Diseases Of The Immune System (2)

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Diseases Of The Immune System (2)

  1. 1. DISEASES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
  2. 2. Diseases <ul><li>Autoimmune diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Immunodeficiency diseases </li></ul><ul><li>And the dreaded AIDS </li></ul>
  3. 3. Autoimmune Diseases <ul><li>Occurs when the immune system loses self tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic lupus erythematosus </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Scleroderma </li></ul>
  4. 4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) <ul><li>Fundamental defect: failure of the mechanisms that maintain self-tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>May be genetic or drug-induced </li></ul><ul><li>More common in young women (female:male ratio  10:1) </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics such as those used to treat TB </li></ul>
  5. 5. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) <ul><li>Clinical feature: butterfly rash </li></ul><ul><li>Scleritis may also occur </li></ul>
  6. 6. Rheumatoid Arthritis <ul><li>chronic inflammatory disease that affects primarily the joints, but may also involve the skin, blood vessels, lungs, and heart </li></ul>
  7. 7. Scleroderma <ul><li>aka Progressive systemic sclerosis </li></ul><ul><li>abnormal accumulation of fibrous tissue in the skin and multiple organs triggered by… </li></ul><ul><li>a combination of abnormal immune responses and vascular damage, resulting in local accumulation of growth factors that act on fibroblasts and stimulate collagen production </li></ul>
  8. 8. Scleroderma
  9. 9. Immunodeficiency diseases <ul><li>Affects either humoral or cell-mediated pathway </li></ul><ul><li>Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)- affects both </li></ul><ul><li>DiGeorge Syndrome – affects T cells </li></ul><ul><li>Agammaglobulinemia – affect B cells </li></ul>
  10. 10. SCID <ul><li>Very much susceptible to infections </li></ul><ul><li>Infants  oral yeast infection </li></ul>
  11. 11. DiGeorge Syndrome <ul><li>Thymus – underdeveloped or absent </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to viral infections </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Chest X-Ray </li></ul>No thymus heart
  12. 12. Agammaglobulinemia <ul><li>Susceptible to bacterial infections </li></ul>
  13. 13. AIDS <ul><li>Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>HIV- human immunodeficiency virus </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks the CD4 attached to the helper T-cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD4 binds to MHC-II APC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD4 T helper cell (CCR5) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. HIV
  15. 15. Fetal hydrops Erythroblastosis fetalis

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