Chapter 12


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Chapter 12

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders This multimedia product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network. Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images. Any rental, lease or lending of the program. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  2. 2. Chapter 12 Overview  Defining psychological disorders  Anxiety disorders  Mood disorders  Schizophrenia  Other psychological disorders Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  3. 3. Defining Psychological Disorders  Mental processes and/or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  4. 4. What criteria can be used to determine whether behavior is abnormal?  Behavior may be considered abnormal if – It is considered strange within a person’s own culture – It causes personal distress – It is maladaptive – It is a danger to the self or others – A person is not legally responsible for his or her acts Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  5. 5. How do clinicians use the DSM-IV- TR?  The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) provides a system for diagnosing and classifying psychological disorders  It describes about 300 specific disorders and organizes them into categories Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  6. 6. How prevalent are psychological disorders? Lifetime prevalence of psychological disorders  The lifetime prevalence rate for a psychological disorder is nearly 50% among Americans  This is higher than the lifetime prevalence rate for cancer (about 30%) Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  7. 7. What are the theoretical approaches that attempt to explain the causes of psychological disorders?  Biological perspective – Abnormal behavior arises from a physical cause – Biological treatments, such as drug therapy, are favored  Biopsychosocial perspective – Psychological disorders result from a combination of biological, psychological, and social causes – Treatments that include drugs and psychotherapy are employed  Psychodynamic perspective – Psychological disorders stem from childhood experiences and unresolved, unconscious conflicts – Treatment involves psychoanalysis Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  8. 8. What are the theoretical approaches that attempt to explain the causes of psychological disorders?  Learning perspective – Abnormal thoughts and behaviors are learned and sustained like any other behaviors – Treatment uses classical and operant conditioning and modeling to extinguish maladaptive behavior and increase adaptive behavior  Cognitive perspective – Faulty thinking and distorted perceptions can cause psychological disorders – Treatment tries to change faulty, irrational, and/or negative thinking Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  9. 9. Anxiety Disorders  Psychological disorders characterized by frequent fearful thoughts about what might happen in the future  The most common category of psychological disorders – Accounting for more than 4 million visits to doctor’s offices in the US each year Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  10. 10. What are the characteristics of panic attacks and agoraphobia?  Panic attack – An episode of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror – The brains of panic-attack sufferers respond to normal changes in the body as if they were life threatening  Agoraphobia – Intense fear of being in a situation from which escape is not possible if one experiences overwhelming anxiety or a panic attack – Often begins with repeated panic attacks – People with agoraphobia sometimes plan their entire lives around avoiding feared situations Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  11. 11. How do the symptoms of four common anxiety disorders differ?  Generalized anxiety disorder – Disorder involving chronic, excessive worry for six months or more  Panic disorder – Disorder in which a person experiences recurring, unpredictable episodes of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  12. 12. How do the symptoms of four common anxiety disorders differ?  A phobia is a persistent, irrational fear of some object, situation, or activity that poses little or no real danger – Social phobia  Fear and avoidance of any social or performance situation in which one might embarrass or humiliate oneself in front of others – Specific phobia is a fear of a specific object or situation, a general label for any phobia other than agoraphobia or social phobia  Categories of specific phobias – Situational phobias – Fear of the natural environment – Animal phobias – Blood, injection, injury phobias Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  13. 13. What thought and behavior patterns are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder?  Disorder in which a person suffers from recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions  Obsession – A persistent, involuntary thought, image, or impulse that causes great distress  Compulsion – A persistent, irresistible, and irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly – Compulsions often involve cleaning and washing, counting, checking, touching objects, hoarding, or excessive organizing Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  14. 14. Mood Disorders  Disorders characterized by extreme and unwarranted disturbances in emotion or mood Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  15. 15. What are the symptoms of major depressive disorder?  A mood disorder marked by feelings of great sadness, despair, and hopelessness as well as loss of the ability to feel pleasure – Symptoms also include changes in appetite, weight, and sleep patterns, and difficulty thinking or concentrating Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  16. 16. What are the extremes of mood suffered by those with bipolar disorder?  A mood disorder in which manic episodes alternate with periods of depression, usually with relatively normal periods in between – Manic episodes are periods of excessive euphoria, inflated self-esteem, wild optimism, and hyperactivity, often accompanied by delusions of grandeur and by hostility if activity is blocked Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  17. 17. What are some risk factors for mood disorders?  A small area in the prefrontal cortex, that plays a role in controlling emotions, is smaller than normal in people with major depression  Abnormal levels of serotonin are strongly linked to depression  People suffering from mood disorders have abnormal production, transport, and reuptake patterns for dopamine, GABA, and norepinephrine Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  18. 18. What are some risk factors for mood disorders?  Heredity plays a role in mood disorders – Twin studies indicate a genetic bases for bipolar disorder and major depression  Life stresses are also associated with depression – The majority of first episodes of depression strike after major life stress Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  19. 19. What are some risk factors for mood disorders? Lifetime Risk for developing  Prevalence of depression in 10 countries depression varies greatly across cultures  Prevalence rates also differ between men and women – In most countries, rate of depression in females is about twice that for males Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  20. 20. What are some of the risk factors for suicide?  Depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, and a family history of suicide  Risk of suicide also increases when people are exposed to major life stressors  Older white males commit suicide more often than members of other race or age groups  Women are more likely to attempt suicide, but men are more likely to succeed Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  21. 21. Differences in suicide rates according to race, gender, and age Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  22. 22. Schizophrenia  A severe psychological disorder characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate or flat affect, some disturbance in thinking, social withdrawal, and/or other bizarre behavior Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  23. 23. What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?  Positive symptoms are abnormal behaviors that are present in people with schizophrenia – Hallucinations – Delusions – Delusion of grandeur – Delusions of persecution – Disorganized behavior – Inappropriate affect Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  24. 24. What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?  A Negative symptom is a loss or deficiency in thought or behavior that is characteristic of normal functioning – Social withdrawal – Apathy – Loss of motivation – Flat affect – Limited speech and slow movements – Poor hygiene and grooming Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  25. 25. What are the four types of schizophrenia?  Paranoid schizophrenia – Characterized by delusions of grandeur and delusions of persecution  Disorganized schizophrenia – Characterized by extreme social withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior  Catatonic schizophrenia – Characterized by complete stillness or great excitement and agitation  Undifferentiated schizophrenia – Term used when schizophrenic symptoms are present, but do not conform to the criteria of any one type Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  26. 26. What factors increase the risk of developing schizophrenia?  There is probably no single cause of schizophrenia  Instead, several factors interact to produce schizophrenia, including: – Constitutional vulnerability – Stress – Neuromaturational processes Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  27. 27. What factors increase the risk of developing schizophrenia?  Constitutional vulnerability refers to the aspects of an individual’s congenital risk of developing schizophrenia that are attributable to factors of gender and heredity – Gender  Males are more likely than females to develop schizophrenia – Heredity  Chances of developing schizophrenia are higher if one has a close genetic relative with schizophrenia Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  28. 28. Genetic similarity and probability of developing schizophrenia Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  29. 29. What factors increase the risk of developing schizophrenia?  Stress – Stressful events may trigger development of schizophrenia in individuals with constitutional vulnerability  Neuromaturational processes – Environmental factors may disrupt normal brain development  Causing decreased frontal lobe functioning, destruction of gray matter, and abnormal dopamine activity Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  30. 30. Other Psychological Disorders  Somatoform disorders  Dissociative disorders  Sexual disorders  Personality disorders Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  31. 31. What are two somatoform disorders, and what symptoms do they share?  Disorders in which physical symptoms are present that are due to psychological causes rather than any known medical condition  Hypochondriasis – Characterized by excessive concern about one’s health and fear that normal physical symptoms are signs of serious disease  Conversion disorder – Disorder in which one suffers a loss of sensory or motor functioning which has no physical cause Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  32. 32. How do the various dissociative disorders affect behavior?  Disorders in which consciousness becomes dissociated from a person’s identity and/or his or her memories  Dissociative amnesia – A complete or partial loss of the ability to recall personal information and/or past experiences  Dissociative fugue – Complete loss of memory of one’s entire identity and traveling away from home  Often involves assuming a new identity Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  33. 33. How do the various dissociative disorders affect behavior?  Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a disorder in which two or more distinct personalities occur in the same person – A host personality – Alter personalities  DID, like other dissociative disorders, seems to be a response to unbearable stress – Among DID patients, at least 95% have history of severe physical and/or sexual abuse Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  34. 34. What are the main characteristics of the various sexual disorders?  Sexual disorders are disorders with a sexual basis that are destructive, guilt- or anxiety-producing, compulsive, or a cause of discomfort or harm to one or both parties involved  Sexual dysfunctions – Persistent and distressing problems involving sexual desire, sexual arousal, or the pleasure associated with sex or orgasm Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  35. 35. What are the main characteristics of the various sexual disorders?  Paraphilias – Recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behavior involving nonhuman objects, children, other nonconsenting persons, or the suffering or humiliation of the person or his or her partner  Gender identity disorder – A problem accepting one’s identity as male or female Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  36. 36. What behaviors are associated with personality disorders in Clusters A, B and C?  A personality disorder is a long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of behavior and relating to others, which usually begins in early childhood or adolescence  The DSM-IV-TR groups personality disorders into clusters – Cluster A  Characterized by odd behavior, such as extreme suspiciousness – Cluster B  Characterized by erratic, overly dramatic behavior – Cluster C  Characterized by intense feelings of anxiety Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon