Present Perfectnad Past

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Present Perfectnad Past

  1. 1. the Present perfect <ul><li>How do you make it? </li></ul><ul><li>When do you use it? </li></ul>understanding
  2. 2. ~form~ <ul><li>Look at the following sentences in the present perfect. Can you form a rule to make this grammar? </li></ul><ul><li>So far this semester, the students have worked hard in this class. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has been through difficult experiences during their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve taught at ECC for six years. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The present perfect has 2 parts: have or has + past participle But . . . what does “past participle” mean?
  4. 4. Past participle for regular verbs: <ul><li>= the same as the simple past tense. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular verbs require –ed in the simple past tense. For these verbs, the past participle is the same. What is the past participle for these verbs? </li></ul>live work talk
  5. 5. Past participle for irregular verbs: <ul><li>= depends on the particular verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular verbs do not take –ed in the simple past. For these verbs, you must memorize the past participle form. Do you know the past participle for these verbs? </li></ul>be know get Note: The simple past and the past participle forms are the same for certain verbs (i.e., teach, bring, have, send)
  6. 6. Challenge: <ul><li>My friend Jill and I have been friends for many years. We met when we were just 14 years old. Through the years, we’ve shared a lot of great laughs and great experiences. She was with me when I graduated from high school. We were even roommates once. Jill has always supported me during the difficult times, too. She’s always listened to me and she’s always given me good advice. This past summer we took a trip to Spain together. We had a great time and we plan to travel together again in the future. We’re fortunate that we’ve developed such a great friendship over the years. I feel lucky to have a friend like her. </li></ul>Find all the examples of the present perfect in the following paragraph.
  7. 7. More Practice: <ul><li>Complete each sentence with the present perfect form of the verb given. Be sure to use “ has ” or “ have ” + the verb in past participle . </li></ul>ready? set? Practice!
  8. 8. <ul><li>Some students at ____________ (take) many English classes, while others ___________ (study) English for just a short time. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The cost of housing in JMM _____________ (get) more expensive in recent years. </li></ul>have studied have taken has gotten
  9. 9. <ul><li>Alma________ (make) a real impact on the lives of many students. </li></ul><ul><li>You all ________ (have) many accomplishments in your lives. </li></ul>has made have had
  10. 10. ~use~ <ul><li>The present perfect has many uses and is very common in American speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Often it’s difficult for ESL students to master when to use the present perfect vs. the simple past tense . </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at some examples and think about the meaning of each tense. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Martin Luther King, Jr. was an activist who fought for equal rights. He spent his entire life trying to make a difference for future generations. </li></ul>Discuss the use of each tense in these examples. Dolores Huerta has fought for decades to improve the rights of migrant workers. She joined forces with Cesar Chavez in the 1960s. Huerta has been an important leader for American workers.
  12. 12. usage <ul><li>1- Recent events : It is used to describe recent events without a definite time . The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness: just, recently, lately </li></ul><ul><li>Why are they so happy? </li></ul><ul><li>They have just won a prize so they are really pleased </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>2- Personal experiences : It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning </li></ul><ul><li>I have never been to </li></ul><ul><li>Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever been </li></ul><ul><li>there? </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>3- It is used to express actions that started in the past and continue to the present, the time period is not finished. We use for and since with this meaning. We use for with periods of time and since with points of time. </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t eaten since yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>morning. I am really hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t drunk anything for two days. I am terribly thirsty </li></ul>
  15. 15. present perfect vs. simple past? <ul><li>Which tense is used . . . ? </li></ul><ul><li>1. For action that is completed/finished? </li></ul><ul><li>For action that started in the past but is still happening today? </li></ul><ul><li>For action that has a connection to or is still relevant today? </li></ul><ul><li>4. With a specific date or point in the past? </li></ul>present perfect present perfect simple past simple past
  16. 16. more practice: <ul><li>Click on the links below or write down the Internet addresses. These sites will give you some helpful practice. Good Luck! </li></ul><ul><li>http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/pperf.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/prperf.htm </li></ul>

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