Persuasive design


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Persuasive design

  1. Persuasive Design___________________________ > Influencing Choice (without drugs or serums)
  2. Agenda___________________________ >ü I will rant (1 hora)ü I will go out for a cigarette and you may watch (10 mins)ü You will put together something fabularse (45 mins)ü You will present your brilliant ideas (whatever time is left – but you’re not getting out of it)
  3. Your challenge___________________________ >1. Help Philippa save for a holiday2. Help me quit smoking
  4. The Rules___________________________ >ü This is an open forumü If I’m boring you – let me know > throw a pen at my headü Questions at any time > Raise your left hand and right footü I will circulate the deck afterwards
  5. Persuādēre (lat) verb 1.  Persuade, convince 2.  Prevail upon or induce to do somethingWhat is Persuasive Design?___________________________ > Beyond interaction design
  6. Another methodology? Really?___________________________ >Information architecture is about making things findableInteraction design is about making things usableContent strategy is about making things meaningfulExperience design is about making things seamless_______________________________________Persuasive design is about making things influential
  7. Everything matters___________________________ >ü  There is no such thing as “Neutral Design”ü  Small and apparently insignificant details can have major impact on peoples behaviour.
  8. Deeper meaning___________________________ >Through understanding and enabling behaviour,we can move towards creating meaningful impacts byinfluencing behaviour Understand Enable Influence Behaviour Behaviour Behaviour User Research Interaction design Persuasive design Impact
  9. Changing behaviour___________________________ >Persuasive technology is aboutautomating behaviour change._______________________________________To effectively encode experiences that changebehaviours, we have tounderstand human psychology
  10. The present & future self___________________________ > Longevity and Now
  11. The Now Factor___________________________What would you prefer? >$100 now or $200 in 1 year_______________________________________HyperbolicdiscountingGiven 2 similar rewards,humans preference is forthe earlier reward.We discount the value ofthe later reward.
  12. Cost Benefit___________________________ > Present self Future self Benefit now Cost now Cost later Benefit later
  13. Commitment Devices___________________________ >Tricks one plays on oneself to increasecommitment to action
  14. Device Failure___________________________ >Context has a huge effect on ourcommitment to our future self_______________________________________Those who pay for gymmembership by the monthend up paying70% morethan those who pay per visit.
  15. The Arousal Effect___________________________ >Why can’t we commit to our future self?ü Hot & cold statesü We underestimate the effect of arousal - Lowenstein’s “Hot- cold empathy gap”ü Our behaviour is altered when we’re “under the influence” - Restraint Bias
  16. Automatic & Reflective___________________________ > Automatic System Reflective System §  Uncontrolled §  Controlled §  Effortless §  Effortful §  Associative §  Deductive §  Fast §  Slow §  Unconscious §  Self Aware §  Skilled §  Rule followingAutomatic system usually wins over reflective in a Hot state
  17. Mindless Choice___________________________ >Our Autopilot justcontinues doing whatit’s used toBig plates = bad nudge
  18. Persuading for better outcome___________________________ >Arousal + mindless choosing = bad long term outcome_______________________________________ Design for context, arousal and automatic pilot
  19. Persuading for the future self___________________________ >“ We might neglect our future selves “because of some failure of belief orimagination. - Derek Parfit_______________________________________Help peopleimagine throughtime – to see ourfuture selves
  20. MOTIVATION___________________________ > Understanding what drives us human peeps…
  21. Tangental Motivation___________________________ >The behavioursatisfies ourmotiveseven though its notdirectly related to the task
  22. Intrinsic Motivation___________________________ >ü A voluntary challenge to Anxiety succeed Difficultyü "Gamification” provides an optimal experience of Boredom “Flow”Model: Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Ability
  23. External Motivation___________________________ >If you can’t make the behaviour compelling…ü External rewarding (short term/ transient)ü Social motivation is far stronger
  24. The Kano Model t Del ig hNeed FulfillmentModel: Noriaki Kano Satisfaction
  25. Bi-as noun a particular tendency or inclination, especially one that prevents unprejudiced consideration of a question; prejudice.Bias___________________________ > Psychological tendencies that effect our decisions
  26. The peak-end rule___________________________We judge our past experiences almost entirely on >how they were at their peak (whether pleasant or unpleasant)and how they ended. Peak EndWhen we do this we discard virtually all other information, including netpleasantness or unpleasantness and how long the experience lasted.
  27. Endowment effect___________________________ >ü  People are "loss averse"ü Losing something makes you twice as miserable as gaining the same thing makes you happy.
  28. Interloper Effect___________________________ >People value3rd Partyconsultation asobjective,confirming andwithout bias
  29. Denomination effect___________________________ >We tend tospend more moneywhen it is denominated insmall amountsrather thanLARGE amounts.
  30. Post-purchase rationalization___________________________ >We persuade ourselves throughrational argument that apurchase was agood decisionChoice supportive bias
  31. Confirmation bias___________________________We have a tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that >confirms our preconceptions. So  what  you  really   mean  is  that  my  design   Erm…  I  don’t   is  actually  perfect…     get  this…   Shh!  Quiet  9me!  
  32. Illusion of control___________________________The tendency for people to think that they can >control or at least influenceoutcomes that they really can’t.
  33. Unrealistic optimism___________________________ “ >“ The triumph of hope over experience - Samuel Johnson_______________________________________50%of marriages end indivorce
  34. The “Nudge”___________________________ > Helping people make better (or worse) choices
  35. What is a “Nudge”?___________________________ >A "Nudge" is anything that significantlyalters the behaviourof humans.Nudging gives us the power toimprove decisions aboutlife
  36. stimulus response compatibility___________________________ >When the signalreceived (stimulus) is GREENnot consistent with thedesired action -increases errorYou as a designerindirectly influence thechoices people make
  37. The Status Quo Bias___________________________The >"Yeahwhatever”heuristicInertia- a strong desire tostick with what you haveeven when change is in our bestinterest.
  38. Defaults___________________________ >We tend to follow the path of least resistanceOur tendency todo nothing isreinforced if thedefault option comeswith the notion that itis the normal orrecommended option
  39. Social Proof___________________________ >We tend to follow the herd ü  People will do things that they see other people doing ü  People are nudged by other people - people become more likely to conform when they know they will be heard / seen by others ü  We can nudge through showing what other people are doing
  40. Framing___________________________ >Our choices are effected by how problems are statedü Framing in terms of loss is more effectiveü We are mindless / passive decision makers and dont let our reflective system reframe the problem
  41. Priming___________________________ >ü Making things visible /salient changes behaviourü Priming is unconscious / AutomaticTheMere-measurementeffectpeople are likely to act inaccordance with what they saythey intend to do
  42. Anchoring & Adjustment___________________________Influencing the decision by subtly >suggesting a starting point_______________________________________The dating heuristicHow happy are you? “I haven’t dated for ages… I MUST beHow often are you dating? miserable”
  43. Availability___________________________ >We assess risk based on how readilyexamples come to mind (Automatic system) Salience is increased: ü  personal experience, ü  Vividness & easily imagined events ü  Recency
  44. Representativeness___________________________ >The similarity heuristicCan causemisconceptions ofpatterns in real life(confusion of random datawith causal patterns)
  45. Nudging in action___________________________ >ü Quit smoking without a patch (quit or lose your cash)ü Gambling self ban (Reflective over Auto)ü Dollar a day keeps the baby away (reduce subsequent teenage pregnancy)ü Disulfiram (the incredible hangover)ü Civility check (abusive email delay)
  46. My favourite nudge___________________________ >TheUrinalFlyFly in-urinal solution reduced spillage by 80%
  47. The Fabulous Fogg___________________________ > Motivation, ability and triggers
  48. Core motivators Target behaviour TriggersMotivation Simplicity Factors Ability (simplicity)
  49. Core Motivators___________________________ >ü Pleasure / Pain immediate, in-the-moment, primalü Hope / Fear Anticipation of an outcomeü Social acceptance / rejection behave to get accepted and avoid rejection
  50. Simplicity factors (Ability)___________________________ >ü Timeü moneyü physical effortü brain cyclesü social devianceü non-routine
  51. Behaviour triggers___________________________ >ü Spark motivates a behaviourü Facilitator makes behaviour easierü Signal reminds or indicates – doesn’t seek to motivate or simplify
  52. 3 factors of behaviour___________________________ > Motivation Ability Trigger Want Can Told toFor a behaviour to happen, temporalconvergence of these 3 things must occur
  53. Kairos___________________________ >Timing is key to triggersKairos is the opportune moment to persuade When ability and motivation put us above the behaviour activation threshold
  54. Behaviour activation threshold ___________________________ > Target behaviourMotivation Ability (simplicity)
  55. Changing behaviour___________________________ >Motivation + Ability + triggerA successful trigger isü Noticed / recognizedü associated to a behaviorü there when user is both motivated and able to take action
  56. Persuading with Fogg___________________________ >ü Help to motivateü Make it easier to doü Provide triggers in contextPersuasion design increases motivationand /or makes something easier – but theremust be a trigger.
  57. Conclusion___________________________ > Check it I’m nearly done with the rant
  58. We have the power___________________________ >The idea that "Everything matters" is bothparalysing & empoweringWe should try and influence choice tomake people better off(as judged by themselves)
  59. Use power for good___________________________ >To fix the world - you have to firstunderstand it"Persuasion" refers to attempts toinfluence behaviorChoice Architecture should be used forsocial good not evil.
  60. Persuasion in practice___________________________ > Time to start helping people make better choices
  61. Your challenge___________________________ >1. Help Phillipa save for a holiday2. Help me quit smoking_______________________________________ü  What are the commitment devices?ü  Where do they fail?ü  What are the motivations and biases?ü  How can you make it easier?ü  What triggers can you use?ü  Take advantage of all channels.You will need to present your idea and the methodology behind it