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Mastering a New Language for Student Development
Considering a Broader Theoretical Model and Practical Applications
Mary O...
Small group discussion
(five minutes)
 What interested you most about this today’s
session/what do you hope to get out of...
Current Tools for Student
Development in Study Abroad
Bennett:
DMIS: Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (Mil...
Why is Kegan different?
- Language grounded in decades of research
- Broader implications, affecting all arenas of life
- ...
Information vs. Transformation
 We constantly make meaning of our surroundings
and experiences
 Other people may make very different meanings
from the ...
Subject & Object Relationships
“Once I began to do research with Black study abroad
alumni, I realized that most of the beliefs I had
previously held abo...
• 1 – Young children
• 2 – The “Instrumental” Mind
• 3 – The “Socialized” Mind
• 4 – The “Self-Authoring”
Mind
• 5 – The “...
Third Order
 Self-reflective, but look to
authority figures for guidance
 Focus on belonging,
relationships
 Devoted to...
Distinct Intermediate Stages
Fourth Order
 “I’m not a pawn in a cookie-cutter system any longer.”
 “I realized something for the first time. As silly...
• Challenges us
• Prompts us to question what we
used to take for granted
• Is a persistent experience over a
period of ti...
Holding Environments
 Safe spaces that are also
challenging
 Where people can feel safe
addressing difficult issues
Deliberately Developmental Organizations (DDOs)
 Enable the ongoing
development for all
 Involve constant work on
yourse...
K
“Paying attention to someone’s particular form of
mind is not going to change the world. Paying
attention to the sense-mak...
Practical Applications
“Away from their primary culture, [students] are freed to a large degree from the
socializing press...
Case Study: Boston University Arabic Language and
Internship/Service Learning Programs
 Runs summer and fall only
 Rabat...
Fall, 2013:
“The CCCL is very incompetent, unable to understand students needs, and
had extremely unfair and un-based (sic...
What are the benefits of Volunteering?
For yourself:
 To gain a sense of purpose
 To develop personal skills
 To get wo...
Changes Made:
 Moving assumptions from subject to object: Comprehensive pre-
departure presentation with site-specific ha...
Evaluations, 2014:
 “While my internship tasks were unchallenging and
tedious, I learned a lot just from observing the
wo...
As we now also know, the development doesn’t happen
right away or right when we want it.
The development of the students i...
 Walking the Walk after Talking the Talk…
 Signs of a Culture Committed to the Development of Individuals
 Mission and ...
 Strategies for Developing a Team
 Develop an Organizational Strategy for Staffing
 Hiring “ethos”
 Understanding the ...
 Strategies for Developing a Team continued…
 Training and Development
 Understanding of limitations -> supervisor/supe...
 What was your main takeaway from this presentation?
 (Please jot down on a piece of paper and talk at your table
for a ...
 Thank you!
Mastering a New Language for Student Development: Considering a Broader Theoretical Model and Practical Applications
Mastering a New Language for Student Development: Considering a Broader Theoretical Model and Practical Applications
Mastering a New Language for Student Development: Considering a Broader Theoretical Model and Practical Applications
Mastering a New Language for Student Development: Considering a Broader Theoretical Model and Practical Applications
Mastering a New Language for Student Development: Considering a Broader Theoretical Model and Practical Applications
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Mastering a New Language for Student Development: Considering a Broader Theoretical Model and Practical Applications

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As educators, we're aware of the importance of intercultural competency, but how can we better understand other cognitive and adaptive factors at play in Generation Study Abroad? As a necessary step in reinventing study abroad, we'll reexamine how students construct their experiences, how we can support their development, and the impact of study abroad on "meaning-making." Through the investigation of Robert Kegan's "Orders of Mind" and subject/object relationships and interactive discussion of his constructive developmental theory, participants will come away with practical tools to help students broaden their perspective before, during, and after study abroad.

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Mastering a New Language for Student Development: Considering a Broader Theoretical Model and Practical Applications

  1. 1. Mastering a New Language for Student Development Considering a Broader Theoretical Model and Practical Applications Mary Ogburn, Boston University Craig Rinker, Georgetown University Alissa Kramer, Boston University
  2. 2. Small group discussion (five minutes)  What interested you most about this today’s session/what do you hope to get out of it?  What student development theories are you already familiar with (and how does it guide your practice?)
  3. 3. Current Tools for Student Development in Study Abroad Bennett: DMIS: Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (Milton Bennett): A research-based model which looks at how individuals view and understand cultural differences between ourselves and others. It places people’s mindsets on a continuum, from the most ethnocentric, to the most ethnorelative viewpoints. IDI: Intercultural Development Inventory: An instrument that means a person not just where they are located on the DMIS, but also where a person thinks they are located. It measures both our perceptions of ourselves, and also how we really think about and interact with those from different cultures. Kolb: Learning Style Inventory and Experiential Learning : the idea that learning preferences can be described using two continuums: active experimentation- reflective observation and abstract conceptualization-concrete experience Hofstede: Dimensions of culture http://languageandculture.com/blog/?p=639 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_A._Kolb
  4. 4. Why is Kegan different? - Language grounded in decades of research - Broader implications, affecting all arenas of life - Non-judgmental; assumes every adult is still going through different stages of development at different times Key Publications:  The Evolving Self (1982)  In Over Our Heads (1994)  Immunity to Change (2009) Robert Kegan, PhD
  5. 5. Information vs. Transformation
  6. 6.  We constantly make meaning of our surroundings and experiences  Other people may make very different meanings from the same surroundings or experiences Constructivism
  7. 7. Subject & Object Relationships
  8. 8. “Once I began to do research with Black study abroad alumni, I realized that most of the beliefs I had previously held about their pathways to study abroad, experiences abroad, and outcomes were inaccurate….We as individuals also need to do the uncomfortable work of identifying and confronting our biases and educating ourselves regarding the populations we hope to serve before we can effect change.” -Karyn L. Sweeney “Reframing Diversity: Inclusive Excellence and Education Abroad.” The Forum Focus. October 2015, Volume 2.
  9. 9. • 1 – Young children • 2 – The “Instrumental” Mind • 3 – The “Socialized” Mind • 4 – The “Self-Authoring” Mind • 5 – The “Self- Transformational” Mind Orders of Mind
  10. 10. Third Order  Self-reflective, but look to authority figures for guidance  Focus on belonging, relationships  Devoted to institutions/groups and living up to their values  Adhere to social expectations  “Self”-esteem reliant on external approval  Torn in two over decisions when encountering conflicting values Fourth Order  Self-motivated, self-evaluative  Successfully crafted an independent “self” and personal value system  Weigh opinions of others and examine rules, but final decision comes from within  Deep capacity for empathy and taking the perspective of others  “Self”-esteem derived internally Socialized Mind & Self-Authoring Mind
  11. 11. Distinct Intermediate Stages
  12. 12. Fourth Order  “I’m not a pawn in a cookie-cutter system any longer.”  “I realized something for the first time. As silly and simple a realization it may be,…I finally understood that being an adult means making decisions…I am the one who makes the decisions that will direct my life.” (Quotes from study abroad alumni blog posts.)
  13. 13. • Challenges us • Prompts us to question what we used to take for granted • Is a persistent experience over a period of time • Causes us to feel the limits of our current way of knowing • Impacts a sphere of life that we care about • Is accompanied by sufficient supports so that we are not overwhelmed Optimal Conflict…
  14. 14. Holding Environments  Safe spaces that are also challenging  Where people can feel safe addressing difficult issues
  15. 15. Deliberately Developmental Organizations (DDOs)  Enable the ongoing development for all  Involve constant work on yourself in addition to your professional projects and responsibilities
  16. 16. K
  17. 17. “Paying attention to someone’s particular form of mind is not going to change the world. Paying attention to the sense-making of yourself and others, however, might change the course of your life. Those of us who work in this space find ourselves being more gentle with those around us, less frustrated by the foibles of humanity, and more filled with admiration and affection for those who are doing their best. …Adult development theories exist to give us a glimpse into what sense the world makes to us and to others in the present and to show us all a path to a different set of possibilities for the future.” -Dr. Jennifer Garvey Berger
  18. 18. Practical Applications “Away from their primary culture, [students] are freed to a large degree from the socializing pressures of home, with little replacement pressure in their new environment. What a relief: out of the pressure cooker and into a fascinating new environment with little adult supervision! Is it any wonder, then, that many students abroad might choose to minimize unfamiliar challenges to whatever degree possible by: a) clustering with their compatriots, b) avoiding the language challenge, and c) exploring the host culture in like-minded groups of other expatriate adolescents?”* What is our job? *Excerpt from Stuart, D. K. (2012). “Taking stage development theory seriously.”
  19. 19. Case Study: Boston University Arabic Language and Internship/Service Learning Programs  Runs summer and fall only  Rabat, Morocco  Center for Cross Cultural Learning (CCCL)  Homestays, internships and service learning placements  8-14 students Case Study
  20. 20. Fall, 2013: “The CCCL is very incompetent, unable to understand students needs, and had extremely unfair and un-based (sic) grading.” “The host institution, Center for Cross-Cultural Learning, did not meet our expectations” “The internship course was ridiculous and our internships were not really internships. We were rarely given tasks and were all very disappointed in this aspect of the program. I personally was forced to switch NGOs half way through the course because I was never given a task. Many of the other students also spent most of their time at their "internship" observing and doing nothing.” “it's employees lack academic integrity, competence, and compassion” “I felt very deceived by the program as to what was promised to me versus the reality.” Only 45% of the students at that time would have recommended the program to a friend  Students in over their heads?
  21. 21. What are the benefits of Volunteering? For yourself:  To gain a sense of purpose  To develop personal skills  To get work experience  To hone language skills  Sense of comradery  Learn decision making For the organization:  Free labor  “Be inspired by the volunteer”  Cultural exchange  Advance the cause  Improve conditions Students were asked: “According to you, what are the elements of a successful (study abroad/internship) experience?”  US Students  Being open-minded  Being patient  Having a positive attitude and a dynamic personality  Moroccan Students  Being ambitious  Ability to integrate  Commitment  Flexibility  Being a good public speaker  Being a good listener
  22. 22. Changes Made:  Moving assumptions from subject to object: Comprehensive pre- departure presentation with site-specific handbook and transformational culture slides  Optimal conflict: Continuous cultural reflection done on site through CCCL and BU  Development of the holding environment: In depth cultural knowledge for students before, during and re-entry debrief upon return to campus  Measurement: Early and mid-semester check in and evaluations as well as re-entry  Application: short-answer including question about previous adversity and perceived cultural differences as opposed to one short answer question  Recommendations: changed from content courses instead of language evaluation, which help better assess students development as opposed to only language level, which is fairly unhelpful outside of the classroom for this program
  23. 23. Evaluations, 2014:  “While my internship tasks were unchallenging and tedious, I learned a lot just from observing the work and flow of my office. I really enjoyed the opportunity and definitely gained a new perspective.”  “I really enjoyed being able to engage in dialogue with different individuals and not only change my own perceptions, but start to help them uncover that stereotypes about Americans are not always true.”  100% of students recommended the program
  24. 24. As we now also know, the development doesn’t happen right away or right when we want it. The development of the students in this inaugural group is still happening today!  “At the time, it seemed like all the bad overshadowed that good but now I only remember the good. Thank you for providing us with an educational semester, both in and out of the classroom. Whenever I look through pictures or remember details about my experience, all I do is smile. From this opportunity, I have grown as an individual and know I am a better person because of my experience.” -Former student, in an e-mail dated April, 2015
  25. 25.  Walking the Walk after Talking the Talk…  Signs of a Culture Committed to the Development of Individuals  Mission and vision – development of the individual – ALL constituents (students, staff, etc.)  Articulation through core activities – How do activities support development? Are activities transformational?  Strategies for developing a culture that embraces individual transformation Practical Applications: For Organizations Working with Students • Programming • Policy and process • Support services • Hiring • Training and development • Intentional • Challenging • Supportive • Teamwork (Group work) • Leaders and followers – Coaching • Acknowledgement of Individual (while also appreciated the central themes of culture)
  26. 26.  Strategies for Developing a Team  Develop an Organizational Strategy for Staffing  Hiring “ethos”  Understanding the skills and experience needed for positions  Active training and development program that challenges and provides opportunity for elevation  Understanding limitations -> it’s about what your do next  As an Individual  As a professional, seek out opportunities to work in organizations that match your professional ideals -> student- center approach  Promote a culture of transformative learning
  27. 27.  Strategies for Developing a Team continued…  Training and Development  Understanding of limitations -> supervisor/supervisee relationship  Mentoring and coaching  Opportunities  How can we identify ways for professionals to see their world differently?  Creating situations that are ambiguous and challenging  Leadership development  Importance of Kegan’s self-authorization stage -> ability to create a value system  Successful leadership
  28. 28.  What was your main takeaway from this presentation?  (Please jot down on a piece of paper and talk at your table for a few minutes about main themes. We will collect and discuss as a group after second question.)  What are some other ways we can help “meet students where they are” and also support their transition from one Order of Mind to the next? Discussion
  29. 29.  Thank you!

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