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Created by María Jesús Campos, Social Studies, Geography and History teacher in a bilingual section in Madrid

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  1. 1. María Jesús
  2. 2. LithosphereItcomes from theancient Greek “lithos”which means stone and“sphaira” which meanssphere.Itrefers to the solidrocky crust that coversthe Earth.The crust is composedof minerals.
  3. 3.  The crust is a solid layer that floates over the mantle’s magma.It represents 1% of the Earth’s volume but it has different thickness and length. The crust is divided into tectonic plates that move over the mantle. The crust presents different shapes, lenghts, etc. Some times it appears under the oceans and others over the sea surface. This is called the Earth’s relief. The shapes of the Earth’s relief changes thanks to internal forces and external agents.
  4. 4.  200 million years ago all the continents were united into a single supercontinent called Pangea. Pangea broke up because of the internal forces of the mantel and the tectonic plates gradually moved apart. This theory is called continental drift. Tectonic plates slide against each other or move apart. Thus, the plate’s boundaries are unstable.
  5. 5.  Internal forces and pressures from the mantle causes the crust to:  Fold: are deformations of the Earth’s surface where rock layers bend.  Fault: are breaks in rock layers wher the rock is too hard to bend.  Subducts: when one rock layer from a plate sinks under the other and its materials melts into the mantle’s magma.
  6. 6.  Sometimes this pressures apperar in the form of :  Earhtquakes: they happen when energy is released in seismic waves from a focus or hypocentre inside the Earth usually when the boundaries of the plates slide against each other.  Volcanoes: are cracks on the Earth’s crust and magma from the mantle erupts ro the surface and solidify creating new crust.
  7. 7.  The external agents that shape the Earth’s surface are:  Water  Wind  Vegetation They erode relief breaking it up and transporting and depositing eroded materials on a different place. Although human beings are not natural agents they also modify relief.
  8. 8.  The crust presents different shapes, lenghts, etc. Some times it appears under the oceans and others over the sea surface. This is called the Earth’s relief. The Earth’s relief comprises the forms and shapes of the Earth’s surface.
  9. 9.  Sometimes the Earth’s  The North Pole is not a crust appears over the continent because it is sea surface and other formed by frosted times under the sea water. surface.  Continents are Over the sea surface separated by oceans or there are 6 continents: seas:  Africa  Pacific Ocean  Europe  Atlantic Ocean  América  Indian Ocean  Asia  Artic Ocean  Oceania  Antartic Ocean or  Antarctica Southern Ocean  Mediterranean Sea  Read Sea
  10. 10.  Mountains: High  Valley: elongated lowland elevations of the Earth’s between ranges of surface. When they are mountains or hills. grouped together it is called range.  Península: land mass Plateau: high flat areas entirely surrounded by that are formed from water except in one part eroded mountains. connected with the mainland which is called Plain: low flat areas. isthmus. Alluvial plains are formed by rivers and coastal  Island: a land mass plains are near the sea. entirely surrounded by water. Basins: very low areas sometimes below sea  Cape: part of the coast level. that projects into the sea.
  11. 11.  Gulf: large area of a  Continental slope: the sea or ocean partially descent from the enclosed by land. continental shelf to the Bay: small area of a ocean bottom. sea or ocean partially  Abyssal plain: huge enclosed by land. under water plains that Ría: long narrow inlet have an extension of the seacoast in between 3000 and which the sea occupies 7000 metres deep. the mouth of the river.  Ocean trench: long Continental shelf: valley on the ocean floor great underwater that can have 11000 plateau which metres deep. correspondt to the  Ocean ridge: border of a continent underwater mountain and is usually less than ranges. 400 metres deep.
  12. 12. Created by María Jesús CamposChusteacherWikiteacher