Rising to the challenge of establishing
a climate smart agriculture
Andy Jarvis, CCAFS
2013
What is Climate Smart Agriculture?
2013
Why is CSA important? - Adaptation
Global wheat
and maize
yields: response
to warming
2013
Why is CSA important? – Food Security
Maíz
T-Max
T-Max
Yield Yield
Arroz
Climate drives
yield variation:
our systems ...
2013
Why is CSA important? - Mitigation
13
Agriculture-related activities
are 19-29% of global
greenhouse gas emissions
(2...
2013
Why is CSA important? - Mitigation
“Business as usual” (BAU)
agriculture emissions
would comprise >70% of
allowable e...
2013
2. There are significant successes in CSA





 





2. But major
scaling up
is needed
1.5
billion
people
depend on
Degraded
Land
USD 7.5 billion lost to
extreme Weather (2010)
1 billion more
People by 2030
1....
So, what are the targets?
Target: Half a billion farmers practicing CSA
Mitigation targets?
Scholes et al., 2013. Agricult...
15
Requires a comprehensive approach
• Partnerships: research and development, science
and policy, public and private
• Kn...
16
Capacity
Building
Gender
Engagement
IDO1: Enhanced food security
IDO2: Benefits to women and
marginalised groups
IDO3: ...
Alternate-Wetting-and-Drying
(AWD)
30% water
20-50% GHG
Without compromising
yield
• Keep flooded for
1st 15 days and at
f...
Coffee-banana intercropping
0
1
2
3
Monocrops Intercrops
Arabica
(t/ha)
Banana
(tenth
t/ha)
Arabica systems
Arabica Banana...
Fuente: Rincón, 2013
27
110
450
600
1000
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Sabana nativa
Pasturas degradadas
Gramíneas/leguminos...
What if…
- we spread agroforestry across Africa?
Analysis based on WRI 2013
Approximate area suitable for
Agroforestry in ...
What if…
- we spread agroforestry across Africa?
Carbon sequestration potential (2t C/ha/yr.) above and below ground with ...
Cereal production
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Per ha Per yield
China
US
Kahrl et al. 2010 World Agroforestry Centre
Back of ...
CSA Alliance
• Finance working group
• Policy working group
• Knowledge working group (FAO & CCAFS)
• UN SG Climate Summit...
Partnerships for Scaling
Climate-smart Agriculture (P4S)
ResearchinDevelopment
CSA Compendium
Informs CSA prioritization tool
• Overcome barrier of lack of information about
possible CSA options in a g...
Scalable climate smart technologies….
Practice CBA Quality
1 Silvopastoral Systems 1.5 2.11
2 Efficient Use of Fertilizer 1.4 2.87
3 Improved Forages 1.3 2.85
4...
Leb by
Climate smart villages:
Key agricultural activities for managing risks
Strong national engagement
www.aclimatecolombia.org
Pulling the pieces together
Climateresilience
Baseline
Adapted
technologies
Adapted
technologies
+
Climate-
specific
manag...
35
www.ccafs.cgiar.org
sign up for science, policy and news e-bulletins
Twitter: @cgiarclimate @campbell_cgiar
Establishing Climate Smart Agriculture in the World
Establishing Climate Smart Agriculture in the World
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Establishing Climate Smart Agriculture in the World

1,450 views

Published on

Presentation on CGIAR efforts on climate smart agriculture (CSA). Presented at the Fund Council in Mexico City, May 8th 2014.

Published in: Environment, Science, Technology
0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,450
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
50
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
68
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • FMNR spreading across southern Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal. The structure and fertility of the soil has improved = rain soaks into the soil more readily and water tables have risen in some places, making water more accessible and available to plants and people alike. Together, these changes have increased the resilience of farming systems to extreme weather events, diversifying sources of food and income and protecting land and water resources. goods and services provided by indigenous trees: timber, firewood, fodder, fibre, medicines, fruits, edible leaves and nuts, fodder, dyes and many environmental services.
  • FMNR spreading across southern Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal. The structure and fertility of the soil has improved = rain soaks into the soil more readily and water tables have risen in some places, making water more accessible and available to plants and people alike. Together, these changes have increased the resilience of farming systems to extreme weather events, diversifying sources of food and income and protecting land and water resources. goods and services provided by indigenous trees: timber, firewood, fodder, fibre, medicines, fruits, edible leaves and nuts, fodder, dyes and many environmental services.
  • This company currently insures millions of farmers in India. It insures many crops.CCAFS is working with the insurance company to design better insurance products that better help farmers manage risks.We are working on the metrics (indices) that trigger the insurance products, These indices need to be tailored to local contexts with all their complexities, like specificcrop varieties, differing planting dates and varied crop husbandry practices.We also work on improving the weather data, as very local data is needed to provide the input into the decisions when insurance is paid out. We are exploring remote sensing data combined with meteorological data to improve the coverage of the weather data.
  • Talking Points (animated)CCAFS will have four themes/”Flagships” (give titles)Research will focus on these kinds of topicsWe will work with partners to collect the evidence and change worldviews, and through engagement in policy processes, will help to facilitate policy and institutional changeThis policy and institutional change involves (see text)We will than work with partners to translate the policy into actionLeading to the roll out of CSA And will use the roll out as an opportunity to learn what worksSome core strategies in all the work: regionally grounded, capacity, gender, open dataThe work on policy will lead to IDO4On the ground roll out will address the other four IDOs of CCAFS
  • Banana provides mulching material in situ for coffeebanana intercropping provides additional foodand income from smallholders’ limited land and helps farmers reduce risks related todrought, pest/disease attacks and coffee price volatility
  • Map & Datafrom WRI 2013 – WRR Interim Findings http://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/WRI13_Report_4c_WRR_online.pdfThe scenario is a rough assessment of Agroforestry potential, more detailed numbers available soon.
  • Yield & Production:WRI 2013 – WRR Interim Findings http://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/WRI13_Report_4c_WRR_online.pdfThe scenario is a rough assessment of Agroforestry potential, more detailed numbers available soonNitrogen:Ca 20kg additional nitrogen needed at very low nitrogen levels to increase yields by 50%Footprint:Numbers based on a conservative 2 tons of C (~7.2 t CO2 eq) per Ha per year in dry low density systems - based on Nair et al. 2009Ag emissions ~5.5 Gt according to WRI 2013, excluding land use change – in contrast with a 7 Gt emission estimate for livestock alone by FAO used for livestock slides.
  • Potential for N management
  • Updates from past presentations: The additions would be the multi-stage analysis as we spoke about with Hector and David: first, gap analysis, 2nd, data extractions/analysis.
  • The results from the CSA study of the Silvopastoral system in colombia are displayed here. In the matrix, you can see how well the practice performed with regards to the different indicators. 0 = negative change, 1 = no change, 2 = positive change. Some of the matrix squares aggregate the results from more than one indicator. Spider diagrams show the difference between the baseline scenario and the scenarios with the CSA practice for the different CSA pillars and dimensions of CSA. A table at the bottom list the projected barriers to adoption for this practice and if they can be overcome.
  • After assessing all of the results for all practices in the generic list, a ranked list of the best practices is compiled Here you can see the top 8 practices. All of the practices are ranked based on their final score for the indicators. These practices have now undergone a CBA assessment (only done on the practices ranked highest based on the indicators) and the quality of the data used for the indicators and CBA is included here, giving an overall quality score for the assessment of this practice.
  • Or getting knowledge linked with actionReality TV program: Farm MakeoverMillions of viewersCCAFS results programmed into the series
  • Establishing Climate Smart Agriculture in the World

    1. 1. Rising to the challenge of establishing a climate smart agriculture Andy Jarvis, CCAFS
    2. 2. 2013 What is Climate Smart Agriculture?
    3. 3. 2013 Why is CSA important? - Adaptation Global wheat and maize yields: response to warming
    4. 4. 2013 Why is CSA important? – Food Security Maíz T-Max T-Max Yield Yield Arroz Climate drives yield variation: our systems are sensitive to climate, not resilient to it
    5. 5. 2013 Why is CSA important? - Mitigation 13 Agriculture-related activities are 19-29% of global greenhouse gas emissions (2010) Agriculture production (e.g., fertilizers, rice, livestock, energy) Land-use change and forestry including drained peatlands Industrial processes Waste Percent, 100% = 50 gigatonnes CO2e per year Non-Ag Energy 70 11 4 2
    6. 6. 2013 Why is CSA important? - Mitigation “Business as usual” (BAU) agriculture emissions would comprise >70% of allowable emissions to achieve a 2°C world Gt CO2e per year 12 15 36 70 2010 2050 (Business as usual) 2050 (2°C target) Non-agricultural emissions Agricultural and land- use change emissions >70% 48 85 21
    7. 7. 2013 2. There are significant successes in CSA
    8. 8.    
    9. 9.    
    10. 10.    
    11. 11. 2. But major scaling up is needed
    12. 12. 1.5 billion people depend on Degraded Land USD 7.5 billion lost to extreme Weather (2010) 1 billion more People by 2030 1.4 billion living in Poverty 14% more Food needed per decade Nearly 1 billion going Hungry
    13. 13. So, what are the targets? Target: Half a billion farmers practicing CSA Mitigation targets? Scholes et al., 2013. Agriculture and Climate Change Mitigation in the Developing World DC Targets (2035) • 22% reduction in agricultural emissions relative to the ‘business as usual’ baseline • 46% reduction in forestry and land use change, relative to a projection of current trends Target: Half a billion with enhanced adaptive capacity
    14. 14. 15 Requires a comprehensive approach • Partnerships: research and development, science and policy, public and private • Knowledge generation: practices/technologies, programmatic elements (insurance, climate information services) • Work on CSA enablers: (sub-)National policies, UNFCCC global process, donor agendas • Incentive mechanisms: innovative finance, private sector
    15. 15. 16 Capacity Building Gender Engagement IDO1: Enhanced food security IDO2: Benefits to women and marginalised groups IDO3: Enhanced adaptive capacity to climate risks IDO5: Reduced GHGs and forest conversion 1. CSA Alliance, World Bank, IFAD, Climate Finance Orgs, Ministries 2. World Vision, National Meteorological Agencies, Disaster Risk Agencies, Insurance Agencies 3. IIASA, FAO, Global Research Alliance for Agricultural GHGs 4. Food security and climate adaptation agencies, GFAR, CFS • Multiple local partners (e.g. CARE, Vi Mediae, PROLINNOVA, National Insurance Company of India, NARES) Key Working with partners to collect the evidence and to change opinions and worldviews Working with partners to understand what works 1&3: CSA Alliance, World Bank, IFAD, Green Climate Fund, PROLINNOVA, climate finance orgs, ministries 2: World Vision, National Meteorological Agencies, Disaster Risk Agencies, Insurance Agencies Working with partners to make it happen Enhanced local adaptation planning processes Flagship 1: Climate – smart agricultural practices
    16. 16. Alternate-Wetting-and-Drying (AWD) 30% water 20-50% GHG Without compromising yield • Keep flooded for 1st 15 days and at flowering • Irrigate when water drops to 15 cm below the surface 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 15.0 8.7 -42% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 tCO2-eq/ha*season 4.9 3.9 -20% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -22%-28% 6.0 4.7 6.4 4.6 Hilly mid-slopes Delta low-lying Summer- Autumn Winter- Spring Sander et al. in press IRRI AWDConventional
    17. 17. Coffee-banana intercropping 0 1 2 3 Monocrops Intercrops Arabica (t/ha) Banana (tenth t/ha) Arabica systems Arabica Banana 0 0.5 1 1.5 Monocrops Intercrops Robusta (t/ha) Banana (tenth t/ha) Robusta systems Robusta Banana 2268 4307$ ha yr 1286 1770$ ha yr More carbon in the system Diversification Decreases drought impacts Increased income Enhanced food security
    18. 18. Fuente: Rincón, 2013 27 110 450 600 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Sabana nativa Pasturas degradadas Gramíneas/leguminosas Pastura con fertilizante Pastura mejorada con maiz Pastura despues de 3 años de rotación de maiz y soya Animal live weight gain (kg/ha/year) Native savanna Grass/legume pasture with fertilizer Improved pasture planted with maize Pasture after 3 years of maize-soybean rotation Degraded pasture
    19. 19. What if… - we spread agroforestry across Africa? Analysis based on WRI 2013 Approximate area suitable for Agroforestry in Africa: ~ 300 Million Ha 140+ Million People below $1.25 per day
    20. 20. What if… - we spread agroforestry across Africa? Carbon sequestration potential (2t C/ha/yr.) above and below ground with low growth habit, low tree density and poor site quality, Nair et al. 2009 Underlying area 300 million ha, 285 million people, assumed increase in yields +50% (conservative), Analysis based on WRI 2013 PRODUCTIVITY Multiple benefits include:  Reduced soil erosion  Additional diversified income from wood products  Strengthened draught resistance from increased water storage RESILIENCE FOOTPRINT  +615 Calories per person/day for 140+ Million poor people  Average yield increase 50%  Savings of over 6 Million tons of synthetic fertilizerAdoption on 150 Million Ha Adoption on 300 Million Ha +44 Million Tons +88 Million Tons Food Production Carbon Sequestration - 1 Gt of CO2e per year - 2 Gt of CO2e per year Adoption on 150 Million Ha Adoption on 300 Million Ha  2 Gt Co2e storage per year corresponds to ~1/3 of Global Direct Ag Emissions  Significantly higher mitigation potential by further increasing tree density and in humid systems Agroforestry can be combined with other practices such as water harvesting for additional impact.
    21. 21. Cereal production 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Per ha Per yield China US Kahrl et al. 2010 World Agroforestry Centre Back of envelope calculations Nitrogen use kg N / ha g N / t  > US$ 1.5 billion saved  Emissions ↓ by 32-67 Mt CO2e yr-1 (20-41% of economic potential for N management) If nitrogen use efficiency could be improved by 5 % points
    22. 22. CSA Alliance • Finance working group • Policy working group • Knowledge working group (FAO & CCAFS) • UN SG Climate Summit in Sept  One element: CSA • Separate, but related:  CSA Science Conference March 2015 France
    23. 23. Partnerships for Scaling Climate-smart Agriculture (P4S)
    24. 24. ResearchinDevelopment
    25. 25. CSA Compendium Informs CSA prioritization tool • Overcome barrier of lack of information about possible CSA options in a given context Informs future research agendas • Identify gaps in the literature based on CSA pillar, CSA practice, geographic region, etc. Knowledge Hub for CSA researchers and practitioners • Crowdsourcing to develop database, with reliability of data marked
    26. 26. Scalable climate smart technologies….
    27. 27. Practice CBA Quality 1 Silvopastoral Systems 1.5 2.11 2 Efficient Use of Fertilizer 1.4 2.87 3 Improved Forages 1.3 2.85 4 Biogas 1.2 2.36 5 Grass-Legume Association 1.2 2.11 6 Water harvest structure 1.2 2.08 7 Silage, haylage and nutritional blocks 1 2.01 9 Early warning systems 1 1.89 Ranked List of Practices
    28. 28. Leb by Climate smart villages: Key agricultural activities for managing risks
    29. 29. Strong national engagement
    30. 30. www.aclimatecolombia.org
    31. 31. Pulling the pieces together Climateresilience Baseline Adapted technologies Adapted technologies + Climate- specific management Adapted technologies + Climate- specific management + Seasonal agroclimatic forecasts Adapted technologies + Climate- specific management + Seasonal agroclimatic forecasts + Efficient resource use + Enabling environment NAPs and NAMAs Climate smartness Adapted technologies + Climate-specific management + Seasonal agroclimatic forecasts + Efficient resource use
    32. 32. 35 www.ccafs.cgiar.org sign up for science, policy and news e-bulletins Twitter: @cgiarclimate @campbell_cgiar

    ×