Ch12 Wood 3e


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Ch12 Wood 3e

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon <ul><li>This multimedia product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images. </li></ul><ul><li>Any rental, lease or lending of the program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter 12 Overview <ul><li>Defining psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Mood disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Other psychological disorders </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  3. 3. Defining Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Mental processes and/or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  4. 4. What criteria can be used to determine whether behavior is abnormal? <ul><li>Behavior may be considered abnormal if </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is considered strange within a person’s own culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It causes personal distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is maladaptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a danger to the self or others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person is not legally responsible for his or her acts </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  5. 5. How do clinicians use the DSM-IV-TR? <ul><li>The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) provides a system for diagnosing and classifying psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>It describes about 300 specific disorders and organizes them into categories </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  6. 6. How prevalent are psychological disorders? <ul><li>The lifetime prevalence rate for a psychological disorder is nearly 50% among Americans </li></ul><ul><li>This is higher than the lifetime prevalence rate for cancer (about 30%) </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Lifetime prevalence of psychological disorders
  7. 7. What are the theoretical approaches that attempt to explain the causes of psychological disorders? <ul><li>Biological perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal behavior arises from a physical cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological treatments, such as drug therapy, are favored </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biopsychosocial perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological disorders result from a combination of biological, psychological, and social causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments that include drugs and psychotherapy are employed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological disorders stem from childhood experiences and unresolved, unconscious conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment involves psychoanalysis </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  8. 8. What are the theoretical approaches that attempt to explain the causes of psychological disorders? <ul><li>Learning perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal thoughts and behaviors are learned and sustained like any other behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment uses classical and operant conditioning and modeling to extinguish maladaptive behavior and increase adaptive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty thinking and distorted perceptions can cause psychological disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment tries to change faulty, irrational, and/or negative thinking </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  9. 9. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Psychological disorders characterized by frequent fearful thoughts about what might happen in the future </li></ul><ul><li>The most common category of psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting for more than 4 million visits to doctor’s offices in the US each year </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  10. 10. What are the characteristics of panic attacks and agoraphobia? <ul><li>Panic attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An episode of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The brains of panic-attack sufferers respond to normal changes in the body as if they were life threatening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agoraphobia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense fear of being in a situation from which escape is not possible if one experiences overwhelming anxiety or a panic attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often begins with repeated panic attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with agoraphobia sometimes plan their entire lives around avoiding feared situations </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  11. 11. How do the symptoms of four common anxiety disorders differ? <ul><li>Generalized anxiety disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorder involving chronic, excessive worry for six months or more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Panic disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorder in which a person experiences recurring, unpredictable episodes of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  12. 12. How do the symptoms of four common anxiety disorders differ? <ul><li>A phobia is a persistent, irrational fear of some object, situation, or activity that poses little or no real danger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social phobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear and avoidance of any social or performance situation in which one might embarrass or humiliate oneself in front of others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific phobia is a fear of a specific object or situation, a general label for any phobia other than agoraphobia or social phobia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Categories of specific phobias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situational phobias </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of the natural environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal phobias </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood, injection, injury phobias </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  13. 13. What thought and behavior patterns are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder? <ul><li>Disorder in which a person suffers from recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions </li></ul><ul><li>Obsession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A persistent, involuntary thought, image, or impulse that causes great distress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compulsion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A persistent, irresistible, and irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsions often involve cleaning and washing, counting, checking, touching objects, hoarding, or excessive organizing </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  14. 14. Mood Disorders <ul><li>Disorders characterized by extreme and unwarranted disturbances in emotion or mood </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  15. 15. What are the symptoms of major depressive disorder? <ul><li>A mood disorder marked by feelings of great sadness, despair, and hopelessness as well as loss of the ability to feel pleasure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms also include changes in appetite, weight, and sleep patterns, and difficulty thinking or concentrating </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  16. 16. What are the extremes of mood suffered by those with bipolar disorder? <ul><li>A mood disorder in which manic episodes alternate with periods of depression, usually with relatively normal periods in between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manic episodes are periods of excessive euphoria, inflated self-esteem, wild optimism, and hyperactivity, often accompanied by delusions of grandeur and by hostility if activity is blocked </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  17. 17. What are some risk factors for mood disorders? <ul><li>A small area in the prefrontal cortex, that plays a role in controlling emotions, is smaller than normal in people with major depression </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal levels of serotonin are strongly linked to depression </li></ul><ul><li>People suffering from mood disorders have abnormal production, transport, and reuptake patterns for dopamine, GABA, and norepinephrine </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  18. 18. What are some risk factors for mood disorders? <ul><li>Heredity plays a role in mood disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twin studies indicate a genetic bases for bipolar disorder and major depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life stresses are also associated with depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of first episodes of depression strike after major life stress </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  19. 19. What are some risk factors for mood disorders? <ul><li>Prevalence of depression varies greatly across cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence rates also differ between men and women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In most countries, rate of depression in females is about twice that for males </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon Lifetime Risk for developing depression in 10 countries
  20. 20. What are some of the risk factors for suicide? <ul><li>Depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, and a family history of suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of suicide also increases when people are exposed to major life stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Older white males commit suicide more often than members of other race or age groups </li></ul><ul><li>Women are more likely to attempt suicide, but men are more likely to succeed </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  21. 21. Differences in suicide rates according to race, gender, and age Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  22. 22. Schizophrenia <ul><li>A severe psychological disorder characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate or flat affect, some disturbance in thinking, social withdrawal, and/or other bizarre behavior </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  23. 23. What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia? <ul><li>Positive symptoms are abnormal behaviors that are present in people with schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delusion of grandeur </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delusions of persecution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorganized behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate affect </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  24. 24. What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia? <ul><li>A Negative symptom is a loss or deficiency in thought or behavior that is characteristic of normal functioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited speech and slow movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor hygiene and grooming </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  25. 25. What are the four types of schizophrenia? <ul><li>Paranoid schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by delusions of grandeur and delusions of persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disorganized schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by extreme social withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catatonic schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by complete stillness or great excitement and agitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Undifferentiated schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Term used when schizophrenic symptoms are present, but do not conform to the criteria of any one type </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  26. 26. What factors increase the risk of developing schizophrenia? <ul><li>There is probably no single cause of schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, several factors interact to produce schizophrenia, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuromaturational processes </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  27. 27. What factors increase the risk of developing schizophrenia? <ul><li>Constitutional vulnerability refers to the aspects of an individual’s congenital risk of developing schizophrenia that are attributable to factors of gender and heredity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males are more likely than females to develop schizophrenia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chances of developing schizophrenia are higher if one has a close genetic relative with schizophrenia </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  28. 28. Genetic similarity and probability of developing schizophrenia Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  29. 29. What factors increase the risk of developing schizophrenia? <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressful events may trigger development of schizophrenia in individuals with constitutional vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuromaturational processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors may disrupt normal brain development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causing decreased frontal lobe functioning, destruction of gray matter, and abnormal dopamine activity </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  30. 30. Other Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Somatoform disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociative disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Personality disorders </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  31. 31. What are two somatoform disorders, and what symptoms do they share? <ul><li>Disorders in which physical symptoms are present that are due to psychological causes rather than any known medical condition </li></ul><ul><li>Hypochondriasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by excessive concern about one’s health and fear that normal physical symptoms are signs of serious disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversion disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorder in which one suffers a loss of sensory or motor functioning which has no physical cause </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  32. 32. How do the various dissociative disorders affect behavior? <ul><li>Disorders in which consciousness becomes dissociated from a person’s identity and/or his or her memories </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociative amnesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A complete or partial loss of the ability to recall personal information and/or past experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dissociative fugue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete loss of memory of one’s entire identity and traveling away from home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often involves assuming a new identity </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  33. 33. How do the various dissociative disorders affect behavior? <ul><li>Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a disorder in which two or more distinct personalities occur in the same person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A host personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter personalities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DID , like other dissociative disorders, seems to be a response to unbearable stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among DID patients, at least 95% have history of severe physical and/or sexual abuse </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  34. 34. What are the main characteristics of the various sexual disorders? <ul><li>Sexual disorders are disorders with a sexual basis that are destructive, guilt- or anxiety-producing, compulsive, or a cause of discomfort or harm to one or both parties involved </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual dysfunctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent and distressing problems involving sexual desire, sexual arousal, or the pleasure associated with sex or orgasm </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  35. 35. What are the main characteristics of the various sexual disorders? <ul><li>Paraphilias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behavior involving nonhuman objects, children, other nonconsenting persons, or the suffering or humiliation of the person or his or her partner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender identity disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A problem accepting one’s identity as male or female </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  36. 36. What behaviors are associated with personality disorders in Clusters A, B and C? <ul><li>A personality disorder is a long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of behavior and relating to others, which usually begins in early childhood or adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>The DSM-IV-TR groups personality disorders into clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by odd behavior, such as extreme suspiciousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by erratic, overly dramatic behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by intense feelings of anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon