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- 1. ABEL KALUM TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY- SAN MARCOS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY EDTC 5320: MODELS OF INTEGRATION OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 29TH APRIL, 2009
- 2. STANDARDS ON FRACTIONS The National Assessment of Educational Progress of 2004 reports show that: 1. Fractions are exceedingly difficult for children to master. 2. Students are unable to remember prior experiences with fractions from lower grade levels 3. Therefore, ways have to be sought to increase the learners' retention by having activities-rich lessons on fractions. (Capraro, 2004) The NCTM standards for grades 6-8 on fractions state that the learner should be able to: Work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve 1. problems; 2. Compare and order fractions, decimals, and percents efficiently and find their approximate locations on a number line.
- 3. PREREQUISITE KNOWLEDGE?! What?!
- 4. UNDERSTANDING FRACTIONS The problem with fractions lies in dealing with : 1. Both the denominator and the numerator 2. Various arithmetic operations involved ex. adding two fractions with different denominators So the need for the teacher to create conducive environment which allows for more recall / retention of prior knowledge through : 1. Sustainable interest, 2. High problem-solving capability, 3. High motivational level, and 4. Willing to make own discoveries.
- 5. WAY FORWARD?? ?
- 6. EXISTING SOLUTIONS Solutions / approaches to improve students' understanding of fractions: A. Sufficient time to judge relative size of fractional numbers... By 1.Teacher picking problems from different chapters and ask the students to do them as homework with assistance of their parents and older siblings. 2. Students learn one or two nodes (sections) of fractions each year. 3. Teaching fractions using different interpretations: part- whole , quotient, operator, measure and ratio. (Lamon, 2006) B. Emphasizes successful attempts to teach children common characteristics from past researchers :- 1. Active student involvement 2.Incorporate various types of manipulative materials 3. Children to talk together and with their teacher, and 4. Development of understanding and meaning prior to formal work with symbols and operations. (Post & et al, 1981)
- 7. EXISTING SOLUTIONS… cont. C. The use of manipulatives makes the lessons:- 1. More engaging by creating a hands-on experience 2. More active and provides an effective way for the students to represent their thinking. (Capraro, 2004) D. Changing the order of teaching fractions:- 1. Using instructional time in grades 4 and 5 to develop fraction concepts and the ideas of order and equivalence, 2. Postponing most operations with fractions at the symbolic level until grade 6. 3. As a result... teachers will find that their students will be more successful with all aspects of operations with fractions and will have a stronger quantitative understanding of them. (Cramer, 2002)
- 8. INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES Yeah! Effective instructional games has a relative advantage over traditional classroom : 1. Offers personal feedback in a motivating environment to help students build fluency 2. Games… emphasize competition and entertainment. Games employ fantasy, action, uncertainty… interesting 3. In a game with level controls …. be self- motivated. (Roblyer, 2006)
- 9. CHOOSING THE GAME: ELEMENTS Should be: Fun, Competitive, Suit the learner's level and interest, Have a clear, informative and immediate feedback, and Less violence and aggression … attract both boys and girls. Games can be used to: 1. Promote problem-solving skills among the learners, 2. Encourage creativity, 3. Promote teamwork, 4. Skill- drill, and 5. Sometimes as a reward for students.
- 10. ACTION FRACTION RACE CAR GAME : THE ACTIVITY The game increases in complexity as it progresses: 1. The student is given a harder problem every time he answers correctly 2. Level 1- Simple fractions with small value common denominator, Level 2 – big value common denominators, Level 3- big value denominators without common denominators Interest is sustained by the game design’s:- 1. Sound effect... makes it interesting and attention- catching, 2. Change of direction at every level 3. 30 second timing fear of losing speed increases the learner's concentration, hence automaticity.
- 11. ACTION FRACTION RACE CAR GAME : DESCRIPTION For 5th to 8th grade , students will learn about fractions, and how to add and subtract fractions with different denominators This model of instruction incorporates the objectivist theory of learning. (B. F. Skinner). The students should have prerequisite knowledge about adding and subtracting fractions to play this game. There is a stimulus-response learning. For a particular stimulus [say correct answer] there is a particular response[ in this case speed]. positive reinforcement …. Acceleration of the race car negative reinforcement …. Deceleration of the car punishment …. Braking hesitates over 30 seconds another question is given, lose a lot of speed.
- 12. ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher should make sure: 1. Involve the students when designing a rubric for assessment 2. Discuss the game, develop students’ interest, rules. 3. Prepare the instructional environment: Enough computers, safe website. 4. Ensure the students do not spend lot of time on the game. 5. Choose the game in which the game element does not overshadow the instructional element. 6. To encourage students reach high levels of the game
- 13. Disadvantages: Some students especially girls do not like playing games Some students may have had bad experiences with racing cars, accident etc Some students may just have negative attitude to fractions It may bore after few minutes of play… not much activity If used as a reward it may discourage students who are not good mathematicians Knowledge is not constructed May not serve well if students do not have good numerical skills from past math
- 14. Advantages: 1. Promote problem-solving skills among the learners, 2. Encourage creativity, 3. Promote teamwork, 4. Skill- drill, and 5. Sometimes as a reward for students, leads to more learning 6. Increases automaticity 7. Interaction and immediate feedback 8. Access to students with disabilities to practice, gauge themselves
- 15. REFERENCES Lamon, S.J. (2006). Teaching Fractions and Ratios for Understanding: Essential 1. Content Knowledge and Instructional Strategies for Teachers. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cramer, K. A., et. al. (2002). Initial fraction learning by fourth- and fifth- grade 2. students: a comparison of the effects of using a commercial curricula with the effects of using the Rational Number Curriculum. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 33 (2), 111- 144. Roblyer, M.D. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Upper Saddle 3. River, N.J: Pearson/ Merrill Prentice Hall. Grabe, M, & Grabe, C. (2007). Integrating Technology for Meaningful Learning. 4. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Lever- Duffy, J, & MacDonald, J.P. (2008). Teaching and Learning with Technology. 5. Boston, MA: Pearson/ Ally and Bacon. Capraro, R.M.(2004). Teaching fractions: Strategies used for teaching fractions to 6. middle grade students. Journal of Research in Childhood Education,18, 193-198. Lesh, R., Post, T., & Behr, M. (1988). Proportional reasoning. Number concepts and 7. operations in the middle grades. Reston, VA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates & National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 93-118 Post, T. (1981).Fractions: Results and Implications from National Assessment. The 8. Arithmetic Teacher, 28(9), 26-31. Action Fraction Game: http://funschool.kaboose.com/fun-blaster/back-to- 9. school/games/game_action_fraction.html
- 16. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Dr. Tim Yuen Fellow students QUESTIONS?

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