Psychology 1 - General Psychology
Pretest - Chapters 6,7
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers
1) All of the following are components of memory EXCEPT 1) _______
2) When a person has a better memory for items at the beginning of a list, 2) _______
the ________ is demonstrated.
A) primacy effect
B) recency effect
C) flashbulb memory effect
D) serial cognition effect
E) metamemory effect
3) After he was sexually assaulted, Gordon went to the police and filed a 3) _______
report. He was able to tell the police sketch artist what the perpetrator
looked like. The police then asked Gordon if he'd be willing to look at
potential suspects one by one to determine whether or not that suspect
was the perpetrator. Gordon agreed to do so. All of the following are
A) Gordon will be LESS likely to make a positive identification in this
B) Because Gordon was not given the opportunity to look at photos
of potential suspects, he will be more likely to make a
C) The method Gordon experienced in viewing one suspect at a time
is preferred by some police officers over showing all members at
D) Gordon was participating in what some police officers refer to as a
E) Gordon will be LESS likely to misidentify one of the potential
suspects as the perpetrator.
4) ________ occurs when information never made it into the long-term 4) _______
memory in the first place.
A) Retrieval failure
B) Long-term potentiation
C) Encoding failure
E) Consolidation failure
Sharon and Peggy were talking about what they did over the weekend. 5) _______
Peggy told Sharon all about the concert she attended. As she was giving
Peggy the details, she realized she could not remember the name of the
group who performed. She could easily tell Sharon other songs they
sang and even described what they looked like. However, Peggy could
not seem to remember the name of the group at the moment. What did
Peggy just experience?
A) The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
B) Anterograde amnesia
C) Prospective forgetting
D) Consolidation failure
E) Encoding failure
6) Guisseppe cannot remember exactly what happened at the wedding he 6) _______
attended a while ago, but he knows that the reception followed the
ceremony. He also knows that at the reception, there was a large guest
list, great food, and lots of dancing. Guisseppe is using ________ to help
him reconstruct his memory for the event.
C) a schema
7) In terms of the memory process, keeping the information in memory 7) _______
refers to ______.
8) As three-year-old Luca is learning to count to ten, his parents notice he 8) _______
always remembers one, two, three correctly and then nine, ten correctly.
However, he often skips or mixes up the numbers in the middle. This
A) severe problems in metacognition.
B) infantile amnesia.
C) only the primacy effect.
D) only the recency effect.
E) the serial position effect.
9) Sixty-eight-year-old Claretta is often confused about where she is and 9) _______
what time of the day it is. Her adult children have noticed that other
mental abilities have also been deteriorating lately. They report that
Claretta does not seem to remember important information and her
personality has changed. Which of the following BEST describes
B) Encoding failure
C) Retrograde anmesia
D) The disinhibitory effect
10) Declarative memory is to explicit memory as ________ is to implicit 10) ______
A) nondeclarative memory
B) semantic memory
C) echoic memory
D) episodic memory
E) an event
11) Julie is a participant in a research project. She is instructed to memorize 11) ______
a list of items. Julie reads the list, in order, over and over again. When it
comes time for her to be tested on what items she remembers, what will
the finding likely be?
A) Julie will remember various items scattered throughout the list.
B) Julie will have a better memory for items at the beginning of the
C) Julie will have a better memory for items at the end of the list.
D) Julie will have a better memory for items in the middle of the list.
E) Research suggests that both B and C are correct.
12) ________ is a memory strategy that involves an individual repeating 12) ______
something over and over whereas ________ is a memory strategy that
involves connecting new information to something already stored in
A) Elaborative rehearsal; rote rehearsal
B) Chunking; rote rehearsal
C) Maintenance rehearsal; rote rehearsal
D) Elaborative rehearsal; displacement
E) Maintenance rehearsal; elaborative rehearsal
13) According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory, the components 13) ______
of memory are
A) declarative and nondeclarative memory.
B) sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
C) implicit memory and explicit memory.
D) encoding, storage, and retrieval.
E) metacognition and meta-analysis.
14) Which of the following is FALSE regarding eyewitness testimony? 14) ______
A) When the crime involves a weapon, research suggests that
misidentification is somewhat higher.
B) Although mistakes can happen, there are strategies that can be
taken to minimize the errors.
C) Greater accuracy can be achieved if the victim is shown one
potential suspect at a time.
D) Even when measures are put into place to reduce error, eyewitness
testimony is not generally relied upon in the U.S. legal system.
E) When a victim is looking at a lineup of potential suspects, the race,
build, and age of all the suspects should be similar.
Bernice can remember her first day of kindergarten, but cannot seem to 15) ______
remember anything in her life that occurred before that. Bernice is likely
A) childhood repression
B) retrograde amnesia
C) infantile amnesia
D) an inability to reconstruct repressed memories
E) anterograde amnesia
16) When memories are not revisited, they simply fade away as time passes. 16) ______
This exemplifies the ________.
A) idea behind retrograde amnesia
B) interference theory of forgetting
C) retrieval theory of forgetting
D) decay theory of forgetting
E) encoding theory of forgetting
17) Declarative memory includes 17) ______
A) episodic memory, semantic memory, and implicit memory.
B) implicit memory and explicit memory.
C) implicit memory and episodic memory.
D) semantic memory and episodic memory.
E) episodic memory, explicit memory, and implicit memory.
18) ________ occurs when information already stored in memory gets in the 18) ______
way of recalling newer information.
A) Retroactive amnesia
B) Anterograde interference
C) Proactive interference
D) Anterograde amnesia
E) Proactive amnesia
19) ________ refers to finding that memory is better for things at the 19) ______
beginning and the end of a list as compared for memory for things in
the middle of the list.
A) The memory reconstruction theory
C) The serial position effect
D) The flashbulb memory effect
20) All of the following are true of recovered memories from the first few 20) ______
years of life EXCEPT
A) research suggests that areas of the cortex involved in memory are
not yet fully developed thus interfering with the memory process.
B) research suggests that an underdeveloped hippocampus may
prevent memories from being properly stored/retrieved.
C) due to limited language abilities, the storage and future retrieval of
memories is not very efficient or reliable.
D) infantile amnesia would suggest that individuals cannot remember
events that happened during the first few years.
E) All of the above are true regarding recovered memories from the
early years of like.
21) Multiple choice exams are to ________ as essay exams are to ________. 21) ______
A) recall; recognition
B) relearning; recall
C) recognition; recall
D) recall; relearning
E) recognition; relearning
22) ________ holds information brought in through our senses but only for a 22) ______
very brief amount of time.
A) Declarative memory
C) Short-term memory
D) Sensory memory
E) Working memory
23) All of the following can be stated from Godden's and Baddeley's 1975 23) ______
research with the divers EXCEPT
A) The divers' recall was not as good if they were in a different
environment from where they learned the material.
B) The context in which the divers learned the information probably
assisted in their recall of the information when in that same
C) The divers who learned the list of words on land remembered the
list better on land.
D) The divers who learned the list of words under water had a better
memory for those words while under water.
E) Because the context was unusual, the divers seemed to have a
better memory for the words they learned while under water.
24) Raymond is required to learn long lists of numbers for his job. Because 24) ______
he wants to remember as many numbers as possible, he breaks the
numbers up into groups. What technique is Raymond utilizing?
25) When new information pushes current information out of memory 25) ______
because the short-term memory is full, ________ has occurred.
B) retrograde amnesia
Which of the following correctly states the average range of intelligence, 26) ______
which can also be determined by calculating one standard deviation
above and below the mean?
27) Jack is sitting at his desk at work and is excited about the new car he just 27) ______
purchased. Because his new car is in the company's parking garage, he
cannot see it. Jack can use ________ to create in his mind the visual
image of his new car.
A) a heuristic
E) proactive visualization
28) Hannah took a reading test to see what her level of reading ability was. 28) ______
Although the tests accurately measured an individual's general reading
ability, the first test showed that she had very poor reading skills
whereas the second test showed she had average reading skills. Which
of the following is TRUE regarding this scenario?
A) The reading tests are likely valid but not reliable.
B) The reading tests did not measure what they were intended to
C) The tests had low validity and low reliability.
D) The reading tests did not demonstrate validity.
E) The reading tests showed consistency based on her overall results.
29) Cedric is sitting in his math class and is trying to solve a problem. He 29) ______
knows there is a correct formula to solve this problem and he knows
what steps are involved to come to the correct answer. Cedric is about to
use the ________ as a problem solving strategy.
B) means-end analysis
C) mental set
D) formulaic heuristic
E) representativeness heuristic
30) ________ occurs when a person sees only the original use of an object, 30) ______
which can ultimately interfere with problem solving.
A) The formulaic heuristic
B) Functional fixedness
C) Cross-modal perception
D) Divergent thinking
E) A customary viewpoint
The g factor measures ________ whereas the s factor measures ________. 31) ______
A) primary mental abilities; secondary mental abilities
B) nonverbal intellectual capacity; verbal intellectual capacity
C) specific intellectual abilities; general intelligence
D) overall intelligence; particular intellectual abilities
E) verbal abilities; nonverbal abilities
32) A ________ is a mental category that represents a group of people, 32) ______
objects, or events.
B) visual image
C) schematic grouping
D) cognitive grouping
33) Athletes such as Tiger Woods and Tayshaun Prince likely have a high 33) ______
A) naturalistic intelligence.
B) linguistic intelligence.
C) interpersonal intelligence.
D) logical-mathematical intelligence.
E) bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.
34) Suppose that eight-year-old Kevin was given the Wechsler Intelligence 34) ______
Scale for Children. How would the psychologist determine his IQ score?
A) Assessing his mental age
B) Comparing his performance with all of the other eight-year-old
children in the normative group who have taken the test
C) Dividing his age by the average number or responses he answered
D) Using the formula MA/CA X 100
E) Using the formula CA/MA X 100
35) Joy had never been to the new restaurant her family was suggesting 35) ______
they try. She was a bit leary about going until she heard they had
hamburgers on the menu. Which of the following helped Joy to decide
trying the new restaurant was worth a shot?
A) The surface heuristic
B) The recognition heuristic
C) The planning heuristic
D) The availability heuristic
E) The rule-of-thumb heuristic
36) Which of the following addresses the question, "Does the test measure 36) ______
what it is intended to measure?"
When a very large group of people are given a test and then those scores 37) ______
are used as comparison for anyone else who may take that test, the test
is said to be
B) culturally fair.
D) an aptitude test.
38) One day Oliver was sitting with his friend as they were discussing how 38) ______
long they have been friends. As they counted back, Oliver said, "Oh, I
remember. We met in the third grade at recess time." As he and his
friend reminisced, Oliver came to the conclusion that because he hadn't
thought about the third grade in so many years, he could not remember
who their teacher was. In fact, he could not remember anything about
his teacher. What is Oliver likely experiencing?
A) Interference failure
B) Decay theory
C) Anterograde amnesia
D) Consolidation failure
E) Encoding failure
39) Nicole feels she will not soon forget the emotions she felt upon hearing 39) ______
of the attacks on America on September 11th. She remembers very
vividly what she was doing, who she was with, what was said, and
what emotions she experienced. Nicole has a ________ for that tragic
B) hippocampal memory
C) flashbulb memory
D) reconstructed memory
E) repressed memory
40) Luisine took his statistics exam and was glad he studied as hard as he 40) ______
did. He remembers that it took him about an hour to relearn how to
solve the problems after spending four hours on them the first time.
Based on the relearning method, what was Luisine's savings score?
A) 25% B) 75% C) 0% D) 100% E) 50%
41) Explicit memory is to declarative memory as short-term memory is to 41) ______
A) working memory
C) episodic memory
D) nondeclarative memory
E) semantic memory
42) According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, ________ can hold 42) ______
information for a very brief time period of a few moments whereas
________ can hold information for 30 seconds or so.
A) iconic memory; sensory memory
B) sensory memory; short-term memory
C) declarative memory; working memory
D) declarative memory; short-term memory
E) implicit memory; metamemory
43) Which of the following is TRUE regarding suppression and repression? 43) ______
A) Suppression involves a partial or complete memory loss of an
B) Repression involves a conscious attempt to try to forget painful
experiences yet still knowing the event occurred.
C) Both are forms of motivated forgetting.
D) Both fall under the category of encoding failure.
E) All of the above are true.
44) Though gender differences for cognitive abilities are quite small, which of the 44) ______
following statements is TRUE regarding the gender differences that do exist?
A) Boys as young as 18 months of age have been found to have larger
vocabularies than girls.
B) The cognitive differences between boys and girls are much larger than
cognitive differences found within each gender.
C) Females consistently outperform males in both math and science.
D) Boys tend to be more self-disciplined than girls as it relates to studying.
E) On average, girls get higher grades than boys do in all subjects.
45) Which of the following is TRUE regarding the nature-nurture 45) ______
controversy of intelligence?
A) The controversy was solved when recently published research
strongly supported the idea that intelligence was primarily
B) Twin studies support the idea that intelligence is largely inherited;
similarly, adoption studies support the idea that intelligence is
strongly influenced by one's environment.
C) Sir Francis Galton purported over 100 years ago that intelligence
was mostly influenced by one's environment.
D) Because it was determined that the heritability index for
intelligence is around .50, the controversy was recently put to rest.
E) All of the above are true.
46) When an individual makes a decision based on what is easiest to call to 46) ______
mind, the ________ is used.
A) recognition heuristic
B) surface heuristic
C) representativeness heuristic
D) availability heuristic
E) planning heuristic
47) All of the following are true regarding flashbulb memories EXCEPT 47) ______
A) these memories tend to be highly emotional.
B) flashbulb memories tend to be rehearsed over and over thereby
adding to the strong memory of the event.
C) memories of this type are more accurate than other memories and
seem exempt from fading away over time.
D) the importance and repercussions of these memories add to the
strength of the memory.
E) memories such as these high in consequentiality.
48) Conditioned responses you have learned by association are located in 48) ______
your ________ memory; knowing how to ride a bike is located within
your ________ memory.
A) semantic; implicit
B) implicit; nondeclarative
C) nondeclarative; echoic
D) declarative; explicit
E) explicit; implicit
49) Sternberg's ________ intelligence refers to the mental abilities most 49) ______
closely correlated with high scores in today's standardized intelligence
50) When a traumatic event seems to be removed or hidden from one's 50) ______
conscious awareness, ________ is said to have occurred.
A) retrograde amnesia
B) proactive amnesia
C) anterograde amnesia
D) prospective forgetting