Final transnational comperison of vet guidance


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Final transnational comperison of vet guidance

  1. 1. TERMINOLOGY: VET GUIDANCE VET Guidance consists of different guidance and counselling activities taking place in VET – Vocational Education and Training. Guidance and counselling / information, advice and guidance (IAC) is defined as a range of activities designed to help individuals take educational, vocational or personal decisions and carry them out before and after they enter the labour market. Furthermore, guidance and counselling may include: 1. – counselling (personal or career development, educational guidance), 2. – assessment (psychological or competence-/ performance related), 3. – information on learning and labour market opportunities and career management, 4. – consultation with peers, relatives or educators, 5. – vocational preparation (pinpointing skills/competences and experience for job seeking), 6. – referrals (to learning and career specialists). Guidance and counselling can be provided at schools, training centres, job centres, the workplace, the community or in other settings. TARGET GROUP The transnational comparison of guidance systems in participating countries (Latvia, Turkey, Poland, Romania, Spain, Italy, Slovenia and Bulgaria) will be done at two different levels: • ISCED 2: lower secondary level - last grade before high school (pupils) • ISCED 3: upper secondary level - all grades (students) ISCED 1997: Level Educational Program Level 0 Pre-primary education Level 1 Primary education; First stage of basic Education Level 2 Lower secondary education; Second stage of basic education Level 3 (Upper) secondary education Level 4 Post-secondary non tertiary education Level 5 First stage of tertiary education (not leading directly to an advanced research qualification) Level 6 Second stage of tertiary education (leading to an advanced research qualification) ISCED 2: Lower secondary education; Second stage of basic education Completing this level of education (ISCED 2) often coincides with the completion of compulsory education at least. In general, it is aimed at refining basic skills and preparation for lifelong learning. In
  2. 2. the contest of GIVET each partner has to describe guidance systems (if you haven’t done it yet) taking place in the last grade/s of ISCED 2 level (usually 8th or 9th grade). ISCED 3: (Upper) secondary education Such programs (ISCED 3 level) usually begin at the end of primary education and compulsory education. At this level of specialization is greater than on ISCED 2 level, teachers are generally better trained and more specialized to teach certain subjects at this level. There are many different types of programs and at different levels (2 year, 3 year-vocational programs, 4 or 5 years technician programs …). In general, the completion of the 3 ISCED level is the minimum requirement for entry into tertiary education. Vocational education at this stage usually trains students for employment in posts of technicians. Programs last from 2 to 5 years. At the end of this level, students are generally aged 17- 19 years.
  3. 3. TRANSNATIONAL COMPARISON OF VET GUIDANCE SYSTEMS HISTORY Guidelines: In this section please describe the historical development of guidance and counselling system in your country. Latvia • Accordingly the change of the political system in 1991 and the transition from a planned economy to a market economy, as well as the change of guidance paradigm, in Latvia conceptually developed also support from "professional orientation" to "career guidance." During the Soviet-era in Latvia professional orientation questions in the education system were carried out with activities that focused on student promotion and orientation to action in a given profession. The evaluation of results of professional activities associated with the implementation of plans, i.e., how the demand is fulfilled and how the redirection of graduates to certain areas of employment is accomplished. • Since 2005th the main concept is “career development support system” which consists of three key building blocks: Information, Career Education, Career counselling • The political responsibility for the implementation of the concept delegated to the Ministry of Welfare and the Ministry of Education and Science according to the Cabinet Order No. 214. • In 2010 the Cooperation Council of Guidance and Counseling began to work, that is interdisciplinary consultative and coordinating institution which aims to developing and promoting quality of career development support service, to enhance each individual's skills and interests adequate development direction (direction of education, occupation) choice in context of lifelong learning. Council's main tasks are to develop proposals in development of legislative and policy planning documents, recommend concrete steps for the implementation of inter-institutional cooperation, to provide exchange of information , make proposals for the representatives of the Council institutions in accordance with public interest. The Cooperation Council fulfills the functions of information exchange, and its decisions are recommendatory in nature. • Ministry of Education set up a working group to develop a concept new career development support system - deadline 01.08.2013 • The deadline of development of the new concept was extended to 2014 Turkey • The first guiding system started in 1950 in Turkey by the effect of politics, economics and social problems in the world. First it started as the guiding system at schools and then at universities. The graduaters started to work at schools and departments of guiding. • In 1951-and 1952 professor Rus from The USA came to Turkey and gave seminars to teachers and directors. We can say that the first guiding system started with this conference. During these years in 1955 the Ministry of Education adopted the guiding system into the curriculum to Atatürk Girls Vocational high school in Istanbul and in 1956 to Ankara Deneme high
  4. 4. school and started to apply the lessons. Poland • In May 1956 the initiative of Central Office of Vocational Training (CUSZ) took place. At the same time, the Commission of Education, Science and Culture of the Parliament called on the communist education authorities to organize counselling for youth and their parents. • Parliamentary Committee came to the assumption that a significant screening of students in vocational schools was caused by the wrong choice of profession. • At the beginning of 1957, the guidance has been incorporated into the education system. The first facilities - psychological and vocational (or psychological-pedagogical) were created. For the first time in the history of education in Poland guidance has been included in the law and obtained a permanent material base, which ensured systematic development. • The Association of School and Professional Advisors was established in 1991, bringing together experts in the subject of vocational guidance in various institutions and ministries Romania • The beginning of career counselling was set by the foundation of the Institute for Experimental, Compared and Applied Psychology in Cluj in 1922 and by the activities of the first Psycho technical Laboratory within the Tram Company in Bucharest in 1925. • After the 50s there is evidence of serious concern with school counselling and guidance, with an uncertain evolution by 1989. • After 1989, a new institutional mechanism - the Psycho pedagogical Assistance Centres - is founded • During the last decade of the 20th century, school and professional guidance has been influenced by: o The re-foundation in 1990 of the Institute for Educational Sciences, o The creation in 1995 of the National Agency for School and Professional Guidance; o The establishment of Information and Professional Guidance Offices by the National Employment Agency in every county; o The creation of the National Centre for Resources in Professional Guidance in 1999. • In 1997 the Romanian Government started a project related to career information and counselling • The year 2005 witnessed the creation of the County Centers for Psycho pedagogical Resources and Assistance. Spain • 1914: Educational training for the working people firstly established in Spain. Its aim was to offer guidance and counseling to young people about those jobs which were more demanded. • In the period of the Civil War (1936-1939) there was a parenthesis in the guidance activity in the country. • 1967: The Ley Villar Palasí was the first law that considered counseling as an essential activity. It was offered by the Spanish School Guidance Service (Servicio de Orientación Escolar) • 1977: Provincial services of educational and vocational guidance were established in every region of the country. They were external services appointed to the centres. This was the first attempt to institutionalize guidance and counseling in the country.
  5. 5. • 1985: According to the Royal Decree 334/1985, a students’ basic right is to receive counseling and vocational guidance at school, especially in secondary education. • 1990: Experimental guidance plans were established in every school in Spain. There were plans carried out by teachers aimed at guiding students into the labour market. • 1992: The General Directorate of Pedagogical Renovation of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Central Government regulated the structure of the new Guidance and Counseling teams (called EOEP). They offer guidance to people outside school centres. In 1994, this service got sectored; each Autonomous Community in Spain has its own guidance vocational system. • 2002: The Constitutional Act 5/2002 on Vocational Qualifications and Training establishes the purpose and organization of career information and guidance in the following terms: - to provide information on employment opportunities, the possibilities of acquiring, evaluating and certifying occupational skills and qualifications and upgrading them throughout life. - to provide information and counseling on the various training offers and possible pathways to careers to enhance employability and re employability. Italy • The orientation concept has been formalized in 1995 by the Rectors's Conference which establishes the importance of guidance for the following educational processes: a) knowledge of characteristics of young people b) the identification of personal motivations of young people c) educational activities • In 1997, Legislative Decree 469/1997 has entrusted regions the task of organizing the regional employment systems. Regions and provinces, as well as arranging the new centers, also absorbed the peripheral structures of the Ministry of Labor and staff. This arrangement does not apply to special-status regions. • In 1997, the Ministry of Education issued a directive (N. 487) which provides actions in order to prevent the phenomenon of early school leaving and promote educational success. Orientation - as institutional activities of schools of all levels - is an integral part of the study curricula and, more generally, of the educational and training process since preschool. • In 1997, the Ministry of Education issued a decree determining the general criteria and procedures to regulate and streamline access to university courses in order to increase students opportunities to consciously determine their training, also in view of future job opportunities, setting the orientation guidelines. • By Decree of the President of the Council of Ministers in 1999, functions concerning human resources, exploitation and finances for the labor market have been transferred to the regions and local authorities. Hence the birth of employment centers (which are headed by the Provincial Directorate of Labor) which replace the old employment agencies and integrate them with new and innovative information services, counseling and career guidance. • The Legislative Decree of 21 April 2000, n. 181 "Measures to facilitate the matching between labor demand and supply". Employment centers must also offer guidance interviews for young people and adolescents within six months from the beginning of unemployment. • The Legislative Decree 297/2002 amends the unemployment definition by enhancing the user active attitude in the job search. It highlighted the orientation role of the centers.
  6. 6. In addition, Law n.196/97 defined the reorganization principles of vocational training and established the execution of training activities by regions and provinces. • Decree n. 276/2003 gives the possibility also to privates to carry out intermediation activities between demand and offer and also sets forth qualification systems and cooperation among public subjects. • In 2004 the national guidance committee was established. • In 2005, the national guidance committee puts into effect the guidance national plan, designed to prevent the phenomenon of early school dropout, to promote the success of education and training and to ensure maximum social inclusion for everyone. In 2005, through a special regional law (LR 2 / 2005), Marche’s employment centers were given the name "Employment, Vocational Guidance and Training Centers” – known with the acronym CIOF. • In 2008, the Department for Education promotes a National seminar on guidance. For trainers. • Legislative Decree dated 14th January 2008, n. 22: "Defining guidance paths finalized for professions and jobs. • In 2009 MIUR establishes the National Forum of guidance throughout the course of life, which is connected to the European Policy Network on Lifelong Guidance, with the aim of ensuring effective cooperation and coordination between those responsible at national, regional and local level for the supply of guidance services. • July 2009, the Department for Education, the General Directorate for the student, integration, participation and communication - Office IV - enacts the Guidance National Plan: "Guidelines on guidance throughout the course of life". Actions at regional level. • In 2010 the action plan or employability of young people through integration between learning and work, called "Italy 2020 ' is enacted. • In 2011, law no. 11 of 15th July 2011 provides the opportunity for secondary school institutes of second degree and to Universities to operate as "Brokerage Agencies" between labor supply and demand, after enrollment in the Computer register. • In May 2012 the monitoring of actions under the Guidance National Plan takes place. • In 2013 the development of the project "Italialavoro - FIXO - SCHOOL & UNIVERSITY”.It is a program sponsored and supported by the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, with the technical assistance of “Italian Labor Spa”. The purpose of the program is to support high schools and universities to provide placement services with the intent to reduce the time of entry into the labor market for young people and increase their chances of finding a job in line with studies performed. The long-term strategy - whose guidelines have been identified by Europe-2020 and by cascade from “Italy' 2020, Action Plan for employment of young people'' defined jointly by the three Ministries of Labor, Education, University and research and youth - is: • contribute to the progressive convergence of employment rates of young Italian graduates to the EU average; • improve the quality of jobs for skilled human capital (post-graduate, graduate students and doctorate PhD). Slovenia • In year 1938 the first Vocational counselling centre and agency was established, with two main functions: they offered counselling service and as an “agency” it took care of the rational distribution of professions.
  7. 7. • After the Second World War the Vocational counselling centres and agencies were closed down and were only restored in 1951 • In 1956 first school counsellor was employed. In the 60’s and 70’s counselling services were introduced in primary and secondary schools. • After 1960 career guidance rapidly developed in the Employment services, • In the 70’s the Slovenian Employment service prepared a uniform program of vocational guidance which predicted activities for the whole generation of pupils in primary schools (tests for intellectual abilities, survey on their occupational choice, individual counselling, team conferences... • In 1996 new school legislation was accepted and in the same year the curriculum committee has prepared and adopted official National Guidelines for Schools Counselling Service. • The current state of vocational guidance in Slovenian schools: Counsellors in schools provide a broad range of counselling services; they also work with others, including teachers, parents and school management. • National Guidelines for School Counselling Services define the guidance programmes in primary and secondary schools. The national programme is largely implemented by school counsellors with the assistance of the Employment Service of Slovenia (ESS), providing guidance services through Centres for Information and Vocational Counselling. Bulgaria • The establishment of a Career Guidance System in school education was started in 2011, under the Operational Program „Human Resources Development” of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science. • Since October 2012 were opened career guidance centers in all district towns in Bulgaria. This is a Project called “Career Guidance System in School Education”. The project is implemented with the financial support of the Operational Program "Human Resources Development" and the European Social Fund of the European Union. Twenty-eight regional career guidance centers, with 150 career consultants, were established. • The main providers of career guidance at school level should be the school counselors. In the 90’s the first school counselors were employed. But only one third of the Bulgarian schools have a school counselor. The number of the students in the school should be up to 500, to be appointed a school counselor. There are no legal requirements for this job and the schools have to decide whether to appoint counselors within the delegated budget. Currently, the school counselors are engaged in other issues and less with career guidance. • The current state of vocational guidance in Bulgaria: Lack of a national system for VET guidance. Lack of enough coordination between the official institutions, providers of and those in need of vocational guidance. At this stage there are some attempts and initiatives under different projects but it is still too early to talk about a unified system for VET guidance. LEGAL FRAMEWORK/LEGISLATION Latvia • The Vocational Education Law (1999) determines the competence of those institutions responsible for the organization of VET • The Cabinet of Ministers: determines the state’s political and strategic
  8. 8. areas in VET; it funds VET providers according to criteria established by the Ministry of Education and Science; it sets the framework for issuing state- recognised qualifications and determines the recognition of qualifications obtained in other countries. • 13% of specialists in schools have a career consultant professional qualification. • In schools career support personnel is assigned from 0.2 to 0.5 rates. • Availability of career support in schools is variable, because it is up to the individual school management decisions and certain local government decisions. • Individual and group consultations are carried out at schools, meetings with employers, the identification of information materials for education and careers. Turkey • On 5/6/1986 with the law number 3308 it was called as “apprenticeship and vocational training law” but with the date 29/6/2001 and law number 22 it has been changed as “Vocational Education Law” • On 17.4.2001 published on the official journal with the number 24376, it is added as MINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICES REGULATION - It will be applied at the first grades and after 5th grade in the secondary schools after the year 2012- 2013.It will not be applied as a lesson but will be applied separately from the schedule. • 20.07.2010 number 75 board of education and discipline Poland • Constitution of 2.04.1997r. (Article 65) basic act, which demonstrate the need to organize and promote vocational guidance. • Act of 7 September 1991 about the education system - requires from schools "to prepare students to enter the profession and field of study. • The Maastricht Treaty of 7 February 1992. in art. 126 and 127 of the cooperation: This document expanded scope of vocational guidance to issues related to education (Article 126), tying them tightly to the educational process training and preparation for the labor market (Article 127). • The legislation regulating the issue of practical vocational training concerns practical vocational training in school workshops, school laboratories, continuing education centers and practical training centers, with employers and on individual farms; it applies to student of public upper secondary schools offering vocational education as well as young workers/apprentices doing traineeships as part of their job preparation course. Romania • law no. 1/2011of the Romanian national education. It stipulates in some articles (350, 351, 352 and 353) that career counselling should be a lifelong activity; • the order of the Ministry of education, research, youth and sports no. 5555/2011- The regulation related to the organization and functioning of the county centres for resources and educational assistance and for the similar centre in Bucharest. Guidance is just a part of a counsellor’s activity. It also includes individual and group counselling sessions. These specific activities take place mainly in the counsellor’s office, which is coordinated by the County Centre for Psych-pedagogical Resources and Assistance. • the order of the Ministry of education, research, youth and sports no. 6552/2011 related to the assessment, psycho-educational assistance, school and professional guidance for children, students and young people
  9. 9. with special educational needs; • law no. 76/2002 related to the system of unemployment insurances and stimulation of the work force • the legal framework regarding the lifelong career orientation issued in 2012 regulates how the lifelong career counselling should be performed, how the counselling services should be organized and what exactly these activities should be and what abilities a career counsellor should have. Spain • In 2002, the Qualifications and Vocational Education and Training Act marked the starting point for a number of changes that have taken place in Spain. This Act established the existence of an integrated VET system, which means that there must also be an integrated guidance system covering the following items: o Guidance departments at integrated VET schools o Validation of work experience and non-formal learning process o A guidance working group formed by the Ministry of Education together with the autonomous regions o A guidance platform o Provision of guidance services for open and distance VET o Guidance tools for counsellors o Guidance counsellors for Employment offices o Guidance at universities. • Constitutional Act 1/1990 on General Governance of the Education System (LOGSE) established the structure and organization of the non- university education system, acknowledging educational and career guidance to be one of the basic principles of educational activity, one of the student body’s basic rights. The general framework, in which educational guidance should be delivered, as established in the LOGSE, is divided into three levels around which education is organized: - the classroom or group of pupils, - the school or educational institution - and the school system, defined within the bounds of a district or sector.  Firstly, the responsibility for guidance in the classroom is mandatory for form masters/mistresses - teachers (each group of pupils has one form master/mistress).  At the second level, the school guidance departments must be established or there must be at least one guidance counsellor.  The third level of guidance entails the creation of sector- or district-wide guidance teams. Each Autonomous Community regulates educational guidance within its own territory on the grounds of this triple structure, with minor variations from one Community to another. • Constitutional Act 5/2002 on Vocational Qualifications and Training establishes the purpose and organization of career information and guidance to be offered within the public education system. The guidance and counseling subjects and activities can only be imparted at schools by specialized teachers with psychological, pedagogical or social background who have passed the Civil Service Examinations (so called Oposiciones) under the following terms: - To provide information on employment opportunities, the possibilities of acquiring, evaluating and certifying occupational skills and qualifications and upgrading them throughout life. Provide information and counseling on the various training offers and possible pathways to careers to enhance employability and re employability. - Services administered by the education and labour authorities, local
  10. 10. governments and the social partners, among others, may take part in career information and guidance, with coordination upon the central government. - Governmental career information and guidance services must provide information to pupils in the education system, their families, unemployed and employed workers and society at large. The various levels of government must also provide the social partners with information on the system that can serve as a guide in collective bargaining, without prejudice to the independence of the parties involved. Italy • in 2005, through a special regional law (LR 2 / 2005), Marche’s employment centres were given the name "Employment, Vocational Guidance and Training Centres” – known with the acronym CIOF • Agreement between the Government, the Regions and local authorities on the establishment of the national lifelong guidance . Repertoire acts n. 152/CU of December 20, 2012 : Note no. 29/0006436/L of 13 December 2012 in which the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs has transmitted the proposed agreement between the government, the regions and local authorities on the establishment of the national lifelong guidance, together with the concert by the Ministry of Education, Universities and research, December 14, 2012, was circulated to the regions and local authorities; • Agreements between the Government and the Regions and Local Authorities, as follows: • Agreement, pursuant to Article 9, paragraph 2, letter. c) of Legislative Decree 28 August 1997. 281. Legislative Decree 19 December 2002, n. 297 "Provisions amending and corrective legislative decree of 21 April 2000, n. 181 laying down provisions to facilitate the matching of demand and supply of labor, in compliance with article 45, paragraph 1, letter a) "; • Legislative Decree 10 September 2003, n. 276 "Implementation of proxies in respect of employment and the labor market, including the Law of 14 February 2003, no. 30 " and subsequent amendments; • Legislative Decree 14 January 2008, n. 21 on "Guidelines for the definition of career guidance to higher education and advanced training in art, music and dance, the link between schools, universities and institutions of higher education in art, music and dance, as well as the enhancement of the quality of the academic performance of students for admission to graduate degree programs planned access referred to in Article 1 of the Law of 2 August 1999 n. 264, to accordance with art. 2, paragraph 1, letters a9, b) and c) of the Law of 11 January 2007, n. 1 " ; • Legislative Decree 14 January 2008, n. 22 entitled "Definition of orientation courses aimed at professionals and work, in accordance with art. 2, paragraph 1, of the Law of 11 January 2007, n. 1 " ; • Ministerial Decree of 21th July 1997, n. 245: concerning general criteria and procedures to regulate and streamline the access at the university courses in order to increase students opportunities to consciously determine their training, also in view of future job opportunities. • Directive n. 487 of 6th August 1997, provides measures to prevent early school leaving and to promote educational success. The guidance - as institutional activity of schools at all levels - is an integral part of the study curricula and, more generally, the educational and training process since preschool.
  11. 11. • Decree Law of 14th January 2008, n. 22 "Defining guidance paths related to professions and work": determines the realization of guidance courses aimed at the degree courses's choice. • Law no. 111 of 15th July 2011 (which replaced the Article. 6 of Legislative Decree no. 276/2003): it offers the possibility to the institutes of secondary school (second degree) and to the University to operate as "Brokerage Agencies" between labor demand and supply. Slovenia • There is no explicit coordinated policy for career guidance and its providers in Slovenia, and no cross-sectorial coordination body exists. Some of the rare laws that tackle guidance are: • The Organization and Financing of Education Act says that school guidance service and ESS should be connected when performing career counselling and guidance. One of the goals of this act is also gaining the possibility for further educational and professional path with the emphasis on qualifications for LLL. The Act states that school counsellors can only become specialists who have graduated from university studies: psychology, pedagogy and andragogy, social work, social pedagogy and defectology (children and youth with special needs) • The Vocational Education Act mentions that social partners and ministries should cooperate with schools when dealing with guidance and planning the curriculum. • Nationally defined minimal standards for guidance in schools declare what activities regarding career guidance should be executed in every elementary and secondary schools. Bulgaria • Vocational Education and Training Act. It is the act of providing advice to students and other persons with regard to the choice of profession and career development. According to the Vocational Education and Training Act the system for vocational guidance is ratified as part of the vocational education system. It is stated that: „Vocational guidance is the act of providing advice and counseling to students and other persons with regard to the choice of profession and career development”. The main task defined by the law is providing assistance to trainees in their free choice of education, training and vocational qualification for the acquisition of the required knowledge and skills, corresponding to the requirements of the labor market. • National Lifelong Learning Strategy (2008 – 2013). A unified national lifelong guidance system should be implemented for the period up to 2013. It is also required to develop programs for education and qualification of the personnel engaged with vocational guidance related services. The provision of accessible and high quality services for vocational guidance to all students in Bulgaria is defined as a key priority. The national strategy aims to assist/enable individuals in/to better plan and manage their own career path and skills, to further develop their knowledge and skills, and to improve their employability.
  12. 12. ORGANIZATION OF VET GUIDANCE: In this section please state how is career guidance organized in your country on ISCED 2 and 3 level. Make clear distinction between the two levels. Latvia • Till August 2013 the working group of Ministry of Education has to develop a concept of new “Career development support systems” with three key building blocks: Information, Career education, Career counselling • At national level, guidelines and recommendations are recommendatory in nature. • Decisions on funding for the providing guidance counselors are taken at the local level. • Decisions on the planned guidance are made by each school, up to it career planning support through different regions and different schools is different. • Consultations also provide guidance counselors who work individually (paid service). Consultations are also provided by State Employment Agency guidance counselors, but they can be used for the registered unemployed only. Turkey • 1 hour in elementary school as guiding and the following week as social activities and following like that applied by the class teacher. • In secondary schools it is one hour per week and it is named guiding/counselling and planning career applied by the class teacher and help of the guiding teacher of the school. Poland • Vocational guidance education is part of the basic national curriculum as a cross-cutting subject that is executed within subjects as civil education (ISCED level 2) or compulsory subject introduction to entrepreneurship (ISCED level 3). • Schools also organize seminars and workshops related to vocational guidance with cooperation with professional world. Students can also participate in activities organized by School Career Centers. Romania Guidance is an educational activity performed: • Within curriculum, executed by head/form/class teachers during their counselling and guidance classes. Each class teacher has one class a week with their own students. There are generally approximately 36 school weeks, therefore that teacher will have 36 hours a year, during which they have to cover five different modules. Career guidance is just one of those modules, and the teacher doesn’t have a clear order of the topics or a specific topic-related number of classes. All class teachers have taken career guidance classes themselves, so they have acquired the necessary skills to cover this topic. Additionally they can also enlist the assistance of the school career counsellor or other specialist in order to provide relevant information to their students. • In the psycho-pedagogical assistance offices (individual and group sessions) located in some schools • Career information and counselling centres like Employment services • Trough projects in partnership with the community aiming at counselling young people concerning their career.
  13. 13. Spain There are two guidance subsystems in Spain: one for education and the other for employment. But, there has been a process of decentralisation with regard to career guidance, and now both systems coexist. The personnel of the Guidance departments at schools are formed of different specialised teachers, and they are usually directed by a psychologist or a pedagogue. • There is at least one school counsellor in every school • In general the background for this type of education covers three areas — a core set of subjects, applied science and practical technology. The emphasis lies on practical technology, taking up to approx. 50 % of the weekly timetable. This type of training therefore combines academic and vocational subjects and is equipped with a system of validation and equivalences with those courses leading to the unified baccalaureate. • Guidance in ISCED level 2 is an activity with limited hours per year (1 hour or less per week). It is taught by teachers (tutors) and is formally defined as a cross cutting subject. Some schools have extracurricular activities and skills regarding career guidance, as visits to companies, speeches… • In ISCED level 3 (VET), there is a compulsory subject taught by a specialist (teacher specialized in teaching guidance and counseling). Students get a deeper understanding of the chances they can have in the labour market according to their possibilities. Italy Guidance system in Italy is decentralised. Schools (primary and secondary) all have guidance counsellors but the accessibility of guidance services is lower than expected. There are different bodies performing guidance functions. First of all, there are “Employment, Vocational Guidance and Training Centers” (CIOF), structures managed by the provinces which have replaced the previous placement offices and whose task is to promote the meeting between labor demand and supply. Several guidance activities are also carried out by middle and high school institutes. Even the universities are involved in guidance, especially for students in their final years of high school. Along with these public services other entities, both public and private operate: - Municipalities and Chambers of Commerce - Employers and workers associations - Patroneges, bilateral agencies and nonprofit associations - Managers of specific internet sites - The recruitment consultants national order - The National Welfare and assistance for workers in the entertainment and professional sports. - All employment agencies and companies for research and selection of personnel. Guidance in secondary school (ISCED 2) The career guidance is, certainly, the most important objective of the school. It has to begin from pre-primary school. The main aims are: • Creating a curriculum for career guidance starting from pre-primary to lower secondary school • Helping teenagers to know themselves, in terms of: Aptitudes/ability - Knowledge - Skills - Competences • Promoting, organizing and managing activities between the comprehensive school and high schools: the students have the chance to meet in schools, teachers, headmasters, etc… of secondary upper
  14. 14. schools, and then they can visit these schools, whit their parents, during the open days. • Providing additional support for students that have any difficulties For example: whit mentoring and tutoring actions. Provided by: School, teachers Responsibility and administrative control: Headmaster, one or two teachers responsible for project, School and Teachers Council. An evaluation procedure is adopted in order to monitoring results. Guidance in secondary school, further education and upper secondary schools (ISCED 3) “Training” guidance aimed at enhancing self-knowledge (personal attitudes, expectations, motivations, potentialities and limits).“Information” guidance dealing with the training offer available and its connections with the labour market. Provided by: schools (teachers), vocational training agencies (trainers and guidance practitioners), private and public guidance centres, social partners/enterprises and professional associations. Target group: Students from public schools and students from vocational training institutes (age range: 14/19 years) Responsibility and administrative control: School headmasters, directors of the vocational training agencies, guidance offices of local bodies Municipalities and Provinces) and of the Regions. Usually, guidance activities are provided using the internal human resources of the schools and of the vocational training agencies. Sometimes, the involvement of external guidance centres is financed by Local Bodies, Regions, Associations of Enterprises, and by other players in the labour market. Slovenia • Nationally defined minimal standards for guidance in primary and secondary schools. • Every school has at least one school counsellor but usually there are two (psychologist and pedagogue or social worker). • Career education in primary schools (ISCED 2) is a cross-cutting subject that can be executed within basic subjects, class teacher’s lectures or as an after school activity. School counsellor are encouraged to cooperate with other organizations when organizing job shadowing visits in companies, working experiences, presentations of different vocations and other activities. Team meetings are also taking place where Slovenian Employment Services’ counsellors, school counsellors and teachers and sometimes even school doctor discuss educational-vocational intentions of pupils. • Guidance is an activity with limited hours per year but career education is formally defined as a cross-cutting subject. Some schools have extracurricular actives regarding career guidance; • In VET (ISCED level 3) we have a cross-cutting subject called Career planning skills that states learning objectives but not implementation procedure. • Schools also cooperate with Information and vocational counselling Centre which operates under Slovenian Employment Service. • Some schools execute guidance activities within international projects or in cooperation with local organizations/companies. • A lot of vocational secondary schools are included in a project called Learning Achievements portfolio run by Institute of Republic of Slovenia
  15. 15. for Vocational Education and Training. Bulgaria • There is no unified national system for VET guidance, only some attempts under different projects. • Since October 2012, schools cooperate with Career guidance centres which are established under the project “Career guidance system in school education”. The centres organise training courses in vocational guidance for the school counsellors. The participation in the courses is optional and there isn’t a law that determines the duties and competences of the school counsellors. • At the moment a network of 28 regional career guidance centres is launched. All young people have the opportunity to receive free career guidance services. The schools are visited by the career counsellors from the centres. This is an extracurricular activity, which is supported by the school management and school counselors.
  16. 16. ACTIVITIES Please state which career guidance activities are executed on ISCED 2 and 3 Level in your country. Below you can find the list of most often career guidance activities identified. • Individual counselling • Group counselling • Psychological Assessment, ability tests • Self-help guidance tools • Lectures or workshops • Visits of companies • School Project work • Traineeships, practical training classes, work trials • Team sessions with parents, teachers, counselors and students • Watching films • Selection exams are not part of guidance services but they determine one’s further educational/vocational path Latvia • Information (preparation and presentation) • Career Education (services, courses, programs) • Career counselling (assistance in career planning, professional suitability of work trials, job search, and remaining at work skills) • Each school’s and the municipality's situation is different, because the suggestions are recommendatory in nature. Turkey Different activities regarding: • self-knowledge (characteristics, interests and expatiations) • recognition of professions (professional environment sectors, areas and professions and learn about the features of professional staff) • determination of characteristics and expectations of the person with the overlap of spots crafts • OKS / SBS - a student selection and placement exam • Pre-registration Form, Orientation Recommendation Form (9th grade students) Poland • At ISCED level 2, the compulsory subject called civic education (3 teaching hours per week in a period of 3 years) • At ISCED level 3, introduction to entrepreneurship is the compulsory subject which is most related to vocational guidance (2 teaching hours in a period of 3 years). Its objectives related to career guidance: preparation for active participation in economic life; shaping of the attitude for reliable work and entrepreneurship; developing communicative skills and teamwork; developing skills for active job searching and the suitable choice of career • Traineeships and practical training clases • International (LdV) projects • Contacts with the professional world • Classes in School Career Centres are implemented in various forms: - activating group classes
  17. 17. - lectures, questions and answers, brainstorming and workshops - individual educational and vocational guidance - diagnose students' needs for information and assistance in career planning through interviews, surveys and other methods - dissemination and discussion with the students the information - watching films - access to Internet, borrowing books and publications of SZOK and use of other pedagogical materials - publishing and editing newsletters or school addition - organizing trips to places connected with the world of education and work - secondary schools, universities, offices and private companies to present various professions, trips to job fairs, learning how to use office equipment Romania • Individual counselling – it takes place in the school counsellor’s office or in specialized centres and it is based on volunteering. The student cannot be forced to have individual counselling. • Group counselling – it can be done by the school counsellor either during a class teacher’s class (whole-class activity: 25-30 students or half of the class, which can prove more efficient) or in the students’ free time. It is also based on volunteering. Students cannot be forced to attend group counselling sessions. • Psychological Assessment, ability tests – they can only be done by those school counsellors who are trained and certified to apply and interpret ability tests. Should they not have the necessary training and certification, they must enlist the help of their certified colleagues in the county centres. • Self-help guidance tools – they can be used either during individual or group counselling sessions. • Visits of companies – they can be done either by the class teachers or by the counselling teacher. They aim at making the students familiar with the respective company and its activities, in order for them to make sure that their preferences about working in that company are based on true facts or that they would really like working there in the future. • School Project work – they can be either personal portfolios or school projects. Students may conceive their own CVs or cover letters. On the other hand, the students can get involved in school projects along with local partners, such as companies or work force agencies. • Traineeships – they take place in technological high schools, wherein students have traineeships in local companies the activity of which has something to do with the profile of that school. • Team sessions with parents, teachers, counselors and students – they can be either lectures during parents’ meetings, especially in the final year of study, consisting of various information about the way the students can evolve in their professional life, or other meetings related to career counselling topics held by the school counsellors and/or a specialized person. School counselors themselves are offered training courses related to career guidance, so that they get the necessary abilities in order to conduct career guidance. Spain ISCED level 2: 1 hour per week Carried out by Staff working at the High school. Main activities: • To carry out the students educational and vocational guidance • To support the learning-teaching process • To take part in curricula developments, especially those related to psycho- pedagogical aspects and diversity support • Psycho-pedagogical evaluation of students, and further work plan
  18. 18. • Teachers guidance on students support • To carry out the tutoring action plan in coordination with tutors and management staff • Speeches and visits to companies, VET schools and universities • Web-based tutorials to teach students on jobseeking... ISCED level 3: At least 3 hours per week There are special teachers for Career Guidance and Job Training (subject called “FOL” in Spanish). It is a compulsory subject in all VET courses. Besides classroom- based or distance learning courses, these may be classed under other headings, such as • Broad-based courses: Targeted at young people aiming to provide them with knowledge and skills of a general nature and common to a number of occupations, so as to assist them in finding employment, but without providing them with a qualification sufficient to perform a specific occupation; • Occupational courses: Aimed at those not holding any qualification, the principal objective being to provide knowledge and skills sufficient to permit the person concerned to perform a certain job; • Occupational adaptation courses: These are courses aimed at skilled workers who, either because they have lost their job or because its disappearance is planned, need to acquire training and knowledge sufficient to carry out another job or profession; • Specialization courses: These courses, aimed at skilled workers, are designed to assist them in improving and updating their skills and thus contribute to their career advancement. Also: • International (LdV) projects offering training placements abroad • The COPOE (Professional Organisation of Counsellors), organises varied activities to help students decide about their work plans for the future. Counsellors working in school centres belong to this organisation. There is, at least, one counsellor in every school in Spain. They usually hold meetings and speeches in order to guide and advise students, and organize conferences, symposiums, and even publish books on guidance to VET students. (see Italy Regional Employment, Vocational Guidance and Training Centres (CIOF) provide information and career counselling for youth in compulsory education, high schools’ and universities’ students. Regional Guidance sector is in charge for provision of information, training and technical support.(not for students) Employment services offer different guidance services: • information on the labour market • counselling to the proposal of traineeships and guidance • courses/guidance labs to choose from, labs on techniques to actively search for a job • balance of competences for students and unemployed… Guidance in comprehensive school (ISCED 2) The career guidance is, certainly, the most important objective of the school. It has to begin from pre-primary school. The activities on ISCED 2 level are aimed at helping pupils to know themselves. Pupils can also attend so called “open days” on secondary schools. Additional support is also provided for pupils with difficulties. Guidance in secondary school In the school (ISCED 3), the guidance activities are:
  19. 19. • Professional and academic guidance (in high schools). • Meeting with professionals • Projects with companies • Military career guidance For what concern the academic guidance, schools make use of the initiatives in this direction promoted by the universities themselves. Slovenia ISCED 2: National Guidelines for Schools Counseling Service in primary education defines vocational guidance as a process in which teachers, pupils, parents, school counselors and school management cooperate with the aim to facilitate pupils’ educational and career decision making. National guidelines also state that every school counselor should set their priorities and prepare their work plan according to their professional capacity as long as they carry out guidance according to Minimal standards. Guidance activities include information, assessment, counseling, career education, placement, advocacy, feedback/follow up. According to Minimal Standards every school should: • ensure all pupils have access to the information they need to decide on further education and career choices trough different information sources, such as school libraries, boards, boards, as well as personally from school counselors and teachers; • execute 2 hours long lecture/workshop per year for pupils in last two grades in primary schools • provide access to at least one individual counseling session for each pupil before they finished primary school wherein pupils can decide whether they wish to have counseling; • collect data on pupils for the purpose of career guidance: in 8th grade psychological testing with multifactor battery was applied till 2012, pupils also fill in the Questionnaire on learning habits (VUN). In the 9th grade pupils fill in the Questionnaire on vocational path (SDS-R – Holland) and try to find more career options with the help of an e-tool Where and how. • execute at least one lecture for parents of children in last two grades of primary school (children being 13, 14 years old) regarding their role and influence on children’s’ educational and vocational choices. Beside that school counselors should provide access to individual counseling for parents where they can discuss pupil’s career choices. All schools provide group session to help pupils filling in the application forms for secondary schools. Beside that schools organize a visit to local Vocational Information and Counseling Centre. ISCED 3: National Guidelines for Schools Counseling Service in secondary education state that school counselors should provide: • Group lessons on career guidance (1st and 2st year = 2 hours, 3rd year = 3 hours, 4th year = 4 hours) • at least one individual counseling session for each student in the last grade • up to date materials in the library with cooperation with other relevant institutions Minimal Standards for Guidance in Secondary Schools define guidance program in secondary schools in Slovenia which should include: • various information activities • lessons on career-related issues (such as career development, further education and employment possibilities) • work with self-help guidance tools • psychological testing
  20. 20. • individual career counselling • visits to employers In the past (till 2012) students of primary and secondary school were able to participate in job shadowing activities (presentations of certain vocations and professions on sight), financed by Employment Service and organized by Kadis. Within “Information days” organized by all secondary schools and Universities in February pupils and students can visit different secondary schools/universities and familiarize with educational programs. Some secondary schools especially those offering three years vocational programs organize additional presentations and practical activities with the aim to attract more students. Some more enthusiastic school counsellors organize additional activities like portfolios, summer camps, company visits and workshops, beside that some VET schools participate in international projects. Learning Achievements Portfolio (Mape učnih dosežkov) is a national project run by Institute RS for Vocational Education and Training in which many vocational secondary schools are included. Bulgaria The career guidance centers provide: • Group and individual counseling. • Lectures and workshops. • Team sessions with students, teachers and counselors. • Psychological tests for diagnostics of interests, attitudes and reasons for choice of profession. • Interactive methods and training on skills for decision-making. • Skills for making a portfolio and work application /CV, a cover letter, a behavior job interview /. • Relationships between schools and labor market. The time spent for group VET guidance is 4 hours per year for the students who finish elementary /7, 8 grades – ISCED 2/ and secondary /11, 12 grades – ISCED 3/ education. The rest of the Bulgarian students have group VET guidance 1 hour per year. The schools provide: • Visits of companies. • Practical training classes. • School Project work. • Information days.
  21. 21. PROVIDERS In most countries there guidance services are divided on educational sphere and employment sphere although the last sometimes also provide services for youth (pupils, students) but in many cases their target group are unemployed. LV Operational level: • Career consultants in schools • Career consultants in State Employment Agency • Individual private consultants – for charge Policy level: • The Ministry of Education and Science (MoES) – framework and regulations for VET, accredits providers, organizes guidance and counseling service and research demands on the labor market • The Department of Vocational and Continuing Education • The State Education Development Agency (SEDA) • Ministry of Welfare (MoW) • The State Employment Agency Turkey Operational level: • Class advisor • School guidance counsellor • Introduction and Orientation teachers • National vocational information centre of national Ministry of Education • Counselling services in every national educational directorate Policy level • Ministry of Education and it’s directorates for education Poland Operational level: • Teachers • 361 School career centres at lower and upper secondary level • Psychological and Pedagogical Counselling Centres • Educational and Labour Centres and Mobile Vocational Information Centres - Youth Career Centres under OHP – Voluntary Labour Corps Policy level: • Ministry of National Education and Sport • Ministry of Economy, Labour and Social Policy – for unemployed youth (Centres for Vocational Information, Information and Career Planning Centres, Units for Information and Group Counselling existing at the District Labour Offices Romania Operational level: • Head teachers • School counsellors form school Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices • Career information and counselling centres • Counselling Offices and the County Educational Resource Centres in each county • NGO’s Policy level: • Ministry of Education trough County Psycho-pedagogical Resources and
  22. 22. Assistance Centres • National Employment Agency Spain Operative level: • COPOE (Professional Organisation of Counsellors) and their school counsellors working in every VET school • SEXPE (labour offices in Extremandura region) • Staff of Public educational Institutions Policy level: • Central Government • Regional Governments of the Autonomous regions Italy Operational level: • Guidance counsellors • Regional Guidance sector • Regional Employment, Vocational Guidance and Training Centres (CIOF) • Trade Unions, Umbrella organizations and Human Resource Management private providers and employment agencies Policy level: • IX Commission for education, work , innovation and research of the Autonomous Regions and Provinces • Education, Vocational Training and Labour Policies Unit (IFL) Slovenia Operational level: • Primary schools, secondary schools, high schools all have guidance counsellors. • University career centres offer their service not only to students but more and more often also to secondary schools’ graduates who wish to gather more information about certain faculty/educational program. • Employment service of Slovenia - 12 regional offices and in the Information and Vocational Counselling Centre (CIPS). • HRM private providers and employment agencies – for charge Policy level: • Ministry of Education, Science and Sport • Ministry of work, family and social affairs • National Education Institute of the Republic of Slovenia • Institute of Republic of Slovenia for Vocational Education and Training (CPI) Bulgaria Operational level: • Schools – teachers, class advisors and school counselors. • 28 Regional Career Guidance Centers, which work under a project. • The National Employment Agency and its local subdivisions: the Labor offices. • Private advice centers, which provide paid vocational guidance services. • Web-based services for vocational guidance and advice, established in 2011, which receive their financing from European projects. • Specialized literature – books, manuals, reference books and brochures containing information about the process of career development. Policy level: • Ministry of Education, Youth and Science. /The Euro guidance Centre functions
  23. 23. within the Human Resource Development Centre of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science and provides information and services for career guidance in the field of education/. • Education Inspectorates. • The National Agency for Vocational Education and Training (NAVET). A road map called “Development of career guidance in Bulgaria 2009 – 2013” was created and aims to facilitate the interaction between the different sectors. This is a national document, which identifies the main objectives and key priorities for the development of the policies and the practices in the field of vocational guidance and career development in Bulgaria for a time period of 5 years.
  24. 24. EXAMPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE Latvia National data base for chances: The World of Professions: possibility to assess virtually their knowledge about the profession possibility to identify their individual strengths and relevance of the profession completing the tests in the virtual environment. Turkey National vocational information centre of National education ministry where you can find all the relevant information of Vocational education. Every students and counselling teachers are registered on this web link and have a password and user name and have to do it online. Also in every national education directorate there is a counselling service for the students and they can get benefit from these centres for free. Poland 1. Vocational Guidance center for Youth-provide services for schools, teachers and students. 2. International project (EEA Grants) concerning vocational guidance, career planning and empowerment of human capital in professional context. The partnership built online platform for vocational guidance specialists, psychologists and people working with young students and helping them to choose the right career path. 3. poczatek.html EU Project „Elaboration of vocational guidance model and online information and education system” . In frames of the Project the following activities are being realized: - Analyses of vocational guidance in PL and some EU countries; - Vocational guidance model; - Piloting of the model; - Online Information and Educational System. 4. Vocational and social activization of disabled and young people in danger of social exclusion. 5. option=com_content&task=view&id=56&Itemid=45 Vocational guidance online. Information and good practices in Poland.
  25. 25. Romania 1. ”Informing and counselling high-school students as for their career”, a project coordinated by the Dolj County Centre for Educational Resources and Assistance. 2. “Job Shadow Day”, a project aimed at students in the final years of high school, coordinated by Junior Achievement Romania, the Dolj County School Inspectorate and other local, national and multinational companies; 3. “CONSEL– counselling students for an easier transition from school to an active life”, a project which was co-financed by the European Social Fund POSDRU Spain 1. RAYUELA, an educational online tool, is a platform for education management, teachers, students, counselors, parents and associations of parents. 2. A guidance booklet for students finishing secondary level including a self- evaluation questionnaire to be filled, in order to determine their interests, abilities, motivation, etc… Once completed, they hand it over to the counselor at school for a final interview 3. ORIENTA is an online guidance test implemented by a private company and it is available for the high schools to buy it and customize it according to their preferences. For example, the school “Instituto Albarregas” in Merida town, Badajoz. Italy 1. Regione Marche takes part of Euroguidance Italy; 2. GIRC Leonardo project – technical guidance liaison device is a contribution from a technical and methodological point of view and a point of reference for the development of specific actions addressed to a plurality of guidance practitioners and stakeholders. GIRC ended in 2007 3. GIANT Leonardo project – based on GIRC, confirmed its potential in terms of adjustment of the model to the local needs, proving to be able to provide a significant contribution to the improvement of the existing situation. Giant ended in 2009. 4. SORPRENDO career guidance software, has been mapped and adapted to national context, together with GIANT project. The software performance is similar to KAM IN KAKO in Slovenia. Since 2010 Marche Region has adopted SORPRENDO In all CIOF centres. 5. Career Guidelines Leonardo project - Information and Guidance on new careers and training pathways. The project Career Guidelines aims at improving the quality of vocational and educational guidance services through the transfer of an English model of career guidance, created by CASCAiD Ltd and already diffused at international level. The model, based on the use of a career profile database, allows the young customers of the employment and guidance services to define their interests and aims on career opportunities better and helps them to build their career plan. Ended 2011. Web Site : Slovenia 1. Web page: (my choice) It was started as a project founded by EU commission and Slovenian Ministry of Education in 2008. The target group are pupils, students, school
  26. 26. counsellors, parents, participants in adult education. CONTENT of the webpage CAREER SIGNPOST: information and presentation of educational programs on secondary level (more than 300 formal and non- formal programs) and schools, presentation of more than 428 occupations (343 even with video), presentation of Slovenian system of APL (accreditation of prior gained knowledge), materials for counsellors, legislative and useful links, presentation of different projects in the area of career guidance and VET 2. INTERACTIVE COMPUTER PROGRAM KAM IN KAKO – WHERE AND HOW which is an interactive computer program that helps users when choosing their profession/occupation. Target group are pupils and students making their first career decision, as well as those who are looking for new ideas regarding their careers. Program originates from the UK and was adapted to Slovenian conditions in 1998/99 during the PHARE project Experimental Centre for Vocational Guidance. Nowadays more than 400 primary and secondary schools, Employment services and other institutions are using it to help their students to make optimal career choices. Content: job descriptions, possibilities of researching specific occupations, photos, interviews with individuals engaged in a particular profession, self-evaluation of skills, which occupations are not appropriate when having certain health problems... 3. Learning Achievements Portfolio which supports the process of collecting evidence for the purpose of identification of knowledge acquired through formal or non-formal education and work experience. In learning Achievements Portfolio, the students store their products and supporting documents showing the acquired knowledge and skills acquired in school and outside of school or other documents which show the development of personality and skills of lifelong learning, personal learning plan, monitoring progress, career guidance, and the like. It is an interactive tool consisted out of different worksheets which enable students to create their own individual portfolio. 4. Career Centre in schools (School Center Celje): Project Career Centre in schools (2011/2012) is an ACES (Academy of Central European Schools 2006) project. Students participated in different workshops: How to write an application form and CV, Job Interview, Job seeking skills, Information seeking, Informal ways of job searching (network), Which are our values and why are they important, Identification of personal characteristic, Individual career plan – portfolio Volunteering as a successful career start. They have also created a short movie with a simulation of a job interview. Bulgaria 1. Innovative web-site for on-line career guidance, which has been functioning since 2011. It contains exercises, useful tips and instruments for self- assessment of those looking for a job or those choosing a profession: 2. Information on how to choose the right profession; career guidance toolkits; links to career centers: 3. On-line test МАРР for vocational motivation and self-assessment: 4. Private organisation for career advice. Individual advisory sessions to choose a profession and on career development; Information workshops at schools providing career guidance: