Psychology 1 - General Psychology
Pretest - Chapters 7, 11
Summer 2009 (Dr. S. Lee)
Please complete and bring to class on Wednesday
1. Which of the following is an example of cognition?
D) all of the above
2. The cognitive process through which information is used to reach a blocked goal is called ______.
B) problem solving
C) decision making
3. Which of the following definitions best describes the term “heuristic”?
A) random application of one possible solution after another
B) systematic pattern of reasoning that guarantees a correct solution
C) the way in which a problem or question is presented
D) efficient problem-solving strategy that does not guarantee a correct solution
4. When a person approaches problems without using any particular cognitive strategy, they are using
A) an algorithm
B) the trial-and-error approach
C) a heuristic
5. The ______ is a strategy of making judgments about the unknown based on assuming it is similar to the
A) mental set mnemonic
B) framing formula
C) representativeness heuristic
D) divergent thinking pattern
6. ______ is the term used to describe computers that are programmed to think like human brains.
A) Convergent thinking systems
B) Divergent thinking systems
D) Artificial intelligence
7. A computer is least likely to be effective in solving which type of problem?
A) developing an algebraic proof
B) choosing between two potential mates
C) playing a game of chess
D) diagnosing a blood disease
8. Divergent thinking is characterized by all but which of the following?
B) loose organization
C) partial direction
9. A person's cognitive abilities that allow him/her to learn from experience, reason, and cope with daily
living demands is called his/her ______.
C) problem solving abilities
10. Psychologists use the term _____ to describe a broad, general factor of intelligence.
11. Felicia has good social skills. According to Howard Gardner, Felicia has ______ intelligence.
12. ______ intelligence is the ability to use previously learned skills to solve familiar problems.
13. Generally speaking, what is the nature of crystallized and fluid intelligence in adulthood?
A) Both fluid and crystallized intelligence decrease in adulthood.
B) In adulthood, fluid intelligence increases, while crystallized intelligence decreases.
C) In adulthood, fluid intelligence decreases, while crystallized intelligence increases.
D) Both fluid and crystallized intelligence increase in adulthood.
14. Who refined the original intelligence scale developed by Alfred-Binet, which is now called the Stanford-
Binet Intelligence Scale?
A) Francis Stanford
B) Lewis Terman
C) David Wechsler
D) Robert Sternberg
15. Intelligence tests are good at
A) helping psychologists and educators define intelligence.
B) measuring intelligence.
C) predicting how well people will perform in situations that seem to require intelligence.
D) all of the above.
16. Sixteen-year-old Michael takes an intelligence test and discovers that his mental age is 16. What is
A) cannot determine from the information provided
17. Mary's mental age is 7 and her chronological age is 10. What is Mary's IQ?
D) cannot determine from information provided
18. ______ is the intelligence quotient based on the degree of departure from average of the person's score on
an intelligence test.
A) Ratio IQ
B) Multiple intelligence IQ
D) Deviation IQ
19. Since intelligence is normally distributed in the population, we can predict that ______ percent of people
have IQ scores ranging between 85 and 115.
20. A student suggests that a test he took is not adequate because it was not administered in the same way to
all the students. This student is raising concern about which characteristic of tests?
21. Psychologists use the term _____ to describe standards used as a basis of comparison for scores on a test.
A) deviation IQs
C) normal distributions
D) ratio IQs
22. Practical knowledge and skills needed to deal with everyday problems is called ______ intelligence.
C) common sense
23. On average how have scores of fluid intelligence changed with every generation?
A) Scores have increased about 20 points every generation.
B) Scores have increased about 5 points every generation.
C) Scores have not significantly changed across generations.
D) Scores have decreased about 10 points every generation.
24. Which factor has contributed to the narrowing achievement gap between Caucasians and African
A) decreases in family size
B) increased educational opportunities
C) changes in health and nutrition
D) all of the above
25. An IQ of ______ or below is the usual cutoff for mental retardation.
26. Relatively enduring patterns of behavior that are relatively consistent across situations are called ______.
A) personality components
C) unconscious processes
27. In the field of personality psychology, the “Big 5” refers to
A) the five major theories describing personality.
B) five theorists who have most contributed to our understanding of personality.
C) the five basic dimensions of personality.
D) Freud's five stages of personality development.
28. Niles describes himself as careful, reliable, hardworking, and well organized. To which of the “Big 5”
does Niles's description refer?
29. In Freud's model of consciousness, which level is best described as the “tip of the iceberg”?
30. Freud described ______ levels of awareness, and they are called ______.
A) two / introversion and extraversion
B) three / conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
C) three / id, ego, and superego
D) five / oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital
31. Jane says, “I have a guilty conscience.” To which aspect of the mind is Jane referring?
32. What is the part of the mind that opposes the id's desires by using moral restrictions?
D) repression trigger
33. Instead of fighting with his siblings (which he often feels like doing), Harold competes with them for
good grades in school, as well as athletic awards. Which process is Harold using for dealing with his
B) primary process thinking
34. Two-year-old Samuel is predicted to be in which of Freud's stages of psychosexual development?
35. According to Freud, the genitals become the primary source of pleasure during the ______ stage.
36. In Freud's theory, Oedipus complex is to ______ as Electra complex is to ______.
A) phallic / oral
B) oral / phallic
C) male / female
D) female / male
37. The psychosexual stage that extends from adolescence through adulthood is called the ______ period of
38. Of the following psychoanalytic theorists, whose ideas are considered most contemporary?
A) Sigmund Freud
B) Alfred Adler
C) Carl Jung
D) Karen Horney
39. Which theoretical perspective of personality development takes the stance that the most important parts of
our behavior are learned from other people in society, including friends and family, as well as the culture.
A) psychoanalytic theory
B) trait theory
C) humanist theory
D) social learning theory
40. Dr. Vanderbilt is a social learning theorist. Which set of terms is Vanderbilt likely to use in answering the
question, “How does personality develop”?
A) operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and modeling
B) inner-directedness, self-concept, and subjective reality
C) unconscious, superego, and fixation
D) extraversion, cardinal traits, and central traits
41. Carole has a strong belief that she is capable of achieving the goals she has set for herself. Carole would
be described as having a high level of ______.
42. The saying “Be all that you can be” reflects which concept from humanism
B) subjective reality
D) peak experience
43. In the humanist perspective, each person's unique perception of truth is called her/his _______.
B) subjective reality
D) reality principle
44. According to Maslow, the ultimate result of inner-directedness is ______.
A) peak experience
45. Regarding Maslow's view of self-actualization, which of the following statements is false?
A) Self-actualization is at the end of a lifelong journey of improvement.
B) Many people are fully self-actualized by the time they reach old age.
C) Occasional glimpses of the nature of self-actualization occur during peak experiences.
D) Self-actualized people have a greater number of peak experiences than those who are not self-actualized.
46. Which of the methods of personality assessment is most consistent with the psychoanalytic perspective?
A) objective tests
B) projective tests
47. Which of the following situational factors has been found to influence happiness?
A) stability of one's government
B) stability of personal relationships
C) living in poverty
D) all of the above
48. Grace takes a personality test in which she responds to a series of statements (e.g. “I get along well with
others”). She indicates how much these statements sound like her, and then her responses are compared to
the responses of a group of people with known personality traits. Which method of personality assessment
is Grace using?
A) projective testing
D) objective testing
49. “Giftedness” is defined by
A) high levels of IQ.
B) high levels of creativity.
C) high levels of artistic ability.
D) high levels of IQ and/or creativity.