VET Guidance consists of different guidance and counselling activities taking place in VET –
Vocational Education and Training. Guidance and counselling / information, advice and guidance
(IAC) is defined as a range of activities designed to help individuals take educational, vocational or
personal decisions and carry them out before and after they enter the labour market.
Furthermore, guidance and counselling may include:
1. – counselling (personal or career development, educational guidance),
2. – assessment (psychological or competence-/ performance related),
3. – information on learning and labour market opportunities and career management,
4. – consultation with peers, relatives or educators,
5. – vocational preparation (pinpointing skills/competences and experience for job seeking),
6. – referrals (to learning and career specialists).
Guidance and counselling can be provided at schools, training centres, job centres, the workplace, the
community or in other settings.
The transnational comparison of guidance systems in participating countries (Latvia, Turkey, Poland,
Romania, Spain, Italy, Slovenia and Bulgaria) will be done at two different levels:
• ISCED 2: lower secondary level - last grade before high school (pupils)
• ISCED 3: upper secondary level - all grades (students)
Level Educational Program
Level 0 Pre-primary education
Level 1 Primary education; First stage of basic Education
Level 2 Lower secondary education; Second stage of basic education
Level 3 (Upper) secondary education
Level 4 Post-secondary non tertiary education
Level 5 First stage of tertiary education (not leading directly to an advanced research
Level 6 Second stage of tertiary education (leading to an advanced research
ISCED 2: Lower secondary education; Second stage of basic education
Completing this level of education (ISCED 2) often coincides with the completion of compulsory
education at least. In general, it is aimed at refining basic skills and preparation for lifelong learning. In
the contest of GIVET each partner has to describe guidance systems (if you haven’t done it yet) taking
place in the last grade/s of ISCED 2 level (usually 8th or 9th grade).
ISCED 3: (Upper) secondary education
Such programs (ISCED 3 level) usually begin at the end of primary education and compulsory
education. At this level of specialization is greater than on ISCED 2 level, teachers are generally better
trained and more specialized to teach certain subjects at this level. There are many different types of
programs and at different levels (2 year, 3 year-vocational programs, 4 or 5 years technician programs
…). In general, the completion of the 3 ISCED level is the minimum requirement for entry into tertiary
education. Vocational education at this stage usually trains students for employment in posts of
technicians. Programs last from 2 to 5 years. At the end of this level, students are generally aged 17-
TRANSNATIONAL COMPARISON OF
VET GUIDANCE SYSTEMS
Guidelines: In this section please describe the historical development of guidance and counselling
system in your country.
Latvia • Accordingly the change of the political system in 1991 and the transition
from a planned economy to a market economy, as well as the change of
guidance paradigm, in Latvia conceptually developed also support from
"professional orientation" to "career guidance." During the Soviet-era in
Latvia professional orientation questions in the education system were
carried out with activities that focused on student promotion and orientation
to action in a given profession. The evaluation of results of professional
activities associated with the implementation of plans, i.e., how the demand
is fulfilled and how the redirection of graduates to certain areas of
employment is accomplished.
• Since 2005th the main concept is “career development support system”
which consists of three key building blocks: Information, Career Education,
• The political responsibility for the implementation of the concept delegated
to the Ministry of Welfare and the Ministry of Education and Science
according to the Cabinet Order No. 214.
• In 2010 the Cooperation Council of Guidance and Counseling began to
work, that is interdisciplinary consultative and coordinating institution which
aims to developing and promoting quality of career development support
service, to enhance each individual's skills and interests adequate
development direction (direction of education, occupation) choice in context
of lifelong learning. Council's main tasks are to develop proposals in
development of legislative and policy planning documents, recommend
concrete steps for the implementation of inter-institutional cooperation, to
provide exchange of information , make proposals for the representatives of
the Council institutions in accordance with public interest. The Cooperation
Council fulfills the functions of information exchange, and its decisions are
recommendatory in nature.
• Ministry of Education set up a working group to develop a concept new
career development support system - deadline 01.08.2013
• The deadline of development of the new concept was extended to 2014
• The first guiding system started in 1950 in Turkey by the effect of politics,
economics and social problems in the world. First it started as the guiding
system at schools and then at universities. The graduaters started to work at
schools and departments of guiding.
• In 1951-and 1952 professor Rus from The USA came to Turkey and gave
seminars to teachers and directors. We can say that the first guiding system
started with this conference. During these years in 1955 the Ministry of
Education adopted the guiding system into the curriculum to Atatürk Girls
Vocational high school in Istanbul and in 1956 to Ankara Deneme high
school and started to apply the lessons.
• In May 1956 the initiative of Central Office of Vocational Training
(CUSZ) took place. At the same time, the Commission of Education,
Science and Culture of the Parliament called on the communist
education authorities to organize counselling for youth and their
• Parliamentary Committee came to the assumption that a significant
screening of students in vocational schools was caused by the wrong
choice of profession.
• At the beginning of 1957, the guidance has been incorporated into the
education system. The first facilities - psychological and vocational (or
psychological-pedagogical) were created. For the first time in the history
of education in Poland guidance has been included in the law and
obtained a permanent material base, which ensured systematic
• The Association of School and Professional Advisors was
established in 1991, bringing together experts in the subject of
vocational guidance in various institutions and ministries
• The beginning of career counselling was set by the foundation of the
Institute for Experimental, Compared and Applied Psychology in Cluj in
1922 and by the activities of the first Psycho technical Laboratory within
the Tram Company in Bucharest in 1925.
• After the 50s there is evidence of serious concern with school
counselling and guidance, with an uncertain evolution by 1989.
• After 1989, a new institutional mechanism - the Psycho pedagogical
Assistance Centres - is founded
• During the last decade of the 20th century, school and professional
guidance has been influenced by:
o The re-foundation in 1990 of the Institute for Educational Sciences,
o The creation in 1995 of the National Agency for School and
o The establishment of Information and Professional Guidance
Offices by the National Employment Agency in every county;
o The creation of the National Centre for Resources in Professional
Guidance in 1999.
• In 1997 the Romanian Government started a project related to career
information and counselling
• The year 2005 witnessed the creation of the County Centers for Psycho
pedagogical Resources and Assistance.
• 1914: Educational training for the working people firstly established in
Spain. Its aim was to offer guidance and counseling to young people
about those jobs which were more demanded.
• In the period of the Civil War (1936-1939) there was a parenthesis in the
guidance activity in the country.
• 1967: The Ley Villar Palasí was the first law that considered counseling
as an essential activity. It was offered by the Spanish School Guidance
Service (Servicio de Orientación Escolar)
• 1977: Provincial services of educational and vocational guidance were
established in every region of the country. They were external services
appointed to the centres. This was the first attempt to institutionalize
guidance and counseling in the country.
• 1985: According to the Royal Decree 334/1985, a students’ basic right is to
receive counseling and vocational guidance at school, especially in
• 1990: Experimental guidance plans were established in every school in
Spain. There were plans carried out by teachers aimed at guiding
students into the labour market.
• 1992: The General Directorate of Pedagogical Renovation of the Ministry of
Education and Science of the Central Government regulated the structure
of the new Guidance and Counseling teams (called EOEP). They offer
guidance to people outside school centres. In 1994, this service got
sectored; each Autonomous Community in Spain has its own guidance
• 2002: The Constitutional Act 5/2002 on Vocational Qualifications and
Training establishes the purpose and organization of career information
and guidance in the following terms:
- to provide information on employment opportunities, the possibilities of
acquiring, evaluating and certifying occupational skills and qualifications
and upgrading them throughout life.
- to provide information and counseling on the various training offers and
possible pathways to careers to enhance employability and re
• The orientation concept has been formalized in 1995 by the Rectors's
Conference which establishes the importance of guidance for the following
a) knowledge of characteristics of young people
b) the identification of personal motivations of young people
c) educational activities
• In 1997, Legislative Decree 469/1997 has entrusted regions the task of
organizing the regional employment systems. Regions and provinces, as well
as arranging the new centers, also absorbed the peripheral structures of the
Ministry of Labor and staff. This arrangement does not apply to special-status
• In 1997, the Ministry of Education issued a directive (N. 487) which provides
actions in order to prevent the phenomenon of early school leaving and
promote educational success. Orientation - as institutional activities of schools
of all levels - is an integral part of the study curricula and, more generally, of
the educational and training process since preschool.
• In 1997, the Ministry of Education issued a decree determining the general
criteria and procedures to regulate and streamline access to university
courses in order to increase students opportunities to consciously determine
their training, also in view of future job opportunities, setting the orientation
• By Decree of the President of the Council of Ministers in 1999, functions
concerning human resources, exploitation and finances for the labor market
have been transferred to the regions and local authorities. Hence the birth
of employment centers (which are headed by the Provincial Directorate of
Labor) which replace the old employment agencies and integrate them with
new and innovative information services, counseling and career
• The Legislative Decree of 21 April 2000, n. 181 "Measures to facilitate the
matching between labor demand and supply". Employment centers must
also offer guidance interviews for young people and adolescents within
six months from the beginning of unemployment.
• The Legislative Decree 297/2002 amends the unemployment definition by
enhancing the user active attitude in the job search. It highlighted the
orientation role of the centers.
In addition, Law n.196/97 defined the reorganization principles of vocational
training and established the execution of training activities by regions and
• Decree n. 276/2003 gives the possibility also to privates to carry out
intermediation activities between demand and offer and also sets forth
qualification systems and cooperation among public subjects.
• In 2004 the national guidance committee was established.
• In 2005, the national guidance committee puts into effect the guidance
national plan, designed to prevent the phenomenon of early school dropout, to
promote the success of education and training and to ensure maximum social
inclusion for everyone. In 2005, through a special regional law (LR 2 / 2005),
Marche’s employment centers were given the name "Employment,
Vocational Guidance and Training Centers” – known with the acronym
• In 2008, the Department for Education promotes a National seminar on
guidance. For trainers.
• Legislative Decree dated 14th
January 2008, n. 22: "Defining guidance paths
finalized for professions and jobs.
• In 2009 MIUR establishes the National Forum of guidance throughout the
course of life, which is connected to the European Policy Network on Lifelong
Guidance, with the aim of ensuring effective cooperation and coordination
between those responsible at national, regional and local level for the supply of
• July 2009, the Department for Education, the General Directorate for the
student, integration, participation and communication - Office IV - enacts the
Guidance National Plan: "Guidelines on guidance throughout the course
of life". Actions at regional level.
• In 2010 the action plan or employability of young people through integration
between learning and work, called "Italy 2020 ' is enacted.
• In 2011, law no. 11 of 15th
July 2011 provides the opportunity for secondary
school institutes of second degree and to Universities to operate as
"Brokerage Agencies" between labor supply and demand, after enrollment in
the Computer register.
• In May 2012 the monitoring of actions under the Guidance National Plan takes
• In 2013 the development of the project "Italialavoro - FIXO - SCHOOL &
UNIVERSITY”.It is a program sponsored and supported by the Ministry of
Labor and Social Policy, with the technical assistance of “Italian Labor Spa”.
The purpose of the program is to support high schools and universities to
provide placement services with the intent to reduce the time of entry into the
labor market for young people and increase their chances of finding a job in
line with studies performed.
The long-term strategy - whose guidelines have been identified by Europe-2020 and
by cascade from “Italy' 2020, Action Plan for employment of young people'' defined
jointly by the three Ministries of Labor, Education, University and research and youth
• contribute to the progressive convergence of employment rates of young
Italian graduates to the EU average;
• improve the quality of jobs for skilled human capital (post-graduate,
graduate students and doctorate PhD).
• In year 1938 the first Vocational counselling centre and agency was
established, with two main functions: they offered counselling service and as
an “agency” it took care of the rational distribution of professions.
• After the Second World War the Vocational counselling centres and
agencies were closed down and were only restored in 1951
• In 1956 first school counsellor was employed. In the 60’s and 70’s
counselling services were introduced in primary and secondary schools.
• After 1960 career guidance rapidly developed in the Employment
• In the 70’s the Slovenian Employment service prepared a uniform program
of vocational guidance which predicted activities for the whole generation
of pupils in primary schools (tests for intellectual abilities, survey on
their occupational choice, individual counselling, team conferences...
• In 1996 new school legislation was accepted and in the same year the
curriculum committee has prepared and adopted official National
Guidelines for Schools Counselling Service.
• The current state of vocational guidance in Slovenian schools: Counsellors
in schools provide a broad range of counselling services; they also work
with others, including teachers, parents and school management.
• National Guidelines for School Counselling Services define the guidance
programmes in primary and secondary schools. The national programme is
largely implemented by school counsellors with the assistance of the
Employment Service of Slovenia (ESS), providing guidance services
through Centres for Information and Vocational Counselling.
• The establishment of a Career Guidance System in school education was
started in 2011, under the Operational Program „Human Resources
Development” of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science.
• Since October 2012 were opened career guidance centers in all district
towns in Bulgaria. This is a Project called “Career Guidance System in
School Education”. The project is implemented with the financial support
of the Operational Program "Human Resources Development" and the
European Social Fund of the European Union. Twenty-eight regional career
guidance centers, with 150 career consultants, were established.
• The main providers of career guidance at school level should be the school
counselors. In the 90’s the first school counselors were employed. But only
one third of the Bulgarian schools have a school counselor. The number of
the students in the school should be up to 500, to be appointed a school
counselor. There are no legal requirements for this job and the schools have
to decide whether to appoint counselors within the delegated budget.
Currently, the school counselors are engaged in other issues and less with
• The current state of vocational guidance in Bulgaria: Lack of a national
system for VET guidance. Lack of enough coordination between the
official institutions, providers of and those in need of vocational guidance. At
this stage there are some attempts and initiatives under different projects
but it is still too early to talk about a unified system for VET guidance.
• The Vocational Education Law (1999) determines the competence of
those institutions responsible for the organization of VET
• The Cabinet of Ministers: determines the state’s political and strategic
areas in VET; it funds VET providers according to criteria established by the
Ministry of Education and Science; it sets the framework for issuing state-
recognised qualifications and determines the recognition of qualifications
obtained in other countries.
• 13% of specialists in schools have a career consultant professional
• In schools career support personnel is assigned from 0.2 to 0.5 rates.
• Availability of career support in schools is variable, because it is up to the
individual school management decisions and certain local government
• Individual and group consultations are carried out at schools, meetings with
employers, the identification of information materials for education and
• On 5/6/1986 with the law number 3308 it was called as “apprenticeship
and vocational training law” but with the date 29/6/2001 and law number
22 it has been changed as “Vocational Education Law”
• On 17.4.2001 published on the official journal with the number 24376, it is
added as MINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING SERVICES REGULATION - It will be applied at the first
grades and after 5th
grade in the secondary schools after the year 2012-
2013.It will not be applied as a lesson but will be applied separately from the
• 20.07.2010 number 75 board of education and discipline
• Constitution of 2.04.1997r. (Article 65) basic act, which demonstrate the
need to organize and promote vocational guidance.
• Act of 7 September 1991 about the education system - requires from
schools "to prepare students to enter the profession and field of study.
• The Maastricht Treaty of 7 February 1992. in art. 126 and 127 of the
cooperation: This document expanded scope of vocational guidance to
issues related to education (Article 126), tying them tightly to the educational
process training and preparation for the labor market (Article 127).
• The legislation regulating the issue of practical vocational training
concerns practical vocational training in school workshops, school
laboratories, continuing education centers and practical training centers,
with employers and on individual farms; it applies to student of public upper
secondary schools offering vocational education as well as young
workers/apprentices doing traineeships as part of their job preparation
• law no. 1/2011of the Romanian national education. It stipulates in some
articles (350, 351, 352 and 353) that career counselling should be a lifelong
• the order of the Ministry of education, research, youth and sports no.
5555/2011- The regulation related to the organization and functioning of the
county centres for resources and educational assistance and for the similar
centre in Bucharest. Guidance is just a part of a counsellor’s activity. It also
includes individual and group counselling sessions. These specific activities
take place mainly in the counsellor’s office, which is coordinated by the
County Centre for Psych-pedagogical Resources and Assistance.
• the order of the Ministry of education, research, youth and sports no.
6552/2011 related to the assessment, psycho-educational assistance,
school and professional guidance for children, students and young people
with special educational needs;
• law no. 76/2002 related to the system of unemployment insurances and
stimulation of the work force
• the legal framework regarding the lifelong career orientation issued in 2012
regulates how the lifelong career counselling should be performed, how the
counselling services should be organized and what exactly these activities
should be and what abilities a career counsellor should have.
• In 2002, the Qualifications and Vocational Education and Training Act
marked the starting point for a number of changes that have taken place in
Spain. This Act established the existence of an integrated VET system,
which means that there must also be an integrated guidance system
covering the following items:
o Guidance departments at integrated VET schools
o Validation of work experience and non-formal learning process
o A guidance working group formed by the Ministry of Education
together with the autonomous regions
o A guidance platform
o Provision of guidance services for open and distance VET
o Guidance tools for counsellors
o Guidance counsellors for Employment offices
o Guidance at universities.
• Constitutional Act 1/1990 on General Governance of the Education
System (LOGSE) established the structure and organization of the non-
university education system, acknowledging educational and career
guidance to be one of the basic principles of educational activity, one
of the student body’s basic rights. The general framework, in which
educational guidance should be delivered, as established in the LOGSE, is
divided into three levels around which education is organized:
- the classroom or group of pupils,
- the school or educational institution
- and the school system, defined within the bounds of a district or
Firstly, the responsibility for guidance in the classroom is mandatory for
form masters/mistresses - teachers (each group of pupils has one form
At the second level, the school guidance departments must be
established or there must be at least one guidance counsellor.
The third level of guidance entails the creation of sector- or district-wide
Each Autonomous Community regulates educational guidance within its
own territory on the grounds of this triple structure, with minor variations
from one Community to another.
• Constitutional Act 5/2002 on Vocational Qualifications and Training
establishes the purpose and organization of career information and
guidance to be offered within the public education system. The guidance
and counseling subjects and activities can only be imparted at
schools by specialized teachers with psychological, pedagogical or
social background who have passed the Civil Service Examinations
(so called Oposiciones) under the following terms:
- To provide information on employment opportunities, the possibilities of
acquiring, evaluating and certifying occupational skills and qualifications
and upgrading them throughout life. Provide information and counseling
on the various training offers and possible pathways to careers to
enhance employability and re employability.
- Services administered by the education and labour authorities, local
governments and the social partners, among others, may take part in
career information and guidance, with coordination upon the central
- Governmental career information and guidance services must provide
information to pupils in the education system, their families,
unemployed and employed workers and society at large. The various
levels of government must also provide the social partners with
information on the system that can serve as a guide in collective
bargaining, without prejudice to the independence of the parties
• in 2005, through a special regional law (LR 2 / 2005), Marche’s employment
centres were given the name "Employment, Vocational Guidance and Training
Centres” – known with the acronym CIOF
• Agreement between the Government, the Regions and local authorities
on the establishment of the national lifelong guidance . Repertoire acts n. 152/CU of
December 20, 2012 : Note no. 29/0006436/L of 13 December 2012 in which the
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs has transmitted the proposed
agreement between the government, the regions and local authorities on the
establishment of the national lifelong guidance, together with the concert by
the Ministry of Education, Universities and research, December 14, 2012,
was circulated to the regions and local authorities;
• Agreements between the Government and the Regions and Local
Authorities, as follows:
• Agreement, pursuant to Article 9, paragraph 2, letter. c) of
Legislative Decree 28 August 1997. 281. Legislative Decree 19
December 2002, n. 297 "Provisions amending and corrective
legislative decree of 21 April 2000, n. 181 laying down provisions to
facilitate the matching of demand and supply of labor, in compliance
with article 45, paragraph 1, letter a) ";
• Legislative Decree 10 September 2003, n. 276 "Implementation of
proxies in respect of employment and the labor market, including
the Law of 14 February 2003, no. 30 " and subsequent
• Legislative Decree 14 January 2008, n. 21 on "Guidelines for the
definition of career guidance to higher education and advanced
training in art, music and dance, the link between schools,
universities and institutions of higher education in art, music and
dance, as well as the enhancement of the quality of the academic
performance of students for admission to graduate degree
programs planned access referred to in Article 1 of the Law of 2
August 1999 n. 264, to accordance with art. 2, paragraph 1, letters
a9, b) and c) of the Law of 11 January 2007, n. 1 " ;
• Legislative Decree 14 January 2008, n. 22 entitled "Definition of
orientation courses aimed at professionals and work, in accordance
with art. 2, paragraph 1, of the Law of 11 January 2007, n. 1 " ;
• Ministerial Decree of 21th July 1997, n. 245: concerning general criteria
and procedures to regulate and streamline the access at the university
courses in order to increase students opportunities to consciously determine
their training, also in view of future job opportunities.
• Directive n. 487 of 6th August 1997, provides measures to prevent early
school leaving and to promote educational success. The guidance - as
institutional activity of schools at all levels - is an integral part of the study
curricula and, more generally, the educational and training process since
• Decree Law of 14th January 2008, n. 22 "Defining guidance paths related
to professions and work": determines the realization of guidance courses
aimed at the degree courses's choice.
• Law no. 111 of 15th July 2011 (which replaced the Article. 6 of Legislative
Decree no. 276/2003): it offers the possibility to the institutes of secondary
school (second degree) and to the University to operate as "Brokerage
Agencies" between labor demand and supply.
• There is no explicit coordinated policy for career guidance and its
providers in Slovenia, and no cross-sectorial coordination body exists.
Some of the rare laws that tackle guidance are:
• The Organization and Financing of Education Act says that school
guidance service and ESS should be connected when performing career
counselling and guidance. One of the goals of this act is also gaining the
possibility for further educational and professional path with the emphasis
on qualifications for LLL. The Act states that school counsellors can only
become specialists who have graduated from university studies:
psychology, pedagogy and andragogy, social work, social pedagogy and
defectology (children and youth with special needs)
• The Vocational Education Act mentions that social partners and ministries
should cooperate with schools when dealing with guidance and planning the
• Nationally defined minimal standards for guidance in schools declare
what activities regarding career guidance should be executed in every
elementary and secondary schools.
• Vocational Education and Training Act. It is the act of providing advice to
students and other persons with regard to the choice of profession and
career development. According to the Vocational Education and Training
Act the system for vocational guidance is ratified as part of the vocational
education system. It is stated that: „Vocational guidance is the act of
providing advice and counseling to students and other persons with regard
to the choice of profession and career development”. The main task defined
by the law is providing assistance to trainees in their free choice of
education, training and vocational qualification for the acquisition of the
required knowledge and skills, corresponding to the requirements of the
• National Lifelong Learning Strategy (2008 – 2013). A unified national
lifelong guidance system should be implemented for the period up to 2013.
It is also required to develop programs for education and qualification of the
personnel engaged with vocational guidance related services. The provision
of accessible and high quality services for vocational guidance to all
students in Bulgaria is defined as a key priority. The national strategy aims
to assist/enable individuals in/to better plan and manage their own career
path and skills, to further develop their knowledge and skills, and to improve
ORGANIZATION OF VET GUIDANCE:
In this section please state how is career guidance organized in your country on ISCED 2 and 3 level.
Make clear distinction between the two levels.
• Till August 2013 the working group of Ministry of Education has to develop a
concept of new “Career development support systems” with three key
building blocks: Information, Career education, Career counselling
• At national level, guidelines and recommendations are recommendatory in
• Decisions on funding for the providing guidance counselors are taken at the
• Decisions on the planned guidance are made by each school, up to it career
planning support through different regions and different schools is different.
• Consultations also provide guidance counselors who work individually (paid
Consultations are also provided by State Employment Agency guidance counselors,
but they can be used for the registered unemployed only.
• 1 hour in elementary school as guiding and the following week as social
activities and following like that applied by the class teacher.
• In secondary schools it is one hour per week and it is named
guiding/counselling and planning career applied by the class teacher and
help of the guiding teacher of the school.
• Vocational guidance education is part of the basic national curriculum as
a cross-cutting subject that is executed within subjects as civil education
(ISCED level 2) or compulsory subject introduction to entrepreneurship
(ISCED level 3).
• Schools also organize seminars and workshops related to vocational
guidance with cooperation with professional world. Students can also
participate in activities organized by School Career Centers.
Guidance is an educational activity performed:
• Within curriculum, executed by head/form/class teachers during their
counselling and guidance classes. Each class teacher has one class a week
with their own students. There are generally approximately 36 school weeks,
therefore that teacher will have 36 hours a year, during which they have to
cover five different modules. Career guidance is just one of those modules, and
the teacher doesn’t have a clear order of the topics or a specific topic-related
number of classes. All class teachers have taken career guidance classes
themselves, so they have acquired the necessary skills to cover this topic.
Additionally they can also enlist the assistance of the school career counsellor
or other specialist in order to provide relevant information to their students.
• In the psycho-pedagogical assistance offices (individual and group
sessions) located in some schools
• Career information and counselling centres like Employment services
• Trough projects in partnership with the community aiming at counselling
young people concerning their career.
There are two guidance subsystems in Spain: one for education and the other for
employment. But, there has been a process of decentralisation with regard to career
guidance, and now both systems coexist. The personnel of the Guidance
departments at schools are formed of different specialised teachers, and they are
usually directed by a psychologist or a pedagogue.
• There is at least one school counsellor in every school
• In general the background for this type of education covers three areas — a
core set of subjects, applied science and practical technology.
The emphasis lies on practical technology, taking up to approx. 50 % of the
weekly timetable. This type of training therefore combines academic and
vocational subjects and is equipped with a system of validation and
equivalences with those courses leading to the unified baccalaureate.
• Guidance in ISCED level 2 is an activity with limited hours per year (1
hour or less per week). It is taught by teachers (tutors) and is formally
defined as a cross cutting subject. Some schools have extracurricular
activities and skills regarding career guidance, as visits to companies,
• In ISCED level 3 (VET), there is a compulsory subject taught by a specialist
(teacher specialized in teaching guidance and counseling). Students get a
deeper understanding of the chances they can have in the labour market
according to their possibilities.
Guidance system in Italy is decentralised. Schools (primary and secondary) all
have guidance counsellors but the accessibility of guidance services is lower than
There are different bodies performing guidance functions.
First of all, there are “Employment, Vocational Guidance and Training Centers”
(CIOF), structures managed by the provinces which have replaced the previous
placement offices and whose task is to promote the meeting between labor demand
Several guidance activities are also carried out by middle and high school
institutes. Even the universities are involved in guidance, especially for students in
their final years of high school.
Along with these public services other entities, both public and private operate:
- Municipalities and Chambers of Commerce
- Employers and workers associations
- Patroneges, bilateral agencies and nonprofit associations
- Managers of specific internet sites
- The recruitment consultants national order
- The National Welfare and assistance for workers in the entertainment and
- All employment agencies and companies for research and selection of
Guidance in secondary school (ISCED 2)
The career guidance is, certainly, the most important objective of the school. It has
to begin from pre-primary school.
The main aims are:
• Creating a curriculum for career guidance starting from pre-primary to
lower secondary school
• Helping teenagers to know themselves, in terms of: Aptitudes/ability -
Knowledge - Skills - Competences
• Promoting, organizing and managing activities between the
comprehensive school and high schools: the students have the chance
to meet in schools, teachers, headmasters, etc… of secondary upper
schools, and then they can visit these schools, whit their parents, during the
• Providing additional support for students that have any difficulties For
example: whit mentoring and tutoring actions.
Responsibility and administrative control:
Headmaster, one or two teachers responsible for project, School and Teachers
Council. An evaluation procedure is adopted in order to monitoring results.
Guidance in secondary school, further education and upper secondary
schools (ISCED 3)
“Training” guidance aimed at enhancing self-knowledge (personal attitudes,
expectations, motivations, potentialities and limits).“Information” guidance dealing
with the training offer available and its connections with the labour market.
Provided by: schools (teachers), vocational training agencies (trainers and
guidance practitioners), private and public guidance centres, social
partners/enterprises and professional associations.
Target group: Students from public schools and students from vocational training
institutes (age range: 14/19 years)
Responsibility and administrative control: School headmasters, directors of the
vocational training agencies, guidance offices of local bodies Municipalities and
Provinces) and of the Regions.
Usually, guidance activities are provided using the internal human
resources of the schools and of the vocational training agencies. Sometimes,
the involvement of external guidance centres is financed by Local Bodies, Regions,
Associations of Enterprises, and by other players in the labour market.
• Nationally defined minimal standards for guidance in primary and
• Every school has at least one school counsellor but usually there are two
(psychologist and pedagogue or social worker).
• Career education in primary schools (ISCED 2) is a cross-cutting
subject that can be executed within basic subjects, class teacher’s lectures
or as an after school activity. School counsellor are encouraged to
cooperate with other organizations when organizing job shadowing visits in
companies, working experiences, presentations of different vocations and
other activities. Team meetings are also taking place where Slovenian
Employment Services’ counsellors, school counsellors and teachers and
sometimes even school doctor discuss educational-vocational intentions of
• Guidance is an activity with limited hours per year but career education is
formally defined as a cross-cutting subject. Some schools have
extracurricular actives regarding career guidance;
• In VET (ISCED level 3) we have a cross-cutting subject called Career
planning skills that states learning objectives but not implementation
• Schools also cooperate with Information and vocational counselling
Centre which operates under Slovenian Employment Service.
• Some schools execute guidance activities within international projects or
in cooperation with local organizations/companies.
• A lot of vocational secondary schools are included in a project called
Learning Achievements portfolio run by Institute of Republic of Slovenia
for Vocational Education and Training.
• There is no unified national system for VET guidance, only some
attempts under different projects.
• Since October 2012, schools cooperate with Career guidance centres
which are established under the project “Career guidance system in school
education”. The centres organise training courses in vocational guidance for
the school counsellors. The participation in the courses is optional and
there isn’t a law that determines the duties and competences of the school
• At the moment a network of 28 regional career guidance centres is
launched. All young people have the opportunity to receive free career
guidance services. The schools are visited by the career counsellors from
the centres. This is an extracurricular activity, which is supported by the
school management and school counselors.
Please state which career guidance activities are executed on ISCED 2 and 3 Level in your
country. Below you can find the list of most often career guidance activities identified.
• Individual counselling
• Group counselling
• Psychological Assessment, ability tests
• Self-help guidance tools
• Lectures or workshops
• Visits of companies
• School Project work
• Traineeships, practical training classes, work trials
• Team sessions with parents, teachers, counselors and students
• Watching films
• Selection exams are not part of guidance services but they determine one’s further
• Information (preparation and presentation)
• Career Education (services, courses, programs)
• Career counselling (assistance in career planning, professional suitability
of work trials, job search, and remaining at work skills)
• Each school’s and the municipality's situation is different, because the
suggestions are recommendatory in nature.
Different activities regarding:
• self-knowledge (characteristics, interests and expatiations)
• recognition of professions (professional environment sectors, areas and
professions and learn about the features of professional staff)
• determination of characteristics and expectations of the person with
the overlap of spots crafts
• OKS / SBS - a student selection and placement exam
• Pre-registration Form, Orientation Recommendation Form (9th grade
• At ISCED level 2, the compulsory subject called civic education (3
teaching hours per week in a period of 3 years)
• At ISCED level 3, introduction to entrepreneurship is the compulsory
subject which is most related to vocational guidance (2 teaching hours
in a period of 3 years). Its objectives related to career guidance: preparation
for active participation in economic life; shaping of the attitude for reliable
work and entrepreneurship; developing communicative skills and teamwork;
developing skills for active job searching and the suitable choice of career
• Traineeships and practical training clases
• International (LdV) projects
• Contacts with the professional world
• Classes in School Career Centres are implemented in various forms:
- activating group classes
- lectures, questions and answers, brainstorming and workshops
- individual educational and vocational guidance
- diagnose students' needs for information and assistance in career planning
through interviews, surveys and other methods
- dissemination and discussion with the students the information
- watching films
- access to Internet, borrowing books and publications of SZOK and use of
other pedagogical materials
- publishing and editing newsletters or school addition
- organizing trips to places connected with the world of education and work -
secondary schools, universities, offices and private companies to present
various professions, trips to job fairs, learning how to use office equipment
• Individual counselling – it takes place in the school counsellor’s office or in
specialized centres and it is based on volunteering. The student cannot be
forced to have individual counselling.
• Group counselling – it can be done by the school counsellor either during
a class teacher’s class (whole-class activity: 25-30 students or half of the
class, which can prove more efficient) or in the students’ free time. It is also
based on volunteering. Students cannot be forced to attend group
• Psychological Assessment, ability tests – they can only be done by
those school counsellors who are trained and certified to apply and interpret
ability tests. Should they not have the necessary training and certification,
they must enlist the help of their certified colleagues in the county centres.
• Self-help guidance tools – they can be used either during individual or
group counselling sessions.
• Visits of companies – they can be done either by the class teachers or by
the counselling teacher. They aim at making the students familiar with the
respective company and its activities, in order for them to make sure that
their preferences about working in that company are based on true facts or
that they would really like working there in the future.
• School Project work – they can be either personal portfolios or school
projects. Students may conceive their own CVs or cover letters. On the
other hand, the students can get involved in school projects along with local
partners, such as companies or work force agencies.
• Traineeships – they take place in technological high schools, wherein
students have traineeships in local companies the activity of which has
something to do with the profile of that school.
• Team sessions with parents, teachers, counselors and students – they
can be either lectures during parents’ meetings, especially in the final year
of study, consisting of various information about the way the students can
evolve in their professional life, or other meetings related to career
counselling topics held by the school counsellors and/or a specialized
person. School counselors themselves are offered training courses related
to career guidance, so that they get the necessary abilities in order to
conduct career guidance.
ISCED level 2: 1 hour per week
Carried out by Staff working at the High school. Main activities:
• To carry out the students educational and vocational guidance
• To support the learning-teaching process
• To take part in curricula developments, especially those related to psycho-
pedagogical aspects and diversity support
• Psycho-pedagogical evaluation of students, and further work plan
• Teachers guidance on students support
• To carry out the tutoring action plan in coordination with tutors and
• Speeches and visits to companies, VET schools and universities
• Web-based tutorials to teach students on jobseeking...
ISCED level 3: At least 3 hours per week
There are special teachers for Career Guidance and Job Training (subject called
“FOL” in Spanish). It is a compulsory subject in all VET courses. Besides classroom-
based or distance learning courses, these may be classed under other headings,
• Broad-based courses:
Targeted at young people aiming to provide them with knowledge and skills of a
general nature and common to a number of occupations, so as to assist them in
finding employment, but without providing them with a qualification sufficient to
perform a specific occupation;
• Occupational courses:
Aimed at those not holding any qualification, the principal objective being to provide
knowledge and skills sufficient to permit the person concerned to perform a certain
• Occupational adaptation courses:
These are courses aimed at skilled workers who, either because they have lost their
job or because its disappearance is planned, need to acquire training and
knowledge sufficient to carry out another job or profession;
• Specialization courses:
These courses, aimed at skilled workers, are designed to assist them in improving
and updating their skills and thus contribute to their career advancement.
• International (LdV) projects offering training placements abroad
• The COPOE (Professional Organisation of Counsellors), organises varied
activities to help students decide about their work plans for the future. Counsellors
working in school centres belong to this organisation. There is, at least, one
counsellor in every school in Spain. They usually hold meetings and speeches in
order to guide and advise students, and organize conferences, symposiums, and
even publish books on guidance to VET students. (see www.copoe.org/)
Regional Employment, Vocational Guidance and Training Centres (CIOF) provide
information and career counselling for youth in compulsory education, high
schools’ and universities’ students.
Regional Guidance sector is in charge for provision of information, training and
technical support.(not for students)
Employment services offer different guidance services:
• information on the labour market
• counselling to the proposal of traineeships and guidance
• courses/guidance labs to choose from, labs on techniques to actively search
for a job
• balance of competences for students and unemployed…
Guidance in comprehensive school (ISCED 2)
The career guidance is, certainly, the most important objective of the school. It has
to begin from pre-primary school.
The activities on ISCED 2 level are aimed at helping pupils to know themselves.
Pupils can also attend so called “open days” on secondary schools. Additional
support is also provided for pupils with difficulties.
Guidance in secondary school
In the school (ISCED 3), the guidance activities are:
• Professional and academic guidance (in high schools).
• Meeting with professionals
• Projects with companies
• Military career guidance
For what concern the academic guidance, schools make use of the initiatives in this
direction promoted by the universities themselves.
National Guidelines for Schools Counseling Service in primary education
defines vocational guidance as a process in which teachers, pupils, parents, school
counselors and school management cooperate with the aim to facilitate pupils’
educational and career decision making. National guidelines also state that every
school counselor should set their priorities and prepare their work plan according to
their professional capacity as long as they carry out guidance according to Minimal
standards. Guidance activities include information, assessment, counseling, career
education, placement, advocacy, feedback/follow up. According to Minimal
Standards every school should:
• ensure all pupils have access to the information they need to decide on
further education and career choices trough different information sources,
such as school libraries, boards, boards, as well as personally from school
counselors and teachers;
• execute 2 hours long lecture/workshop per year for pupils in last two
grades in primary schools
• provide access to at least one individual counseling session for each
pupil before they finished primary school wherein pupils can decide whether
they wish to have counseling;
• collect data on pupils for the purpose of career guidance: in 8th
psychological testing with multifactor battery was applied till 2012, pupils
also fill in the Questionnaire on learning habits (VUN). In the 9th grade
pupils fill in the Questionnaire on vocational path (SDS-R – Holland) and try
to find more career options with the help of an e-tool Where and how.
• execute at least one lecture for parents of children in last two grades of
primary school (children being 13, 14 years old) regarding their role and
influence on children’s’ educational and vocational choices. Beside that
school counselors should provide access to individual counseling for
parents where they can discuss pupil’s career choices.
All schools provide group session to help pupils filling in the application forms
for secondary schools. Beside that schools organize a visit to local Vocational
Information and Counseling Centre.
National Guidelines for Schools Counseling Service in secondary education
state that school counselors should provide:
• Group lessons on career guidance (1st and 2st year = 2 hours, 3rd year = 3
hours, 4th year = 4 hours)
• at least one individual counseling session for each student in the last grade
• up to date materials in the library with cooperation with other relevant
Minimal Standards for Guidance in Secondary Schools define guidance program
in secondary schools in Slovenia which should include:
• various information activities
• lessons on career-related issues (such as career development, further
education and employment possibilities)
• work with self-help guidance tools
• psychological testing
• individual career counselling
• visits to employers
In the past (till 2012) students of primary and secondary school were able to
participate in job shadowing activities (presentations of certain vocations and
professions on sight), financed by Employment Service and organized by Kadis.
Within “Information days” organized by all secondary schools and Universities in
February pupils and students can visit different secondary schools/universities and
familiarize with educational programs. Some secondary schools especially those
offering three years vocational programs organize additional presentations and
practical activities with the aim to attract more students.
Some more enthusiastic school counsellors organize additional activities like
portfolios, summer camps, company visits and workshops, beside that some
VET schools participate in international projects.
Learning Achievements Portfolio (Mape učnih dosežkov) is a national project run
by Institute RS for Vocational Education and Training in which many vocational
secondary schools are included.
The career guidance centers provide:
• Group and individual counseling.
• Lectures and workshops.
• Team sessions with students, teachers and counselors.
• Psychological tests for diagnostics of interests, attitudes and reasons for
choice of profession.
• Interactive methods and training on skills for decision-making.
• Skills for making a portfolio and work application /CV, a cover letter, a
behavior job interview /.
• Relationships between schools and labor market.
The time spent for group VET guidance is 4 hours per year for the
students who finish elementary /7, 8 grades – ISCED 2/ and secondary /11,
12 grades – ISCED 3/ education.
The rest of the Bulgarian students have group VET guidance 1 hour per
The schools provide:
• Visits of companies.
• Practical training classes.
• School Project work.
• Information days.
In most countries there guidance services are divided on educational sphere and employment sphere
although the last sometimes also provide services for youth (pupils, students) but in many cases their
target group are unemployed.
• Career consultants in schools
• Career consultants in State Employment Agency
• Individual private consultants – for charge
• The Ministry of Education and Science (MoES) – framework and regulations for
VET, accredits providers, organizes guidance and counseling service and
research demands on the labor market
• The Department of Vocational and Continuing Education
• The State Education Development Agency (SEDA)
• Ministry of Welfare (MoW)
• The State Employment Agency
• Class advisor
• School guidance counsellor
• Introduction and Orientation teachers
• National vocational information centre of national Ministry of Education
• Counselling services in every national educational directorate
• Ministry of Education and it’s directorates for education
• 361 School career centres at lower and upper secondary level
• Psychological and Pedagogical Counselling Centres
• Educational and Labour Centres and Mobile Vocational Information Centres -
Youth Career Centres under OHP – Voluntary Labour Corps
• Ministry of National Education and Sport
• Ministry of Economy, Labour and Social Policy – for unemployed youth
(Centres for Vocational Information, Information and Career Planning Centres,
Units for Information and Group Counselling existing at the District Labour
• Head teachers
• School counsellors form school Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices
• Career information and counselling centres
• Counselling Offices and the County Educational Resource Centres in each
• Ministry of Education trough County Psycho-pedagogical Resources and
• National Employment Agency
• COPOE (Professional Organisation of Counsellors) and their school
counsellors working in every VET school
• SEXPE (labour offices in Extremandura region)
• Staff of Public educational Institutions
• Central Government
• Regional Governments of the Autonomous regions
• Guidance counsellors
• Regional Guidance sector
• Regional Employment, Vocational Guidance and Training Centres (CIOF)
• Trade Unions, Umbrella organizations and Human Resource Management
private providers and employment agencies
• IX Commission for education, work , innovation and research of the
Autonomous Regions and Provinces
• Education, Vocational Training and Labour Policies Unit (IFL)
• Primary schools, secondary schools, high schools all have guidance
• University career centres offer their service not only to students but more and
more often also to secondary schools’ graduates who wish to gather more
information about certain faculty/educational program.
• Employment service of Slovenia - 12 regional offices and in the Information and
Vocational Counselling Centre (CIPS).
• HRM private providers and employment agencies – for charge
• Ministry of Education, Science and Sport
• Ministry of work, family and social affairs
• National Education Institute of the Republic of Slovenia
• Institute of Republic of Slovenia for Vocational Education and Training (CPI)
• Schools – teachers, class advisors and school counselors.
• 28 Regional Career Guidance Centers, which work under a project.
• The National Employment Agency and its local subdivisions: the Labor offices.
• Private advice centers, which provide paid vocational guidance services.
• Web-based services for vocational guidance and advice, established in 2011,
which receive their financing from European projects.
• Specialized literature – books, manuals, reference books and brochures
containing information about the process of career development.
• Ministry of Education, Youth and Science. /The Euro guidance Centre functions
within the Human Resource Development Centre of the Ministry of Education,
Youth and Science and provides information and services for career guidance
in the field of education/.
• Education Inspectorates.
• The National Agency for Vocational Education and Training (NAVET). A road
map called “Development of career guidance in Bulgaria 2009 – 2013” was
created and aims to facilitate the interaction between the different sectors. This
is a national document, which identifies the main objectives and key priorities
for the development of the policies and the practices in the field of vocational
guidance and career development in Bulgaria for a time period of 5 years.
EXAMPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
National data base for chances: www.nidl.lv
The World of Professions: www.profesijupasaule.lv
www.prakse.lv possibility to assess virtually their knowledge about the profession
www.nva.gov.lv possibility to identify their individual strengths and relevance of the
profession completing the tests in the virtual environment.
National vocational information centre of National education ministry where you can
find all the relevant information of Vocational education.
Every students and counselling teachers are registered on this web link and have a
password and user name and have to do it online.
Also in every national education directorate there is a counselling service for the
students and they can get benefit from these centres for free.
Vocational Guidance center for Youth-provide services for schools, teachers
International project (EEA Grants) concerning vocational guidance, career
planning and empowerment of human capital in professional context. The
partnership built online platform for vocational guidance specialists,
psychologists and people working with young students and helping them to
choose the right career path.
EU Project „Elaboration of vocational guidance model and online information
and education system” .
In frames of the Project the following activities are being realized:
- Analyses of vocational guidance in PL and some EU countries;
- Vocational guidance model;
- Piloting of the model;
- Online Information and Educational System.
Vocational and social activization of disabled and young people in danger of
Vocational guidance online. Information and good practices in Poland.
1. ”Informing and counselling high-school students as for their career”, a
project coordinated by the Dolj County Centre for Educational Resources and
2. “Job Shadow Day”, a project aimed at students in the final years of high
school, coordinated by Junior Achievement Romania, the Dolj County School
Inspectorate and other local, national and multinational companies;
3. “CONSEL– counselling students for an easier transition from school to
an active life”, a project which was co-financed by the European Social Fund
1. RAYUELA, an educational online tool, is a platform for education
management, teachers, students, counselors, parents and associations of
2. A guidance booklet for students finishing secondary level including a self-
evaluation questionnaire to be filled, in order to determine their interests,
abilities, motivation, etc… Once completed, they hand it over to the counselor
at school for a final interview
3. ORIENTA is an online guidance test implemented by a private company and it
is available for the high schools to buy it and customize it according to their
preferences. For example, the school “Instituto Albarregas” in Merida town,
1. Regione Marche takes part of Euroguidance Italy;
2. GIRC Leonardo project – technical guidance liaison device is a
contribution from a technical and methodological point of view and a point of
reference for the development of specific actions addressed to a plurality of
guidance practitioners and stakeholders. GIRC ended in 2007
3. GIANT Leonardo project – based on GIRC, confirmed its potential in terms
of adjustment of the model to the local needs, proving to be able to provide a
significant contribution to the improvement of the existing situation. Giant
ended in 2009.
4. SORPRENDO career guidance software, has been mapped and adapted to
national context, together with GIANT project. The software performance is
similar to KAM IN KAKO in Slovenia. Since 2010 Marche Region has adopted
SORPRENDO In all CIOF centres.
5. Career Guidelines Leonardo project - Information and Guidance on new
careers and training pathways. The project Career Guidelines aims at
improving the quality of vocational and educational guidance services through
the transfer of an English model of career guidance, created by CASCAiD Ltd
and already diffused at international level. The model, based on the use of a
career profile database, allows the young customers of the employment and
guidance services to define their interests and aims on career opportunities
better and helps them to build their career plan. Ended 2011. Web Site :
1. Web page: www.mojaizbira.si (my choice)
It was started as a project founded by EU commission and Slovenian Ministry
of Education in 2008. The target group are pupils, students, school
counsellors, parents, participants in adult education. CONTENT of the
webpage mojaizbira.si: CAREER SIGNPOST: information and presentation
of educational programs on secondary level (more than 300 formal and non-
formal programs) and schools, presentation of more than 428 occupations
(343 even with video), presentation of Slovenian system of APL (accreditation
of prior gained knowledge), materials for counsellors, legislative and useful
links, presentation of different projects in the area of career guidance and VET
2. INTERACTIVE COMPUTER PROGRAM KAM IN KAKO – WHERE AND
HOW which is an interactive computer program that helps users when
choosing their profession/occupation. Target group are pupils and students
making their first career decision, as well as those who are looking for new
ideas regarding their careers. Program originates from the UK and was
adapted to Slovenian conditions in 1998/99 during the PHARE project
Experimental Centre for Vocational Guidance. Nowadays more than 400
primary and secondary schools, Employment services and other institutions
are using it to help their students to make optimal career choices. Content:
job descriptions, possibilities of researching specific occupations, photos,
interviews with individuals engaged in a particular profession, self-evaluation
of skills, which occupations are not appropriate when having certain health
3. Learning Achievements Portfolio which supports the process of collecting
evidence for the purpose of identification of knowledge acquired through
formal or non-formal education and work experience. In learning
Achievements Portfolio, the students store their products and supporting
documents showing the acquired knowledge and skills acquired in school and
outside of school or other documents which show the development of
personality and skills of lifelong learning, personal learning plan, monitoring
progress, career guidance, and the like. It is an interactive tool consisted out
of different worksheets which enable students to create their own individual
4. Career Centre in schools (School Center Celje): Project Career Centre in
schools (2011/2012) is an ACES (Academy of Central European Schools
2006) project. Students participated in different workshops: How to write an
application form and CV, Job Interview, Job seeking skills, Information
seeking, Informal ways of job searching (network), Which are our values and
why are they important, Identification of personal characteristic, Individual
career plan – portfolio Volunteering as a successful career start. They have
also created a short movie with a simulation of a job interview.
1. Innovative web-site for on-line career guidance, which has been functioning
since 2011. It contains exercises, useful tips and instruments for self-
assessment of those looking for a job or those choosing a profession:
2. Information on how to choose the right profession; career guidance toolkits;
links to career centers: http://www.kakvidastanem.bg
3. On-line test МАРР for vocational motivation and self-assessment:
4. Private organisation for career advice. Individual advisory sessions to choose
a profession and on career development; Information workshops at schools
providing career guidance: http://selfinvest.eu