Andy Jarvis And Patrick Lavelle - Why The World Needs Eco Efficient Agriculture


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Presentation on the need for an eco-efficient agriculture in the 21st century, and means by which it can be realised through a landscape approach. Presented by Patrick Lavelle and Andy Jarvis in a CIAT Internal Seminar in Februaru 2010.

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Andy Jarvis And Patrick Lavelle - Why The World Needs Eco Efficient Agriculture

  1. 1. Five reasons why the world needs eco-efficient agriculture, and three examples of it<br />Patrick Lavelle and Andy Jarvis<br />Plus Julian Ramirez, Anton Eitzinger, Emmanuel Zapata, Louis Reymondin, Karolina Argote, Edward Guevara<br />
  2. 2. The Oldies<br />Simone Staiger <br />Ana Milena Guerrero <br />Glenn Graham Hyman<br />Lilian Patricia Torres <br />Robert Andrade<br />Enna Diaz Betancourt <br />Anton Eitzineger<br />Simon Cook <br />Silvia Elena Castaño <br />Jorge Cardona <br />Carlos Nagles <br />Andy Jarvis<br />
  3. 3. The Youth<br />Jhon Ocampo<br />Julián Ramirez<br />Natalia Uribe <br />Louis Reymondin<br />Nora Castañeda<br />Hector Favio Tobón<br />Elizabeth Barona <br />Ovidio Rivera<br />Juan Carlos Andrade<br />Daniel Jimenez <br />Mike Salazar <br />Vanesa Herrera <br />
  4. 4. Victor Augusto Lizcano<br />Carolina Argote D.<br />Katherin Tehelen <br />Angelica Ma. Henao<br />Emmanuel Zapata <br />Daniel Amariles<br />Oriana Carolina Ovalle <br />And the positively under-age<br />
  5. 5. Contents<br />The five reasons why:<br />Population growth<br />Climate change, agriculture and carbon<br />Biodiversity conservation<br />Habitat conversion<br />Non-eco-efficient development pathways<br />The three examples:<br />Intensive pastures for the Amazon<br />Eco-efficient fruits for the world<br />Reconstructed landscapes for the Amazon<br />
  6. 6. Population Growth<br />60-70% more food by 2050<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Message 1<br />There will be more people per unit of arable land every year<br />
  9. 9. Climate change and carbon demand<br />
  10. 10. Averagechange in suitabilityforallcrops in 2050s<br />
  11. 11. Greater energy demand….<br />…..and carbon becomes a commodity, and a profitable one at that<br />
  12. 12. Message 2<br />Global suitability for agriculture reduces moderately, but problems of food distribution are exacerbated, and increased demand for land for carbon<br />
  13. 13. Moving more local…<br />Coffee in Colombia and Central America<br />
  14. 14. MECETA<br />Suitability in Cauca<br />Significant changes to 2020, drastic changes to 2050<br />The Cauca case: reduced coffeee growing area and changes in geographic distribution. Some new opportunities.<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. AdaptationOptions<br />Alternatives to coffee<br />Management<br />New markets<br />
  17. 17. Message 3<br />Locally, some significant upheavals could occur in terms of economies, cultures, and land-use patterns, with greater demand for land currently not cultivated<br />
  18. 18. HabitatConversion<br />
  19. 19. Caqueta, Jan 2004 – May 2009<br />Date<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Colombia – Rio Caquetá<br />
  22. 22. Detección en la Amazonía<br />Area de Cambio<br />3’310.198 ha/año<br />De los cuales 2.774.227Ha/año corresponde a Brasil (84%) y 419.603Ha/año a Bolivia (13%).<br />
  23. 23. Detección en la Amazonía<br />
  24. 24. Message 4<br />Habitat conversion is going on unchecked, especially in Latin America, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and essential ecosystem services<br />
  25. 25. The pressures on ecosystem services<br />
  26. 26. Distribution of protected areas<br />Covering 13.8% of the total global surface (3.8% international, 10% national)<br />Holding a great amount of biodiversity<br />Generating water, carbon and other ecosystem services<br />
  27. 27. Results: protected areas per region<br />Global biodiversity currently well conserved<br />Current extent of in situ conservation<br />
  28. 28. CURRENT<br />Results: Current and future predicted species richness<br />
  29. 29. Results: changes in species richness<br />Null migration: losses everywhere<br />Unlimited migration: a new distribution of global biodiversity<br />Protected areas no longer in the right places<br />
  30. 30. Nature conservation in the Amazon<br />Climate-stable refugia: Restoration<br />Climate-stable refugia: Protected areas<br />
  31. 31. Planeandoestrategias de adaptacion<br />No future for biodiversity: Production<br />Corridors through agriculture to enable movement of biodiversity<br />
  32. 32. Message 5<br />There will be greater pressure on land resources for multiple uses, as currently non-arable land becomes arable, as demands increase for carbon, and as we face massive biodiversity loss<br />
  33. 33. Non-eco efficientdevelopmenttrajectories<br />
  34. 34. Message 6<br />Current development trajectories in developing countries not environmentally sustainable in long term, and will come under spotlight eventually<br />
  35. 35. In conclusion….<br /><ul><li>More food
  36. 36. Under increasingly difficult social and physical conditions
  37. 37. Less land
  38. 38. Without losing more natural habitats
  39. 39. With low energy inputs
  40. 40. Population growth
  41. 41. Climate change challenges
  42. 42. Biodiversity loss
  43. 43. Habitat conversion
  44. 44. Non-eco-efficient development pathways</li></li></ul><li>Policy is only a means to an end….…..we need enabling policies to stimulate change on the ground<br />
  45. 45. Intensive pastures for the Amazon<br />
  46. 46. Eco-efficient fruit production<br />A win-win so that everyone is happy<br />Multiple-benefits:<br /><ul><li>Carbon storage
  47. 47. Income generation
  48. 48. Food production</li></li></ul><li>Eco efficient landscapesthe field approach<br />The AMAZ Team:<br />Patrick LAVELLE, Xavier ARNAULD de SARTRE, Johan OSZWALD, Elena VELASQUEZ, Michel GRIMALDI, Valery GOND, Pilar HURTADO, Iran VEIGA, Edward GUEVARA, Alexander FEIJOO, Tupac OTERO, Patricia CHACON, Bertha RAMIREZ , Oscar VILLANUEVA, Gamaliel RODRIGUEZ, Jaime VELASQUEZ, Alexander VASQUEZ, Marlucia MARTINS, Erika GORDILLO, Luz Elena MORENO, Thibaud DECAENS, William ASSIS, Thierry DESJARDINS<br />
  49. 49. Being a soil <br />in the 21st century…<br />Produce food <br />(+70% hasta 2050) <br />Biofuels<br />Climate<br />Store C <br />SOIL<br />30% degraded<br />Control erosion <br />and flooding<br />Urbanisation<br />Process water<br />Biodiversity<br /><ul><li>ECO EFFICIENCY = to optimize production and </li></ul>marketing of ALL Goods and Ecosystem Services<br />
  50. 50. No monodisciplinar solutions…we need to face complexity…..<br />How can we increase eco efficiency??<br />
  51. 51. QUESUNGUAL system(Centro America)<br />improve productions of food and other commodities<br />generation of ecosystem services<br />What does it mean at the farm and landscape scale??<br />
  52. 52. AMAZEcosystem services in deforested Amazonian landscapes<br />16 teams from Brazil, Colombia and France<br />60 researchers<br />200 students<br />>1000 farmers and family<br />
  53. 53. The Amazon paradoxe<br />Tailandia, Para, Brésil<br />Mars 2008<br />In Amazonia, laws do not prevent deforestation<br />Mining explotation of Natural Capital does not prevent poverty<br />Pacaja, Para, Brésil<br />Mai 2008<br /> How to design applicable public policies???<br />
  54. 54. PUBLIC POLICIES<br />SOCEC<br />Education<br />Production<br />systems<br />Infrastructure<br />Credit<br />LANDSCAPES<br />NATURALBIODIVERSITY<br />CLIMATE <br />REGULATION<br />WATER<br />RESOURCES<br />PRODUCTIONS<br /> SOIL<br />FERTILITY<br />ECOSYSTEM SERVICES<br />
  55. 55. BRASIL<br />Pará<br />COLOMBIA<br />Caqueta<br />3 landscape windows<br />3 landscape windows<br />Tradicio<br />nal<br />Silvo<br />pastoril<br />Agrosilvo<br />pastoril<br />Maçaran<br />duba<br />Pacaja<br />Sampling protocole<br />Palmares<br />3 sub windows<br />T1<br />T2<br />T3<br />S1<br />S2<br />S3<br />A1<br />A2<br />A3<br />PL1<br />PL2<br />PL3<br />M1<br />M2<br />M3<br />Pa1<br />Pa3<br />Pa2<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />17<br />YEAR I<br />306<br />153 farms<br />153 farms<br />SOCIOECO  PAYSAGE<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br /> 3<br />27 farms<br />27 farms<br />YEAR II<br />54<br />Productions<br />Soil Ecosystem Services<br />BIODIVERSITY<br />
  56. 56. Covariations Matrix among tables of data<br /> 14 fully compatible tables of data<br />
  57. 57. 0.30<br />SOCIOECO<br />BRASIL<br />Historia<br /> parcelas<br />Sócio<br />Demografia<br />Sistema<br /> de producción<br />0.42<br />0.44<br />0.37<br />0.47<br />0.42<br />PAISAJE<br />Composición<br />Estructura<br />0.44<br />0.40<br />0.28<br />0.38<br />BIODIV<br />0.39<br />0.35<br />0.36<br />MORFO<br />GISQ<br />BIOM<br />AERA<br />0.33<br />0.35<br />SUELO<br />BIOM<br />RAICES<br />0.38<br />PRODUC<br />0.32<br />0.39<br />SERVICIOS<br />
  58. 58. Mensages from AMAZ<br /><ul><li> SCALES: LANDSCAPE is the best scale to treat </li></ul>Socioeconomics and the function of natural and agro ecosystems<br /><ul><li> MARKETS : Necessity to develop markets and access </li></ul>to towns<br /><ul><li> INTENSIFICATION : Systems that are both Productive </li></ul>AND good at producing ES do exist<br /><ul><li> PAYMENT FOR ES: Where people get incomes outside</li></ul>Farm activities, pressure on forest is alleviated.<br />
  59. 59. Eco –Efficiency in AMAZ<br />EP: Incomes ($) from farm activities/ha/person working<br />QS: soil quality index GISQ (Velasquez et al., 2006)<br />varies from 0.1 to 1.0<br />EF = EP x QS<br />
  60. 60. Colombian AMAZ sites<br />Income : 3.6 M<br />6 ha-1.8 UTE<br />GISQ = 0.9<br />EF = 0.13<br />Income : 5.3 M<br />3 ha-1.8 UTE<br />GISQ = 0.5<br />EF = 0.70<br />Income : 9.8 M<br />37.5 ha-0.6 UTE<br />GISQ = 0.4<br />EF = 0.49<br />AGROFORESTRY <br />LANDSCAPE <br />Income : 14.7 M<br />11 ha-1.8 UTE<br />GISQ = 0.4<br />EF = 0.31<br />Income : 13.8 M<br />17.5 ha-1.8 UTE<br />GISQ = 0.5<br />EF = 0.13<br />EF = M.P$/ha/person<br />
  61. 61. Eco efficiency in different landscapes in Colombia (Caqueta)<br />INC: 6600 $ <br />15 Ha<br />2.0 persons<br />GISQ 0.74<br />EF=0.13<br />0.70<br />0.60<br />INC: 7500 $ <br />49 Ha<br />2.2 persons<br />GISQ 0.53<br />EF=0.079<br />0.50<br />INC: 11200 $ <br />105 Ha<br />1.8 persons<br />GISQ 0.54<br />EF=0.071<br />0.40<br />0.30<br />0.20<br />0.10<br />0.0<br />AGRO<br />FORESTRY<br />SYLVO<br />PASTORAL<br />CONVENTIONAL<br />
  62. 62. Eco efficiency and Payment for Ecosystem Services<br />In Caqueta:<br />Eco intensification allows <br /> - better income per surface unit : +400%<br /> - more people employed: +10%<br /> - improved production of soil ES: +37%<br /> - improved conservation of biodiversity<br />Cost of soil associated ES:<br /> 305 US$ /ha/yr<br />
  63. 63. Reshaping Lanscape<br />Eco intensification in each element of the landscape mosaic (genetic resources+ISFM)<br />Increase ‘naturality” in used elements (ex. Tree components)<br />Increase connectivity among natural ecosystems (biodiversity coorridors)<br />Identify the optimum level of fragmentation and contiguity among different land use systems for different ecosystem services<br />
  64. 64. AMAZ 2030<br />Fondo Amazonico<br />Reconstruction of eco efficient landscapes in deforested areas of Amazonia in a context of climate change<br />
  65. 65. DIAGNOSTIC<br />SOCEC, Health, Climate<br />Landscape, Biodiversity<br />Commodities<br />Ecosystem Services<br />MARKETS<br />Commodities + SA<br />LANDSCAPE<br />MODELS<br />POLITICS<br />INFORMATION<br />TRAINING<br />Payment for ES<br />Value Chain Optimization<br />Certified <br />Participative<br />Indicators<br />LANDSCAPE<br />RECONSTRUCTION<br />The next step: to rebuild eco efficient landscapes<br />