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  1. 1. Disease<br />
  2. 2. A disease is defined as any change (other than an injury) that interferes with the normal functioning of the body. <br />The Germ Theory of Disease states that an infectious disease is caused by a certain agent.<br />There are different types of infectious agents which cause specific symptoms from which the disease may be identified.<br />
  3. 3. Koch’s postulates is a set of rules that is used to determine whether a specific pathogen is the cause of specific disease.<br />There are various ways in which diseases are spread.<br />The human body has specific and non-specific mechanisms that defend the organism against infectious diseases<br />
  4. 4. Disease<br />A pathological condition of a part, organ, or system of an organism <br />Infection<br />Genetic<br />Environmental stress<br />
  5. 5. Infectious disease<br />Clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogens<br />Virus<br />Bacteria<br />Fungi<br />Protozoa<br />Parasites<br />prions<br />
  6. 6. Non-living pathogen<br />
  7. 7. Opportunistic pathogen<br />Immunosuppressed<br />
  8. 8. Infectious disease<br />Can be slow or fast when it spreads<br />Can be transferred through different vectors<br />
  9. 9. Disease vs infection<br />Which is which?<br />Type of Diseases<br />Genetic<br />Age<br />Infectious<br />
  10. 10. Manner of infection<br />Entrance to the host body<br />Adhere to specific host cells<br />Invade and colonize<br />Multiply between host cells or body fluids<br />Tissue damage<br />Production of toxins or destructive enzymes<br />
  11. 11. Germ Theory<br />Microorganisms can cause diseases<br />Infectious disease is caused by an infectious agent<br />
  12. 12. Koch’s Postulate<br />Series of experimental steps to determine the cause of a disease<br />
  13. 13. Koch’s Postulate<br />The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy animals.<br />The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.<br />The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.<br />The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.<br />
  14. 14. Koch’s postulate<br />
  15. 15. Modes of Infection<br />Direct contact<br />Indirect contact<br />fecal oral route<br />Airborne (droplet infection)<br />Vector<br />
  16. 16. Body Defense<br />Non-specific<br />Specific<br />Humoral<br />Cell-mediated<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Other terms<br />Lysosome cilium/cilia<br />Mesosome flagellum/flagella<br />Piliperoxisome<br />Plastid glyoxisome<br />Leucoplast/amyloplast<br />Chromoplast<br />Cytoskeleton<br />Microtubule<br />microfilament<br />