Sec 5 NA Agriculture

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Sec 5 NA Agriculture

  1. 1. Agriculture
  2. 2. Primary Industry Outputs Process Inputs Crops, diary products Or animals products Growing crops or rearing animals Labour Capital Seeds Chemicals Land Soils Sunlight Rain <ul><li>For sale </li></ul><ul><li>For farmers’ own consumption </li></ul><ul><li>For farm use </li></ul>Human Natural
  3. 3. Types of agricultural systems <ul><li>Subsistence farming </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial farming </li></ul><ul><li>Market gardening </li></ul><ul><li>High-tech farming </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation agriculture </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors influencing agriculture
  5. 5. Factors influencing agriculture <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (irrigation & machineries) </li></ul><ul><li>Transport / infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Market (demand) </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Wet rice cultivation (inputs) <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Relief (terracing) </li></ul><ul><li>Soils (fertile alluvial soil & volcanic soils) </li></ul><ul><li>Labour (family members) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital (low) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (simple tools) </li></ul><ul><li>Demand / market </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Processes of wet rice cultivation
  8. 8. Problems facing subsistence wet rice farmers <ul><li>Size of farms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small because of fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shortage of labour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many young men go to the city to seek jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tenancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the harvest go to landlord as rent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not know new farming methods / technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Droughts & floods (global warming) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Green revolution <ul><ul><li>Genetic modified food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HYVs (high-yielding varieties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. IR58 (wonder rice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved strains of cereals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pest resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster growth duration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Green revolution
  11. 11. Problems of green revolution <ul><li>High cost of production </li></ul><ul><li>Widening income gap </li></ul><ul><li>Water logging and increased salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Occurrence of diseases and pests </li></ul><ul><li>Prices affected by demand </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of work </li></ul>
  12. 12. Other types of farming <ul><li>Subsistence farming </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial farming </li></ul><ul><li>Market gardening </li></ul><ul><li>High-tech farming </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation agriculture </li></ul>

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