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Sec 1 Exp - Deciduous & Coniferous Forest


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Sec 1 Exp - Deciduous & Coniferous Forest

  1. 1. Temperate Forest
  2. 2. Deciduous Forests
  3. 6. Where are they found? <ul><li>In areas where there are four seasons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern part of North America </li></ul></ul>
  4. 7. Temperature & Rainfall <ul><li>Annual temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-2 0 C to 18 0 C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rainfall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>750 mm to 1000 mm </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. Characteristics <ul><li>Broad and large leaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To absorb as much sunlight as possible for photosynthesis before the leaves are shed. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 10. Characteristics <ul><li>Shed leaves in autumn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent unnecessary loss of water during winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No rainfall during winter </li></ul></ul>
  7. 13. Characteristics <ul><li>Its has three layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top layer or canopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thickest during summer when there is more sunshine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grow up to 20m to 30 m </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 14. Characteristics <ul><li>Second layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is made up of shrubs and smaller trees </li></ul></ul>
  9. 15. Characteristics <ul><li>Third layer or forest floor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is made up of grasses, mosses and ferns. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 19. Characteristics <ul><li>Appearance of deciduous forests change with seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of chlorophyll slow down and stop production as the leaves are shed in late autumn </li></ul></ul>
  11. 20. Characteristics <ul><li>Less dense than tropical rainforests </li></ul><ul><li>Widely spaced (sparse) </li></ul>
  12. 21. Which one is tropical rainforest? Which one is deciduous forests?
  13. 22. Characteristics <ul><li>Only a few varieties of trees </li></ul><ul><li>Wood is strong, durable hardwood </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. oak, elm, maple, ash, sycamore etc. </li></ul>
  14. 23. Coniferous Forests
  15. 24. Temperature and rainfall <ul><li>Annual temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-12 0 C to 10 0 C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rainfall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300 mm to 750 mm </li></ul></ul>
  16. 25. Location of coniferous forests <ul><li>Northern hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme coldness areas </li></ul><ul><li>E.g northern Europe, Russia, Siberia and northern Canada. </li></ul>
  17. 26. Characteristics <ul><li>Cone-shape crowns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To allow accumulated snow to slide off. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 28. Characteristics <ul><li>Small, leathery, needle-like-shaped leaves. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced surface area to minimizes water loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent accumulation of snow </li></ul></ul>
  19. 29. Characteristics <ul><li>Evergreen trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow photosynthesis all year due to short summer. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 34. Characteristics <ul><li>Only has one variety of tree in any one area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Pine, fir and spruce </li></ul></ul>
  21. 35. Spruce
  22. 36. Fir
  23. 37. Pine
  24. 38. Characteristics <ul><li>Consist of only one layer of natural vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Little undergrowth </li></ul>