Biosphere: Biome


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Created by María Jesús Campos, teacher of Social Studies, Geoography and History in a bilingual section in Madrid.

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Biosphere: Biome

  1. 1. María Jesús Campos
  2. 2. It comes from the ancient Greek “bio” which means life and “sphaira” which means sphere. It is formed by all living organisms: animals, plants and microbes. It is the global sum of the ecosystems.
  3. 3.   An ecosystem or a biome is a community of living organisms interacting with their environment (air, water, soil…). It is the interaction of: The Lithosphere  The Hydrosphere  The Atmosphere  The living organisms (biosphere) 
  4. 4. Soil, Relief… (Lithosphere) Living organisms: plants, animals, fungi… (Biosphere) Ecosystem / Biome Climate (Atmosphere) Water on, under and over the surface (Hydrosphere)
  5. 5. The earth’s has different types of climate distributed according to latitude and altitude:    Warm zone: located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. All of its climates have an average annual temperature above 18ºC. Temperate zones: there are 2 temperate zones located between the Tropics and the Polar Circles. Its climate has four seasons. Cold zones: there are 2 cold zones located within the polar circles and in mountains higher than 2,500 metres. The temperature is very cold and there is no summer.
  6. 6. Tropical or Hot Climates Temperate or Moderate Climates Cold Climates Equatorial Climate Humid Subtropical Climate Polar Climate Arid or Hot Dessert Humid Tropical Climate Mediterranean Climate Tundra Climate Semiarid Dry Tropical Climate Maritime/Oceanic Climate Alpine Climate Continental Climate
  7. 7. Warm Climates Temperate Climates • Equatorial rainforest • Tropical rainforest • Savannah • • • • Humid subtropical forest Mediterranean forest and scrubland Decidious forest Coniferous forest or taiga Cold Climates • Perpetual Ice • Alpine Climate • Tundra Dry Climates • Hot desert
  8. 8. Hot climates Equatorial Climate Equatorial rainforest Humid/Dry Tropical Climate Tropical rainforest Savannah
  9. 9. Vegetation Fauna • Varied vegetation that competes for sunlight. Very high and mid-height trees block the light from reaching the forest floor. Moss, orchids and vines grow on them. •Dense forests of evergreen trees. •Tropical rainforests cover only 6% of the Earth’s surface but they produce 40% of the oxygen in the atmosphere and support nearly half of all plant and animal species known to Earth. • The rainforest is so packed full of trees that big animals do not live on them. • Monkeys, snakes, frogs, birds, small mammals (jaguars), reptiles (alligators and snakes), and lots of insects.
  10. 10. Vegetation • Less variety of vegetation than in the equatorial rainforest. The trees are not so tall or so closely packed together. •Mixed species: tropical trees + temperate trees Fauna • Similar to the equatorial rainforest but less varied. •Monkeys, lizards, pumas, anteaters…
  11. 11. Vegetation Temperature • Savanna: large grassland with a few scattered trees (baobabs, acacias). •Thick grass up to 4 m high during the rainy season that dry up during the dry season. • The lack of regular rainfall prevents most trees from surviving. • Many herbivores who graze in the grasses. They usually migrate to find water and grass. •Elephants, zebras, gazelles, giraffes… •Many carnivores also who hunt the herbivores: lions, cheetahs, hyenas.
  12. 12. Temperate Climates Humid Subtropica l Climate Mediterranea n Climate Humid subtropical forest Oceanic Climate Deciduous forest Mediterranean forest and scrubland Continental Climate Coniferous forest (taiga)
  13. 13. Vegetation • Species from both tropical and temperate latitude (bamboo, oak, pine…) Fauna •Deer, foxes, birds
  14. 14. Vegetation •Perennial trees (holm oaks, cork oaks, pine trees). •Scrubland: instead of trees we find plants such as thyme and rosemary. •Very eroded and in danger because of human activity. Fauna •Deer, rabbits and birds of prey.
  15. 15. Vegetation •Deciduous trees that lose their leaves in the autumn (oak, beech, maple…). •Bushes and low grass grow in areas where the forest deteriorate. •Very eroded and in danger because of human activity. Fauna •Deer, rabbits, many species of birds.
  16. 16. Vegetation Fauna •Conifers that resist cold winters •Deer, bears, lynxes, foxes, moles and do not lose their leaves (pine and fir trees) •Deforestation threatens the ecosystems. •Steppe: grasslands with no trees, usually close to the taiga.
  17. 17. Cold Climates Polar Climate Perpetual ice Tundra Climate Alpine Climate Tundra Alpine landscapes (tiers)
  18. 18. Vegetation •No vegetation as the ground is frozen all the year round. Fauna • Few species are able to adapt to these climate and the lack of vegetation. •Seals, polar bears… •Southern hemisphere: penguins
  19. 19. Vegetation •The vegetaion is in tiers. The higher up you go, the poorer the vegetation gets: forests are replaced by bushes, grassland and in the highest areas, moss. •Above certain altitude the vegetation dissappears as the peaks are covered with snow or ice thorughout the year. Fauna • Mountain goats, chamois and variety of birds
  20. 20. Vegetation • Plain coveredby lichens, moss, shrubs and bushes because of permafrost. Fauna • Arctic hares, arctic foxes, lemmings, moose and reindeers that may migrate from higher latitude. • A lot of insects.
  21. 21. Dry Climates Arid Hot Desert Climate Hot desert
  22. 22. Vegetation • Very sparse vegetation: grass, small prickly bushes and plants such as the cactus that resist the scarce precipitation and the differences in temperature between the day and the night. •In oasis, there is enough water for palms and fruit trees to grow. Fauna •Snakes, lizards, beetles, scorpions, doves, falcons, camels, dromedaries, etc… that can resist the lack of water.
  23. 23. Warm Climates Temperate Climates • Equatorial rainforest • Tropical rainforest • Savannah • • • • Humid subtropical forest Mediterranean forest and scrubland Decidious forest Coniferous forest or taiga Cold Climates • Perpetual Ice • Alpine Climate • Tundra Dry Climates • Hot desert
  24. 24. Developed by María Jesús Campos Chusteacher Wikiteacher Thanks to «Climate Types for Kids»