Ecology intro

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Ecology intro

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION ECOLOGY
  2. 2. KEYWORDS <ul><li>Ecology ecosystem pioneer species </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere biotic factor climax community </li></ul><ul><li>Species abiotic factor biome </li></ul><ul><li>Population niche autotroph </li></ul><ul><li>Community ecological succession heterotroph </li></ul>
  3. 3. ECOLOGY <ul><li>Study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German biologist Ernst Haeckel coined the term </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. RECALL HBO <ul><li>What are levels under the HBO? </li></ul><ul><li>How does energy flow from one level to another? </li></ul>
  5. 5. BIOMES <ul><li>A. Land Biomes </li></ul><ul><li>1. Tundra </li></ul><ul><li>2. Taiga </li></ul><ul><li>3. Temperate deciduous forest </li></ul><ul><li>4. Grassland </li></ul><ul><li>5. Tropical rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>6. Desert </li></ul><ul><li>B. Aquatic Biomes </li></ul><ul><li>1. Freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>2. Marine </li></ul><ul><li>3. Estuary </li></ul>
  6. 6. BIOMES <ul><li>Have the same climate and similar dominant community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interplay between the abiotic and biotic factors </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ecological niche <ul><li>The role or job of an organism in its environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As simple as producer or consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keystone species or sentinel species </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Ecological succession <ul><li>- the sequence of communities that develops in an area from the initial stages of colonization until a stable climax community is achieved </li></ul>
  9. 9. Primary succession <ul><li>Colonization of an area devoid of soil by pioneer species/plant life (algae/lichen) that can lead to a climax community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climax community- steady-state reached by organisms through an ecological succession </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Secondary succession <ul><li>Is due to an event that resulted in the revegetation of an area that already has an established community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruption </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ecological Succession <ul><li>Is present in terrestrial and aquatic environment </li></ul>
  12. 12. Flow of energy <ul><li>Recall: trophic levels- producers, consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding relationships: food chains, food webs </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological pyramids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numbers </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Energy pyramid <ul><li>No limit in the trophic level in a food chain </li></ul><ul><li>BUT, energy decreases once it is passed from one level to another due to life processes </li></ul><ul><li>10% is transferred from level to another </li></ul>
  14. 14. Biomass pyramid <ul><li>Biomass- the amount of living tissue within a given trophic level </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass pyramid- amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be an inverted pyramid such as in the case of the rain forest </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Pyramid of numbers <ul><li>Amount or number of organisms at each trophic level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not always represent a pyramid such as in a rainforest </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Cycles of Matter <ul><li>Energy has a one-way flow, matter is recycled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling happens through the biogeochemical cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorous </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Disruptions in the compartments
  18. 18. Nutrient limitation <ul><li>Primary productivity- rate at which organic matter is created by producers </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting nutrient- a nutrient that limits the productivity of an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NPK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An aquatic environment is considered a nutrient poor ecosystem compared to land </li></ul>
  19. 19. H2O Cycle
  20. 20. Carbon and Oxygen Cycle
  21. 21. Nitrogen Cycle
  22. 22. Phosphorous Cycle
  23. 23. Algal Bloom and Eutrophication
  24. 24. Niche <ul><li>Full range of physical and biological conditions an organism lives and the way the organism uses these conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic- place in the food chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic- temperature, moisture range for survival </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Community interactions <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive exclusion principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiosis- any relationship in which two species live closely together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism – sometimes considered as predation </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Competitive exclusion principle

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