Women in American Civil War


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Project for German Middle-school graduating project (JFKS Berlin, March 2012)
Done by Doerr V., Talley S., Chu T.D.

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Women in American Civil War

  1. 1. Dorothea Dix Rose Greenhow Clara Barton (By Vivian Doerr) (By Chu Thuy Duong) (By Sarah Talley) nndb.com civilwarstory.nstemp.com civilwarstory.nstemp.com
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Women’s Roles in the Civil War Dorothea Dix HOW DID THE FOLLOWING WOMEN INFLUENCE THE OUTCOME OF THE CIVIL WAR? Rose O’Neal Greenhow Clara Barton CONCLUSION The Strength behind the Men
  3. 3.  Effected how the war progressed  An opportunity to be leaders in the fight for abolition & equality  National Women’s Loyal League  Did not receive recognition until 100 years later Women who had not worked a day in their lives, with grit and determination, hid their identity and took up arms of their own, cared for sick and dying soldiers, risked their lives to gather information, cooked, cleaned and cared for children. The tenacity and love with which these women served their country was astounding, and yet often overlooked.
  4. 4. stowevintage.com
  5. 5.  Hampden, Maine  Family life: abusive and non-existent  Cared for younger brothers  Developed a passion for reading and teaching  1816: First teaching job  Volunteered to teach a Sunday School class for women inmates  Saw horrible conditions of the jails  Took the issue to court
  6. 6.  One of the most influential women of the 19th century  She was:  Humanitarian  Union‘s Superintendent of Female Nurses  Advocate for human care of the mentally ill  Social reformer  School teacher  Author
  7. 7.  Volunteered to form an Army Nursing Corps  Superintendent of Nurses for the Union Army  Worked without pay  Created an efficient operation  Recruited more than 3,000 women  Looked after the nurses, and the soldiers
  8. 8.  Spoke out for the mentally ill and prisoners  Established 32 state mental hospitals throughout the United States  Worked for 20 years to improve the conditions of jails and mental asylums in North America and Europe
  9. 9. Clashed with military officers and ignored commands, but under her supervision, she greatly improved nursing care Obtained medical supplies from private sources when the government would not provide them raised money for medical supplies
  10. 10.  Her mother suffered from mental illness  Eager to open asylums for the mentally ill  1838: Mother and grandmother died  changed her life significantly  William Rathbone III, a humanitarian, taught her new theories of caring for the insane  Moral treatment  Less use of mechanical restraints  Seclusion from family and  Useful tasks to keep the patients society busy Elizabeth Fry prison reformer Samuel Tuke proprietor of the York Retreat for Mentally Disordered.
  11. 11.  Impressed the secretary of war, Simon Cameron  appointed her as superintendent  Showed indomitable efficiency  impressed military officer.  Proved that female nurses could get the job done and work efficiently  “Angel of mercy”
  12. 12.  Traced missing soldiers  Wrote letters to families concerning the     status of their sons Helped soldiers secure their pensions. Returned to work with the mentally ill Supported mental institutions in southern states Never stopped her work or slowed down until 1881
  13. 13. “I come to present the strong claims of suffering humanity. I come to place before the Legislature of Massachusetts the condition of the miserable, the desolate, the outcast. I come as the advocate of helpless, forgotten, insane men and women; of beings sunk to a condition from which the unconcerned world would start with real horror.” http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-newnation/4748
  14. 14.  Managed to overcome lung trouble and depression throughout her life  1881: became very ill and could not recover  Retired at age 80, but continued writing letters to support her crusade for the mentally ill  July 17, 1887 in Trenton, New Jersey : Died in one of the hospitals that she founded
  15. 15.  1979: Inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.  Dix's articulate arguments gained her worldwide attention.  Achievements can be seen throughout the United States, Canada, and many European countries  Gave new understanding to others about the blind, the deaf, and how to treat the mentally ill properly.  1845: Remarks on Prisons and Prison Discipline in the United States.
  16. 16. flagguys.com
  17. 17. democralypsenow.blogspot.com  Montgomery County, Maryland  Slaves & estate = main components in family’s property  grew up with slavery  1828: lived with aunt in Washington  Many residents came from Southern states  The center of debates over slavery  May 26, 1835: married to Robert Greenhow  A prestigious hostess  Contact with influential individuals sodahead.com
  18. 18.  Abraham Lincoln was elected  Greenhow lost her influence  11 Southern states began to split themselves from the North  Jefferson Davis = the president of Confederate States knowledgehouse.info Americanamericaslibrary.gov gammabama.com
  19. 19.  Spring 1861: Captain Thomas Jordan asked Greenhow to set up an espionage ring  Convinced of the righteousness of the cause  Favorable social position  Functioned openly as an agent provocateur  Wrote ciphered messages bioguide.congress.gov
  20. 20. Letter written in cipher on Mourning Letter mentioned General George McClellan & movement of Troops, Jan 8, 1861
  21. 21. Pasted Fragments of a Letter Discussing Taking Advantage of Emergencies, Cutting Telegraph Wires, and Spiking Guns Letter to Alexander Boteler (Representative from Virginia to the Confederate Congress)
  22. 22. "I had a right to my political opinions. I am a Southern woman, born with revolutionary blood in my veins. Freedom of speech and of thought were my birthright, guaranteed, signed and sealed by the blood of our fathers." cardcow.com
  23. 23. blogs.archives.gov increase of the Regular Army  August 1861: an account of the defenses & fortifications around Washington  National Archives “Important Intelligence for the Rebels”  Planned on sabotage as well as intelligence gathering haohaoreport.com  May 4, 1861: the detailed plan for the
  24. 24.  Brought quick end to the rebellious southern states  General Irvin McDowell & 35,000 troops marched to Manassas, Virginia => vital railroad intersection
  25. 25. “ On the morning of the 16th of July, the Government papers at Washington announced that the ‘Grand Army’ was in motion, and I learned from a reliable source …that the order for a forward movement had gone forth. At twelve o’clock… I dispatched a messenger to Manassas… On the 17th, I dispatched another missive …the intention of the enemy to cut the Winchester railroad, so as to intercept Johnson, and prevent his reinforcing Beauregard, who had comparatively but a small force under his command at Manassas. …On Sunday 21st the great battle of Manassas…ended in the total defeat and rout of the entire ‘Grand Army.’”
  26. 26.  Neighbors suspected  reported to Thomas A. Scott (Assistance Secretary of War)  detective Allan Pinkerton  August 23, 1861: house –search  Copy of orders from the War Department  Notes about military preparations  A plan of the Washington fortifications awesomestories.com A Washington Post article dramatized Rose being arrested on her doorstep by Detective Pinkerton.
  27. 27.  “The House of Detention for Female Rebels” or “Fort Greenhow”  Imprisoned for 5 months; did not stop her from continually sending messages  January 19, 1862: Old Capitol Prison  June 2, 1862: Effective use of press => released but received banishment The Brandy photo of Rose & Little Rose imprisoned
  28. 28.  Sought support & recognition of the Confederacy in Europe  1863: England  Met Queen Victoria  The highest officials in British government  December 12, 1863: set off for Paris  Napoleon III  Stirred up foreign sentiment on behalf of the South => military items Rose Greenhow in Europe
  29. 29.  October 1864: ship ran aground along North Carolina coast  Afraid of being captured  demanded to be taken ashore in a boat  Weighed down by gold and drowned
  30. 30.  Credited for the victory of the First Battle of Bull Run  Mistakes:  Not careful about her work  Openly spoke out her views  Not conceal her identity  Believed so thoroughly in her acts  The boldness of her operations
  31. 31. Angel of the Battlefield
  32. 32.  North Oxford, Massachusetts  Age 11: first nursing experience with her brother  A school teacher  Moved to Washington D.C. commons.wikimedia.org njwomenshistory.org
  33. 33.  April 19th, 1861: soldiers arrived in Washington after having been attacked by secessionists  Took the seriously injured to her sister’s home and nursed them  Rounded up clothing food and supplies from local merchants  Some of the soldiers were her former students msa.md.gov
  34. 34.  Obtained a quartermaster‘s pass and six wagons with teamsters to carry supplies through the lines  Arrived after battle at Culpepper, Virginia  Unloaded her wagons at ill-equiped field hospital  Worked among wounded for two days and nights without food or sleep  Helped confederate prisoners Brought hope, encouragement, and chance to survive xroads.virginia.edu
  35. 35. “Truly, a hospital after a hard fought battle, would seem the most unlikely place in all the world to inspire courage and ardor. But I gaze upon these men through blinding tears of admiration & respect, and sing in my heart, ‘It is well to be a soldier.’ ” nurse-ratcheds.blogspot.com „I will remain here while anyone remains, I may be compelled to face danger, but never fear it, and while our soldiers can stand and fight, I can stand and feed and nurse them“
  36. 36.  16 battlefields (the Battle of Bull Run…)  Considered herself as a part of the army at the Potomac  Hugh Johnson’s Sister http://womenshistory.about.comodbartonclara aclara_barton_2.htm crescentok.com
  37. 37.  Identified 13,000 dead soldiers  Locating missing prisoners  Lectured on work and incidents of army life  Worked for the suffrage movement  An activist for Black Rights civilwarlibrarian.blogspot.com stowevintage.com
  38. 38.  1869: visited Europe  Franco –Prussian conflict  Worked with International Red Cross  1881: National society of Red Cross in the US  First president  Directed its relief activities for 23 years  Retired at age 82 “You must never so much as think whether you like it or not, whether it is bearable or not; you must never think of anything except the need, and how to meet it.”
  39. 39. Dorothea Dix – Hero for the mentally ill, injured soldiers, & prisoners Rose Greenhow – Eyes & ears behind the Confederacy Clara Barton – Glimpse of hope in the midst of the bloody battles Women impacted the outcome of the Civil War with all they did. They were the heart and soul behind the men in battle.
  40. 40.  Swogger, Michael J. "The Women's Civil War." Suite101.com: Online Magazine and Writers' Network. 1 July 1997. Web. 26 Mar. 2011. <http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/american_civil_war_retired/2263>.  Carter, Molly. "U.S. History: The Role of Women During the Civil War." Associated Content from Yahoo! Associatedcontent.com. 30 Sept. 2007. Web. 26 Mar. 2011. <http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/393212/us_history_the_role_of_women_during.html>.  Hodges., Shirley C. "ARTICLE - The Importance of Women in the Civil War. By Shirley C Hodges." Global Genealogy & History Book & Map Store - GlobalGenealogy.com Inc. Canada, Canadian. 2 Dec. 2006. Web. 26 Mar. 2011. <http://globalgenealogy.com/globalgazette/gazsh/gazsh-0016.htm>.  "Women Of The Civil War." Essortment Articles: Free Online Articles on Health, Science, Education & More... Web. 26 Mar. 2011. <http://www.essortment.com/women-civil-war-21016.html>.
  41. 41.  "Diseases of the Mind: Highlights of American Psychiatry through 1900 - The 1840s: Early Professional Institutions & Lay Activism." National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 14 Apr. 2010. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/diseases/professional.html>  "Dorothea Lynde Dix Superintendent Nurses Civil War Women." American Civil War History Timelines Battle Map Pictures. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://americancivilwar.com/women/Dorothea_Dix.html>.  "Dorothea Lynde Dix." Civil War Women Blog. 14 Sept. 2008. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.civilwarwomenblog.com/2008/09/dorothea-lynde-dix.html>.  Le Vert, Suzanne. "Dorothea Dix Biography." The American Civil War Home Page. 12 Dec. 2005. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/dixbio.htm>.  Reddi, Vasantha. "Biography of Dorothea Lynde Dix." The Center for Nursing Advocacy. 26 Aug. 2005. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.nursingadvocacy.org/press/pioneers/dix.html>.  "Dorothea Dix: Civil War." Lycos. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.lycos.com/info/dorothea-dix--civil-war.html>.  Viney, Wayne. "Dorothea Dix." Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography. Unitarian Universalist Historical Society (UUHS). Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/dorotheadix.html>.  "The Civil War . The War . Biographies of Key Figures . Dix | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. 2002. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/dix.html>.  "Dorothea Lynde Dix | American Civil War." Ancient History. 5 June 2008. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.factasy.com/civil_war/2008/05/06/dorothea_lynde_dix>.  "DOROTHEA LYNDE DIX." The WTV Zone - A WebTV Friendly Homepage and Website Provider Where Webtv Users Can Build Websites and Homepages with Little Restriction - Web Tv Users Welcome! Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.wtvzone.com/civilwar/dix.html>.  LaDonna Ghare. "Dix, Dorothea (Informational Paper)." Learning to Give. Grand Valley State University. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper89.html>.  Sean. "The My Hero Project - Dorothea Lynde Dix." The MY HERO Project. 9 May 2008. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp?hero=d_dix_moran_ms_2008>.  "Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802-1887) 1976 Inductee." American Nurses Association. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/AboutANA/HonoringNurses/HallofFame/19761982/dixxdl5530.aspx>.
  42. 42. • Ross, Ishbel. Rebel Rose; Life of Rose O'Neal Greenhow, Confederate Spy. New York: Harper, 1954. Print. • Blackman, Ann. Wild Rose: the True Story of a Civil War Spy. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2006. Print. • Farquhar, Michael. "Rose O'Neal Greenhow Confedrate Spy American Civil War Women."American Civil War History Timelines Battle Map Pictures. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://americancivilwar.com/women/rg.html>. • "Seized Correspondence of Rose O'Neal Greenhow." National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/topics/civil-war/greenhow.html>. • "Rose O'Neal Greenhow Describes the Battle of Manassas - North Carolina Digital History."LEARN NC. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-civilwar/4606>. • "The First Battle of Bull Run, 1861." EyeWitness to History - History through the Eyes of Those Who Lived It. 2004. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/bullrun.htm>. • "Rebel Rose O'Neale Greenhow." Start Page-The O'Neal Genealogy Association Web Site. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.onealwebsite.com/rose3.htm>. • O'Neal, II, John W., Rosatta Maria O'Neale Greenhow, and "Little" Rose O'Neale Greenhow. "My Article." Start Page-The O'Neal Genealogy Association Web Site. Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.onealwebsite.com/RebelRose/MyArticle.html>. flickr.com
  43. 43.  "Clara Barton." Civil War Trust: Saving America's Civil War Battlefields. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/biographies/clara-barton.html?gclid=CLjai6_3k6UCFQmSzAodok2A9g>.  "American Red Cross Museum." American Red Cross. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.redcross.org/museum/history/claraBarton.asp>.  "Clara Barton Biography." Lakewood Public Library (Lakewood, Ohio). Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.lkwdpl.org/wihohio/bartcla.htm>.  "Clara Barton National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)." U.S. National Park Service - Experience Your America. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.nps.gov/clba/index.htm>.  "SPECTRUM Biographies - Clara Barton." IncWell. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.incwell.com/Biographies/Barton.html>.  Delbanco;, Andrew. "The Angel of the Battlefield - NYTimes.com." The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. 12 June 1994. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE1D7103BF931A25755C0A962958260>.  "Clara Barton, Professional Angel | Pryor, Elizabeth Brown." Penn: University of Pennsylvania. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/1531.html>.