditions provided by the community 
engagement facilitated oral skill development across 
all sub-skills; 
③ Overall, the SL pedagogy worked successfully for this 
LSP course and, thus, should be further promoted, 
since: 
ü Provide more opportunities for L2 use in meaningful ways; 
ü Practice different L2 skills: speaking, reading, writing, listening, cultural understanding, etc.; 
ü Debrief and reflect on SL experience with others; 
ü Introduction to the professional field in a hands-on way; 
ü Give more confidence to students when they are in their services. 
20
CHALLENGES & 
RECOMMENDATIONS 
q Challenges: 
§ Time and effort: More so than the ‘normal’ course; 
§ Technological problems and conquering the learning curve; 
§ Lots of smaller tasks (visit report via Google Docs; blog entry 
and comments; in-class led discussions); some students had a 
hard time keeping up with due dates. 
q Recommendations: 
§ Cooperative efforts among researchers, students, instructors, 
administrators, and community supervisors are plainly needed; 
§ The development and dissemination of SL in LSP pedagogic 
materials are warranted; 
§ More large-scale studies and longitudinal assessment of L2 
acquisition (both qualitative and quantitative) within the SL 
(and LSP) contexts would help to further understand a new 
strand of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984). 
21
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 
² Department of Hispanic Studies, U of Kentucky 
² Service-Learning Council, U of Kentucky 
² Education Abroad Office, U of Kentucky 
² Spanish Studies Abroad, Seville, Spain 
² Non-profit organizations 
² 40 students
THANK YOU!
QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?

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Measuring Linguistic Gains in Immersion Settings: Empirical Studies from French and Spanish as a Second Language

  • 1. Measuring Linguistic Gains in Immersion Settings: Empirical Studies from French and Spanish as a Second Language Dennis M. Wiseman Council for International Education Exchange Annual Conference Breaking Barriers: Cost, Curriculum, Culture Baltimore, Md November 19-22, 2014
  • 2. Wofford College • Four-year, private, liberals arts college • Founded in 1854 • Methodist affiliated • Phi Beta Kappa • # 4 in the Open Doors survey • 1600 students
  • 3. National Survey of Student Engagement
  • 4. National Survey of Student Engagement
  • 5. National Survey of Student Engagement
  • 6. National Survey of Student Engagement
  • 7. Linguistic Gains: High Impact Practices All French or Spanish students in these data have engaged in at least one of the following activities in study abroad. – Home stay – Language course work – Internship – Volunteer or service learning
  • 8. Methodology • OPIc • Immediately upon return from study abroad, set / proctored • French students – Paris, Nantes, Rennes, Bordeaux, Aix-en- Provence, Dijon, Arles • Spanish students – Spain, Argentina, Panama, Chile, Dominican Republic, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua
  • 9. SPAIN LAT. AMER. SPANISH_STUDY_ABROAD_2007_'13 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 LAT. AMER. SPAIN Series1 118 77
  • 10. ACTFL_OPI_DID_NOT_PARTICIPATE_# 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 SPAIN DNT SPAIN LAT. AMER DNT LAT. AMER. LAT. AMER. LAT. AMER DNT SPAIN SPAIN DNT Series1 118 16 77 29
  • 11. SPANISH_LAT._AMER._ACTFL_2007_2013_# 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 DNT IL IM IH AL AM AH AH AM AL IH IM IL DNT Series1 1 6 31 44 18 2 16
  • 12. SPANISH_SPAIN_ACTFL_2007_2013_# 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 DNT IL IM IH AL AM AH AH AM AL IH IM IL DNT Series1 1 7 25 15 29
  • 13. SPANISH_LAT._AMER._ACTFL_2007_2013_% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 DNT IL IM IH AL AM AH AH AM AL IH IM IL DNT Series1 0.8 5.17 26.27 37.28 15.25 1.6 13.56
  • 14. SPANISH_SPAIN_ACTFL_2007_2013_% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 DNT IL IM IH AL AM AM AL IH IM IL DNT Series1 1.3 9.1 32.47 19.48 37.66
  • 15. French_ACTFL_2007_2013 AH, 3 AM, 6 AL, 21 IH, 16 IM, 12 IL IM IH AL AM AH 0 5 10 15 20 25
  • 16. French_ACTFL_’09_’13 AH, 3 AM, 4 AL, 19 IH, 13 IM, 7 IL IM IH AL AM AH 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
  • 17. French_ACTFL_’11_’13 AH, 3 AM, 2 AL, 11 IH, 10 IM, 4 IL IM IH AL AM AH 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
  • 18. French_ACTFL_’12_’13 AH, 3 AM, 1 AL, 7 IH, 6 IL IM IH AL AM AH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • 19. French_ACTFL_2013 AH, 2 AM, 1 AL, 6 IH, 1 IL IM IH AL AM AH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 20. French_ACTFL_Advanced_2007_ 2013 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2013 2012_2013 2011_2013 2009_2013 2007_2013
  • 21. Spanish_ACTFL_Advanced_2007 _2013 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 2013 2012_2013 2011_2013 2009_2013 2007_2013
  • 22. What is COPI telling us about Spanish improvement in the study abroad context? CIEE Conference Baltimore, November 2014 Vera Cerqueiras, BA Spanish Coordinator
  • 23. CONTENTS • Describe the process of training, implementation and correction of the exam; • Analyze the progress made by students between their entrance COPI and their exit COPI; • Show some of the challenges and the subsequent effects (washback) resulting from this evaluation. 2
  • 24. What is COPI (Computer based Oral Proficiency Interview)? 3 • The COPI exam is a computerized semi-adaptive exam aimed at determining the ability for using oral spanish language at a specific moment taking into account the ACTFL Guidelines. • It is intended for high school students, college students, and professionals whose native language is English or who have an advanced English level • Standarized exam • Measuring linguistic production holistically • Providing feedback to both the test takers and their professors. • Exam results can be used to show the progress of a student after a semester of study. • It cannot be used to make decisions to pass or fail Spanish courses Characteristics
  • 25. Evaluation Levels 4 1. Superior: The candidate gives opinions, hypothesizes, and uses abstract language in unfamiliar language situations 2. Advanced: The candidate narrates and describes situations with some level of complication 3. Intermediate: The candidate demonstrates creative use of the language in simple and everyday situations 4. Novice: The candidate uses fixed expressions, short phrases and lists of memorized words The three latter levels are subdivided into 3 sublevels: High: The candidate does not have the ability to reach and maintain the next level Medium: Represents the prototypical level Low: The candidate has difficulty in meeting the level requirements
  • 26. Administration of the Exam The exam has the following components: • A CD for the administration of the COPI exam • An application for the certification of the exam • Lab with PC`s ,Computers, headset with microphone and Speaker, keyboards • The candidates must select their Spanish level taking in account the summary description of each level given by the program • The program selects from 7 to 11 tasks • The candidates must complete the exam by recording their answers • Teachers / Raters should be in the computer lab to assist. • The exam lasts between 45/60 minutes 5
  • 27. Interview Evaluation and Grading and Final Report of the Evaluation of the level reached by the candidate. 6 • The program saves the candidate’s activities. • A double assessment is performed by two certified professors who correct all the activities completed by each candidate. • The evaluator assigns a corresponding level for each answer he/she listens to, taking into account the level assigned by the student or the program • The evaluator has the option to write comments about the activity, which the program then saves as part of the evaluation. • The program establishes an overall average after the evaluator assigns a level for each of the activities performed by the candidates. • A final report with the certification of each candidate’s obtained level is generated by the program including the overall average and a description of the proficiency
  • 28. Exam and Certification of COPI Evaluators • Evaluators are trained by using a kit provided by CAL (Center of applied linguistics) • They have to pass an exam according to ACTFL Guidelines • This exam consists of 15 comprehensive COPI exams that should be rated • Evaluators approve the exam if at least 60% (9/15) scores coincide with those indicated by the CAL experts. 7
  • 29. 8
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  • 32. 11
  • 33. Why COPI implementation represents a challenge? 12 • BECAUSE it implies working with isolated language samples that must be analyzed without consideration of neither its production context nor its acquisition process. • BECAUSE the evaluator's work needs permanent training and peer feedback in order to adjust and perfect the administration, correction and considerations of the exam. • The internalization of the practices incorporated by giving the COPI exam allow us to focus on the elaboration of evaluation instructions and on the importance that the "knowledge of the world" has towards the successful achievement of that instruction. • The progress data between entry exams and exit exams tests the results obtained by the very same students in the evaluations of the Spanish courses they take as part of their immersion program studies. Until now they are consistent. In other words, those students who advance the most are the same students who achieve the highest grades in their Spanish courses. Washback Effects
  • 34. Effects of International Service-Learning on the Development of Spanish Oral Proficiency CIEE Conference: Breaking Barriers November 19-22, 2014, Baltimore Francisco Salgado-Robles, Ph.D. The City University of New York
  • 35. Overview of presentation ① Goal ② Community Service-Learning a) General notions b) SL in higher education c) SL in the Spanish classroom d) SL at-home: Linguistic gains e) SL abroad: Linguistic gains ③ Research Questions ④ Instrument ⑤ Participants ⑥ Blogging & Service-Learning ⑦ Results ⑧ Discussion ⑨ Conclusions ⑩ Challenges & Recommendations
  • 36. GOAL ¡ Gain further insight into the effects of context (i.e., service-learning in an international setting) on the L2 acquisition process (i.e., the development of Spanish oral proficiency) through a case-control study analysis of participants’ experiences enrolled in a Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) course (i.e., Spanish for the working environment) during a summer semester abroad. 3
  • 37. SERVICE-LEARNING (SL): GENERAL NOTIONS ¡ SL? “Experiential education that engages students in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities intentionally designed to promote student learning and development” (Jacoby, 1996) ¡ Students’ service experiences are tied to the academic content of an on-campus course or curriculum (Giles, Honnet, & Migliore, 1991) ¡ From the tenets of experiential education and constructivist theories that advocate for learning through first-hand discovery (Furco, 2001) ¡ “One of the most effective approaches for engaging students and boosting learning” (Learn and Serve America, 2011) ¡ Shape learners’ knowledge and cultural beliefs, professional aspirations, and community engagement. 4
  • 38. SL IN HIGHER EDUCATION ¡ Based on statistics from 2009-2010, ½ + of community colleges and approximately ¼ of all universities integrate SL in different academic curricula (Learn and Serve America, 2011) ¡ SL pedagogy has been adopted not only due to the overwhelming amount of research in support of this type of educational experience, but also because it has been witnessed how life-changing these opportunities can be for their students (Jeandron & Robinson, 2010) 5
  • 39. SL IN THE SPANISH CLASSROOM ¡ The incorporation of SL in Spanish curricula follows similar trends observed in other disciplines in higher education ¡ Community engagement has been a “growing presence in Spanish classes” and that there is presently “significant activity and interest within our ranks (Hellebrandt & Jorge, 2013) ¡ Rapidly expanding Hispanic population in the United States (Rabin, 2009; Zlotkowski, 1999) ¡ Convincing evidence of the positive impact SL can have on students taking Spanish as a second or heritage language (Petrov, 2013) 6
  • 40. SL AT-HOME: L2 GAINS ¡ Offer students authentic communicative contexts in the target language ¡ Communicative competence improved from regular interaction with NSs after participating in SL (Barreneche, 2011; Navarro, 2012; Olazagasti-Segovia, 2004; Salgado-Robles, 2014) ¡ Facilitate linguistic improvements in the L2 (Hale, 1999; Mullaney, 1999; Overfield, 1997) ¡ Spanish SL students scored higher on L2 reading, speaking, and writing tasks (Malkin, 2010) ¡ Students increased their use of Spanish outside the classroom and felt more confident speaking in Spanish (Pellettieri, 2011) 7
  • 41. ¡ SL as an effective way enhance student’ language skills, knowledge of the host country, intercultural sensitivity, and global competence (Kiely, 2011) ¡ Students gained confidence in their Spanish skills, developed intercultural skills (Kopischke Smith & Moreno-López, 2012) ¡ Facilitate linguistic improvements in the L2 (Cubillos, 2013) ¡ Students perceived a positive relationship between their participation in SL projects and the development of their linguistic and cultural proficiency (Brown & Purmensky, 2014) 8 SL ABROAD: L2 GAINS
  • 42. RESEARCH QUESTIONS ① What is the effect of a community-enhanced Spanish for Specific Purpose course on the oral proficiency at the Intermediate-level? ② What aspects of oral proficiency are most and least influenced by the community engagement experience? 9
  • 44. PARTICIPANTS (CONT’D) Experimental group 22 students (14 f / 8 m) 19-21 yrs old 3rd year Spanish Spanish minors/majors Spanish for the Professions Control group 18 students (11 f / 7 m)* 19-23 yrs old 3rd year Spanish Spanish minors/majors Spanish for the Professions * 1 heritage speaker removed 11
  • 46. 13 BLOGGING & SPANISH FOR THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • 47. BLOGGING & SPANISH FOR THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT (CONT’D) 14
  • 48. BLOGGING & SPANISH FOR THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT 15
  • 49. RESULTS (CONT’D) ü Pre & Post Score Comparison (Experimental Group, N=22) 16
  • 50. RESULTS (CONT’D) ü Pre & Post Score Comparison (Control Group, N=18) 17
  • 51. RESULTS Post Mean p-value Mastery sentence 43.10 50.00 0.0003*** Experimental Vocabulary 36.77 51.22 <0.0001*** Group Fluency 45.52 54.19 <0.0001*** (+SL) Pronunciation 46.18 57.30 0.0003*** Mastery sentence 43.94 46.04 0.0002*** Control Vocabulary 39.75 52.76 <0.0001*** Group Fluency 47.00 49.15 0.1320 (-SL) Pronunciation 44.60 48.63 0.0302 *** High Statistical Significance Pre Mean ü Paired t-tests run to determine significance of trends over time 18
  • 52. DISCUSSION ① What is the effect of a community-enhanced Spanish for Specific Purpose course on the oral proficiency at the Intermediate-level? ü A statistically significant impact on the proficiency level of Intermediate-level learners. ü Just one participant experienced L2 gains towards the advanced-low proficiency level in this experiment. ② What aspects of oral proficiency are most and least influenced by the community engagement experience? ü SL had an observable and statistically significant impact on all sub-skills of oral proficiency measured by the Versant Test. 19
  • 53. CONCLUSIONS ① The incorporation of the SL component into a Spanish for Specific Purposes course in an international setting had a significant effect on oral proficiency; ② The learning conditions provided by the community engagement facilitated oral skill development across all sub-skills; ③ Overall, the SL pedagogy worked successfully for this LSP course and, thus, should be further promoted, since: ü Provide more opportunities for L2 use in meaningful ways; ü Practice different L2 skills: speaking, reading, writing, listening, cultural understanding, etc.; ü Debrief and reflect on SL experience with others; ü Introduction to the professional field in a hands-on way; ü Give more confidence to students when they are in their services. 20
  • 54. CHALLENGES & RECOMMENDATIONS q Challenges: § Time and effort: More so than the ‘normal’ course; § Technological problems and conquering the learning curve; § Lots of smaller tasks (visit report via Google Docs; blog entry and comments; in-class led discussions); some students had a hard time keeping up with due dates. q Recommendations: § Cooperative efforts among researchers, students, instructors, administrators, and community supervisors are plainly needed; § The development and dissemination of SL in LSP pedagogic materials are warranted; § More large-scale studies and longitudinal assessment of L2 acquisition (both qualitative and quantitative) within the SL (and LSP) contexts would help to further understand a new strand of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984). 21
  • 55. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ² Department of Hispanic Studies, U of Kentucky ² Service-Learning Council, U of Kentucky ² Education Abroad Office, U of Kentucky ² Spanish Studies Abroad, Seville, Spain ² Non-profit organizations ² 40 students