(By Vivian Doerr)
(By Chu Thuy Duong)
(By Sarah Talley)
Women’s Roles in the Civil War
HOW DID THE FOLLOWING WOMEN
INFLUENCE THE OUTCOME OF THE CIVIL
The Strength behind the Men
Effected how the war progressed
An opportunity to be leaders in the fight for abolition & equality
National Women’s Loyal League
Did not receive recognition until 100 years later
Women who had not worked a day in their lives, with grit and
determination, hid their identity and took up arms of their
own, cared for sick and dying soldiers, risked their lives to gather
information, cooked, cleaned and cared for children. The tenacity
and love with which these women served their country was
astounding, and yet often overlooked.
Family life: abusive and non-existent
Cared for younger brothers
Developed a passion for reading and teaching
1816: First teaching job
Volunteered to teach a Sunday School class for women inmates
Saw horrible conditions of the jails
Took the issue to court
One of the most influential women of the 19th
Union‘s Superintendent of Female Nurses
Advocate for human care of the mentally ill
Volunteered to form an Army Nursing
Superintendent of Nurses for the
Worked without pay
Created an efficient operation
Recruited more than 3,000 women
Looked after the nurses, and the
Spoke out for the mentally ill and prisoners
Established 32 state mental hospitals throughout the United States
Worked for 20 years to improve the conditions of jails and mental
asylums in North America and Europe
Clashed with military officers and
ignored commands, but under her
supervision, she greatly improved
Obtained medical supplies from
private sources when the government
would not provide them raised money
for medical supplies
Her mother suffered from mental illness
Eager to open asylums for the mentally ill
1838: Mother and grandmother died changed her life significantly
William Rathbone III, a humanitarian, taught her new theories of caring for
Less use of mechanical restraints
Seclusion from family and
Useful tasks to keep the patients
Samuel Tuke proprietor
of the York Retreat for
Impressed the secretary of war, Simon Cameron appointed her as
Showed indomitable efficiency impressed military officer.
Proved that female nurses could get the job done and work efficiently
“Angel of mercy”
Traced missing soldiers
Wrote letters to families concerning the
status of their sons
Helped soldiers secure their pensions.
Returned to work with the mentally ill
Supported mental institutions in
Never stopped her work or slowed down
“I come to present the strong
claims of suffering humanity. I
come to place before the
Legislature of Massachusetts the
condition of the miserable, the
desolate, the outcast. I come as
the advocate of
helpless, forgotten, insane men
and women; of beings sunk to a
condition from which the
unconcerned world would start
with real horror.”
Managed to overcome lung trouble and depression throughout her life
1881: became very ill and could not recover
Retired at age 80, but continued writing letters to support her crusade
for the mentally ill
July 17, 1887 in Trenton, New Jersey : Died in one of the hospitals that
1979: Inducted into the National Women's Hall of
Dix's articulate arguments gained her worldwide
Achievements can be seen throughout the United
States, Canada, and many European countries
Gave new understanding to others about the
blind, the deaf, and how to treat the mentally ill
1845: Remarks on Prisons and Prison Discipline in
the United States.
Montgomery County, Maryland
Slaves & estate = main components in
grew up with slavery
1828: lived with aunt in Washington
Many residents came from Southern
The center of debates over slavery
May 26, 1835: married to Robert Greenhow
A prestigious hostess
Contact with influential individuals
Abraham Lincoln was elected Greenhow lost her influence
11 Southern states began to split themselves from the North
Jefferson Davis = the president of Confederate States
Spring 1861: Captain Thomas Jordan
asked Greenhow to set up an espionage
Convinced of the righteousness of the
Favorable social position
Functioned openly as an agent
Wrote ciphered messages
Letter written in cipher on Mourning
Letter mentioned General George McClellan
& movement of Troops, Jan 8, 1861
Pasted Fragments of a Letter
Discussing Taking Advantage of
Emergencies, Cutting Telegraph
Wires, and Spiking Guns
Letter to Alexander Boteler
(Representative from Virginia to the
"I had a right to my political opinions. I
am a Southern woman, born with
revolutionary blood in my veins. Freedom
of speech and of thought were my
birthright, guaranteed, signed and sealed
by the blood of our fathers."
increase of the Regular Army
August 1861: an account of the
defenses & fortifications around
National Archives “Important
Intelligence for the Rebels”
Planned on sabotage as well as
May 4, 1861: the detailed plan for the
Brought quick end to the
rebellious southern states
General Irvin McDowell &
35,000 troops marched to
Manassas, Virginia => vital
“ On the morning of the 16th of July, the
Government papers at Washington announced that
the ‘Grand Army’ was in motion, and I learned
from a reliable source …that the order for a forward
movement had gone forth. At twelve o’clock…
I dispatched a messenger to Manassas… On the
17th, I dispatched another missive …the intention
of the enemy to cut the Winchester railroad, so as
to intercept Johnson, and prevent his reinforcing
Beauregard, who had comparatively but a small
force under his command at Manassas. …On
Sunday 21st the great battle of Manassas…ended in
the total defeat and rout of the entire ‘Grand
Neighbors suspected reported to Thomas A.
Scott (Assistance Secretary of War) detective
August 23, 1861: house –search
Copy of orders from the War Department
Notes about military preparations
A plan of the Washington fortifications
A Washington Post article dramatized Rose
being arrested on her doorstep by Detective
“The House of Detention for Female
Rebels” or “Fort Greenhow”
Imprisoned for 5 months; did not stop
her from continually sending messages
January 19, 1862: Old Capitol Prison
June 2, 1862: Effective use of press =>
released but received banishment
The Brandy photo of Rose & Little
Sought support & recognition of the
Confederacy in Europe
Met Queen Victoria
The highest officials in British
December 12, 1863: set off for Paris
Stirred up foreign sentiment on behalf
of the South => military items
Rose Greenhow in Europe
October 1864: ship ran aground along
North Carolina coast
Afraid of being captured demanded
to be taken ashore in a boat
Weighed down by gold and drowned
Credited for the victory of the First Battle of Bull Run
Not careful about her work
Openly spoke out her views
Not conceal her identity
Believed so thoroughly in her acts
The boldness of her operations
North Oxford, Massachusetts
Age 11: first nursing experience with her
A school teacher
Moved to Washington D.C.
April 19th, 1861: soldiers arrived in
Washington after having been attacked
Took the seriously injured to her
sister’s home and nursed them
Rounded up clothing food and supplies
from local merchants
Some of the soldiers were her former
Obtained a quartermaster‘s pass and six wagons with teamsters to carry
supplies through the lines
Arrived after battle at Culpepper, Virginia
Unloaded her wagons at ill-equiped field hospital
Worked among wounded for two days and nights without food or
Helped confederate prisoners
Brought hope, encouragement, and
chance to survive
“Truly, a hospital after a hard
fought battle, would seem the
most unlikely place in all the
world to inspire courage and
ardor. But I gaze upon these men
through blinding tears of
admiration & respect, and sing
in my heart, ‘It is well to be a
„I will remain here while anyone
remains, I may be compelled to face
danger, but never fear it, and while
our soldiers can stand and fight, I
can stand and feed and nurse them“
16 battlefields (the Battle of Bull Run…)
Considered herself as a part of the army at the
Hugh Johnson’s Sister
Identified 13,000 dead soldiers
Locating missing prisoners
Lectured on work and incidents of
Worked for the suffrage movement
An activist for Black Rights
1869: visited Europe
Franco –Prussian conflict
Worked with International Red
1881: National society of Red Cross in
Directed its relief activities for 23
Retired at age 82
“You must never so much as
think whether you like it or
not, whether it is bearable or
not; you must never think of
anything except the
need, and how to meet it.”
Dorothea Dix – Hero for the mentally ill, injured soldiers, & prisoners
Rose Greenhow – Eyes & ears behind the Confederacy
Clara Barton – Glimpse of hope in the midst of the bloody battles
Women impacted the outcome of the Civil
War with all they did. They were the heart and
soul behind the men in battle.
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