Chapter 8


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Chapter 8

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Human Development This multimedia product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network. Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images. Any rental, lease or lending of the program. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  2. 2. Chapter 8 Overview  Theories of development  Prenatal development  Infancy  Early and middle childhood  Adolescence  Early and middle adulthood  Later adulthood  Death and dying Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  3. 3. Theories of Development  Developmental psychology – The study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the life span Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  4. 4. What did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development?  Piaget proposed that cognitive ability develops in four stages, each involving a qualitatively different way of reasoning and understanding the world  Four stages of development – Sensori-motor stage – Preoperational stage – Concrete operational stage – Formal operational stage Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  5. 5. What did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development?  During the sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years), infants gain an understanding of the world through their senses and motor activities – Infants act on objects and events that are directly perceived  Major achievement of this stage is object permanence – The realization that objects continue to exist when they can no longer be perceived Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  6. 6. What did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development?  During the preoperational stage (age 2-7), children acquire symbolic function – Understanding that one thing can stand for another  During this stage, children exhibit egocentrism – Belief that everyone sees what they see, thinks what they think, etc. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  7. 7. What did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development?  In the concrete operational stage (7 to 11 or 12 years), children acquire the concept of conservation – Understanding that a given quantity of matter stays the same despite rearrangement or change in its appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away – Conservation develops because children begin to understand reversibility  Realizing that any change in the shape, position, or order of matter can be reversed mentally Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  8. 8. Piaget’s conservation of volume task Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  9. 9. What did Piaget find regarding stages of cognitive development?  In the formal operational stage (age 11 or 12 years and beyond) preadolescents and adolescents acquire the capacity for hypothetico-deductive thinking – The ability to apply logical thought to abstract and hypothetical situations in the past, present, and future Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  10. 10. What are some alternative approaches to Piaget’s theory?  Information processing theorists argue that stage-like advances in cognition are due to improvements in processes such as working memory  Vygotsky’s sociocultural approach emphasizes that cognitive development occurs within a sociocultural context in which parents and teachers provide age- appropriate guidance Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  11. 11. What did Kohlberg claim about the development of moral reasoning?  Lawrence Kohlberg proposed a stage theory of moral development  He presented moral dilemmas to research participants and analyzed the moral reasoning that they described  He classified moral reasoning into three levels, with each level having two stages – People progress through the levels and stages in a fixed order – Each level has a prerequisite stage of cognitive development Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  12. 12. What did Kohlberg claim about the development of moral reasoning?  Preconventional level – Lowest level of moral development – “Right” is whatever gains a reward or avoids punishment  Conventional level – Right and wrong are based on the internalized standards of others – “Right” is whatever is approved by others or is consistent with the laws of society  Postconventional level – Highest level of moral reasoning – “Right” is whatever furthers basic human rights Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  13. 13. Colby & Kohlberg’s longitudinal study of moral development  Studied moral reasoning at different ages  Conventional thinking (stages 3 and 4) is not predominant until after age 12  Postconventional thinking (stage 5) first appears in adulthood, but is still rare in 30’s Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  14. 14. How does Erickson’s theory describe the process of psychosocial development?  Erik Erikson proposed eight psychosocial stages that encompass the entire lifespan  Each stage is defined by a conflict that must be resolved for healthy personality development to occur Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  15. 15. How does Erickson’s theory describe the process of psychosocial development?  Basic trust vs. basic mistrust – Birth to 1 year  Autonomy vs. shame and doubt – 1 to 3 years  Initiative vs. guilt – 3 to 6 years  Industry vs. inferiority – 6 years to puberty Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  16. 16. How does Erickson’s theory describe the process of psychosocial development?  Identity vs. role confusion – Adolescence  Intimacy vs. isolation – Young adulthood  Generativity vs. stagnation – Middle adulthood  Ego integrity vs. despair – Late adulthood Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  17. 17. Prenatal Development  The development from conception to birth Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  18. 18. What happens during each of the three stages of prenatal development?  Period of the zygote – Zygote attaches to the uterine lining – Ends 1 to 2 weeks after conception  Period of the embryo – Major systems, organs, and structures of the body develop – Ends when bone cells appear, 3 to 8 weeks after conception  Period of the fetus – Rapid growth and development of body structures, organs, and systems – 9 weeks after conception until birth Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  19. 19. Infancy  A neonate, a newborn infant up to one month old, comes equipped with an impressive range of reflexes, built-in responses to certain stimuli that they need to ensure survival in their new world Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  20. 20. How do infants’ perceptual and motor abilities change over the first 18 months of life?  Robert Fantz found that infants prefer to fixate on some objects over others  Newborn infants can discriminate between objects  Newborns’ visual acuity is about 20/600, but improves rapidly during infancy Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  21. 21. How do infants’ perceptual and motor abilities change over the first 18 months of life?  Most infants develop motor skills in the sequence shown in the figure  Ages listed are averages – normal infants may reach any milestone months earlier or later than average  Motor development is largely determined by maturation Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  22. 22. Temperament  A person’s behavioral style or characteristic way of responding to the environment Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  23. 23. How does temperament shape infants’ behavior?  Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1970) identified three general types of temperament – Easy  Have pleasant moods, approach new people and situations positively – Difficult  Have generally unpleasant moods, react negatively to new people and situations – Slow-to-warm-up  Tend to withdraw, are slow to adapt, somewhat negative in mood  Infant temperament is strongly influenced by heredity and is somewhat predictive of personality later in life Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  24. 24. How do the four attachment patterns identified in infants differ?  Attachment is the strong affectionate bond a child forms with the mother or primary caregiver  Harry Harlow found that contact comfort forms the basis of attachment in rhesus monkeys  Human infants exhibit separation anxiety and stranger anxiety once attachment has formed, at about 6 to 8 months of age Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  25. 25. How do the four attachment patterns identified in infants differ?  Secure attachment – About 65% of infants – Use mother as a secure base for exploring – Distressed by separation from caregivers, greet caregivers when they return – More cooperative and content than other infants – Display better social skills as preschool children  Avoidant attachment – About 20% of infants – Not responsive to mother, not troubled when she leaves – May actively avoid contact with mother after separation Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  26. 26. How do the four attachment patterns identified in infants differ?  Resistant attachment – 10 to 15% of infants – Seek close contact with mother, and tend not to branch out and explore – After separation, may display anger toward mother; not easily comforted  Disorganized/disoriented attachment – 5 to 10% of infants – Protest separation, but exhibit contradictory and disoriented behavior when reunited Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  27. 27. Early and Middle Childhood  Mastery of language, both spoken and written, is just one of several important developmental processes that happen in early and middle childhood. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  28. 28. What are the milestones of language development, and how do various theorists explain them?  Babbling – Vocalization of basic speech sounds, which begins between 4 and 6 months  One-word stage – First words spoken at about 1 year – First words usually represent objects that move or that infants can act on  Two-word stage – Usually begins about 18-20 months Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  29. 29. What are the milestones of language development, and how do various theorists explain them?  Telegraphic speech – Between 2 and 3 years, children start using short sentences that contain only essential content words  Children follow grammatical rules in their speech, as indicated by overregularization – Misapplying a grammatical rule, such as adding “ed” to form a past tense  Children say “goed”, comed”, “doed”, etc. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  30. 30. What are the milestones of language development, and how do various theorists explain them?  Learning theories – Language is acquired in the same way as other behaviors– through imitation and reinforcement  Noam Chomsky’s nativist position – Language ability is largely innate – The brain contains a language acquisition device  Most researchers endorse an interactionist approach – Acknowledging that infants have innate capacity for acquiring language, but also recognizing environmental influences on language learning Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  31. 31. What outcomes are often associated with the three parenting styles identified by Baumrind?  Authoritarian parents – Make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioning obedience, punish transgressions  Authoritative parents – Set high but realistic standards, reason with the child, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence  Permissive parents – Make few rules or demands, allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  32. 32. What outcomes are often associated with the three parenting styles identified by Baumrind?  Children with authoritative parents – tend to be happier and have higher self-esteem, and be more self-reliant, socially competent, and responsible than their peers  Children with authoritarian parents – tend to be withdrawn, anxious, and unhappy  Children with permissive parents – tend to be the most immature, impulsive, and dependent, and the least self-reliant and self- controlled Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  33. 33. How do social learning, cognitive developmental, and gender-schema theorists explain gender role development?  Social learning theory – Gender role development results from modeling and reinforcement  Cognitive developmental theory – Development occurs in stages marked by increasingly sophisticated reasoning about the permanence of gender  Gender-schema theory – Children acquire schemas for maleness and femaleness from their culture and use them to process information about gender Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  34. 34. Adolescence  The developmental stage that begins at puberty and encompasses the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthood Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  35. 35. How does puberty influence adolescents’ self-concepts and behavior?  A period of rapid physical growth and change that culminates in sexual maturity  Puberty and self-concept – Early maturation in boys is associated with higher self-esteem  But may also be associated with greater aggression and hostility – Early maturation in girls is associated with higher risk of eating disorders, earlier sexual experiences, more unwanted pregnancies, and earlier exposure to alcohol and drug use Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  36. 36. How does puberty influence adolescents’ self-concepts and behavior?  Incidence of sexual activity increases dramatically through teen years  Factors associated with later onset of sexual activity include  Living with both biological parents  Higher academic achievement  Involvement in sports  Frequent attendance of religious services Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  37. 37. In what ways do parents and peers contribute to teens’ development?  Most adolescents have good relationships with their parents  Parenting style affects adolescent behavior – Permissive parenting is associated with higher incidence of drug and alcohol use and lower motivation for academic success in adolescents – Authoritative parenting is associated with more psychological distress and lower self-confidence in adolescents  Peer groups provide adolescents with standards of comparison and a vehicle for developing social skills Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  38. 38. What are the neurological and psychosocial characteristics of emerging adulthood?  Neuroimaging studies indicate that parts of the brain involved in decision making and self control mature between the late teens and early twenties  Jeffrey Arnett has proposed that this age- range is a unique developmental period, which he calls emerging adulthood – A period when individuals explore options and develop new skills in work and romantic domains before committing to adult roles Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  39. 39. Early and Middle Adulthood  Early adulthood – Ages 20 to 45 or 45  Middle adulthood – Ages 40 or 45 to 65  Late adulthood – After age 65 or 70 Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  40. 40. How does the body change in the early and middle adult years?  Presbyopia – Lens of the eye can longer accommodate adequately for near vision – Occurs almost universally in mid to late 40s  Menopause – Cessation of menstruation, signifying end of reproductive capacity in women – Usually occurs between 45 and 55  Gradual decline in testosterone in men – From age 20 until about 60 Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  41. 41. In what ways does intellectual capacity improve and decline in adulthood?  Young adults outperform older adults on tasks requiring speed or rote memory  But older adults outperform younger ones on tests measuring general information, vocabulary, reasoning ability, and social judgment Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  42. 42. What are two themes of social development in early and middle adulthood?  Establishment of an intimate partnership – Majority of adults marry and have children – But they do so at later ages today than in past generations  Career development – Job satisfaction is strongly related to satisfaction with other aspects of life, such as romantic relationships Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  43. 43. Later Adulthood  The life expectancy in the United States has increased from 49 to 76 years from the beginning to the end of the 20th century  People older than age 65 constitute about 15% of the U.S. population Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  44. 44. How does the body change in the later adult years?  General slowing, the reduction in the speed of neural transmission leading to a slowing of physical and mental functions  Decline in sensory capacity  Development of chronic conditions such as arthritis, heart disease, high blood pressure  But, physical exercise can improve strength and mobility in older adults Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  45. 45. What happens to cognitive ability in later adulthood?  Crystallized intelligence tends to increase over the lifespan – Verbal ability and accumulated knowledge  Fluid intelligence peaks in early 20s and declines slowly as people age – Reasoning and mental flexibility Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  46. 46. What are some of the adjustment challenges in the social lives of older adults?  Retirement  Loss of a spouse  Altered living arrangements  Most older adults cope with these adjustments and maintain a sense of life satisfaction Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  47. 47. What are the components of successful aging?  Maintaining one’s physical health, mental abilities, social competence, and overall satisfaction with life – An optimistic outlook – Eating a healthy diet – Staying active cognitively and socially Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  48. 48. Death and Dying  A developmental task for every elderly person is to accept the inevitability of death and to prepare for it Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  49. 49. How do individuals with terminal illnesses respond to their circumstances?  Elisabeth Kübler-Ross identified 5 stages people go through in coming to terms with death – Denial – Anger – Bargaining – Depression – Acceptance  But, critics doubt the universality of these stages, and argue that reactions to impending death vary widely between individuals and across cultures Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon