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  1. 1. Fungi
  2. 2. 1
  3. 3. Characteristics <ul><li>heterotrophic (saprobes or parasites; symbiotic with plants bacteria or algae) </li></ul><ul><li>carry out extracellular digestion  secrete enzymes that digest food outside their bodies </li></ul><ul><li>most are multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>mass of branching filaments called mycelium </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mycelium
  5. 5. <ul><li> hypha – threadlike filaments that make up the bodies of fungi </li></ul><ul><li> cell wall made of chitin </li></ul><ul><li> septa/cross walls (maybe septate or aseptate) incomplete or perforated </li></ul><ul><li> cytoplasm interconnected so nutrients can flow unimpeded through the mycelium </li></ul><ul><li>often reproduce asexually, but can also reproduce sexually  by means of spores </li></ul><ul><li>classification based on how sexual spores are produced </li></ul>
  6. 6. Taxonomy <ul><li>Zygomycota </li></ul><ul><li>Oomycota </li></ul><ul><li>Ascomycota </li></ul><ul><li>Basidiomycota </li></ul><ul><li>Deuteromycota </li></ul>
  7. 7. Zygomycota <ul><ul><ul><li>zygomycetes/conjugation fungi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spores produced by zygosporangia (diploid) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,050 spp. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most are saprobic, but a few are parasites of insects, plants or other fungi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hyphae aseptate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Zygomycota <ul><ul><ul><li>many are important symbionts of vascular plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>asexual reproduction by spore formation; sexual reproduction by conjugation (+/- mating strains) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zygospore can resist harsh environmental conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>structure: rhizoids, stolons, sporangiophores, spores </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Zygomycota parts
  10. 10. Rhizopus
  11. 11. Oomycota <ul><ul><ul><li>oomycetes/water molds and downy mildews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>consists of finely branched, single-celled filaments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell wall not chitin (cellulose) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protist-like fungi; sometimes classified as protista </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diploid stage is dominant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. water molds (saprobes or parasites of fish) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>downy mildews (plant parasites – potato blight) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Oomycota <ul><li>Also termed as egg fungi from formation of a large oogonia </li></ul><ul><li>Highly pathogenic to plants </li></ul><ul><li>Is said to be more closely related to brown algae and diatoms </li></ul>
  13. 13. Saprolegnia
  14. 14. Ascomycota <ul><li>ascomycetes/sac fungi </li></ul><ul><li>largest group of fungi (30,000 spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>produces two kinds of spores: </li></ul><ul><li>sexual spores  ascospores (inside the ascus) </li></ul><ul><li>asexual spores  conidia </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ascomycota <ul><li>formation of asci (spore-containing sacs) contained within the fruiting body (ascocarp) </li></ul><ul><li>hyphae septate, but cells may be multinucleate because are cross walls perforated </li></ul><ul><li>most saprobic, growing on dead organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>some pathogens of plants (Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, ergot) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ascomycota <ul><li>e.g. yeasts (unicellular) reproduce by budding & spore formation </li></ul><ul><li>cup fungi </li></ul><ul><li>powdery mildews </li></ul><ul><li>morels (sponge or honeycomb fungi) </li></ul><ul><li>truffles </li></ul><ul><li>blue and green molds </li></ul><ul><li>Ophiostoma ulmi (causes Dutch elm disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Microsphaera (powdery mildew) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Conidia
  18. 19. Peziza
  19. 20. Basidiomycota <ul><li>basidiomycetes/club fungi </li></ul><ul><li>25,000 spp. </li></ul><ul><li>sexual reproduction  basidiospores formed on club-shaped basidia </li></ul><ul><li>some produce asexual spores  conidia </li></ul><ul><li>hyphae septate, but divided by incomplete cross walls; cells may contain one or two nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>fruiting body  basidiocarp </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>diverse in shape/structure </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>toadstools </li></ul><ul><li>puffballs </li></ul><ul><li>bracket fungi/shelf fungi ( Ganoderma ) </li></ul><ul><li>structure of a mushroom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stalk and cap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>annulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gills </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Basidiomycota
  22. 23. Life cycle
  23. 24. Deuteromycota <ul><li>imperfect fungi </li></ul><ul><li>not known to have a sexual reproductive phase </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Penicillium (produces the antibiotic penicillin) </li></ul><ul><li>ringworm </li></ul><ul><li>athletes foot </li></ul>
  24. 25. Ecology: symbiosis <ul><li>lichen – composite organisms consisting of a fungus that encloses either green algae or cyanobacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fungus (mycobiont) and a photosynthetic (photobiont) organism (either green algae or cyanobacteria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>photobiont provides nutrients with mycobiont provides shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mycobionts most are sac fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crust-like (crustose), shrub-like (fruticose) and leaf like (foliose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproduce asexually via dispersal fragments (includes both types of cells) which are dispersed by wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pioneers, can break down rock beginning soil formation </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>mycorrhizae – “fungus roots” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hyphae or the fungus penetrate the roots of certain plants and become virtual extensions of them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plant cannot take up enough nutrients without the fungal symbiont; fungus derives nourishment from the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ectomycorrhizae (basidio) vs. endomycorrhizae (zygo) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>