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Chapter 10 Cookies © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Introduction <ul><li>Made from a batter or dough </li></ul><ul><li>A smaller and dryer version of a cake but  different li...
Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Toughening Ingredients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create viable structure  </li></ul><...
Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tougheners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starches and proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars and Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exam...
Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Granulated...
Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Butter, vege...
Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch derived from wheat and corn </li></ul></...
Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Leavening Agents </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Types of Cookies <ul><li>Dropped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate chip cookies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piped </li></ul><ul><...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Minimal gluten development </li></ul><ul><li>Room temperature ingredients, except for butter...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Creaming Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing of fats and sugars to incorporate air </li></ul...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sponge Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For softer textured cookies (brownies, macaroons, lady f...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sponge Method – Whole Egg Method  (Brownie Method) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whip whole eggs and...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sponge Method – Separated Egg Method (Lady Finger Method) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whip egg yol...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sponge Method– Meringue Method (Parisian Macaroon Method) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whip egg whi...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sanding Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine dry ingredients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blen...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>One Stage Method  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the ingredients are mixed at once </li></ul></ul...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Cookies Properties and Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crispness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sof...
<ul><li>Crispness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited moisture in cookie formula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A low o...
<ul><li>Softness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher moisture content in cookie formula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A...
<ul><li>Chewiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher sugar content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher degree of tougheners </li><...
Cookie Mixing Methods: Cookies Properties and Causes <ul><li>Sandiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More fat, less sugar, less li...
Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Cookie Spread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cookie’s outward expansion from its unbaked state during...
<ul><li>Cookie Spread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer fat-sugar mixing in cre...
<ul><li>Cookie Spread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased Spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite of increasing spread ...
The Baking Process <ul><li>Freezing of cookie dough  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dough with double acting baking powder has a hi...
Conclusion <ul><li>One of the simplest forms of pastry, yet have many varieties and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Many ba...
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Day 1 cookies

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Cookies © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Made from a batter or dough </li></ul><ul><li>A smaller and dryer version of a cake but different liquid contents </li></ul><ul><li>Endless combination of ingredients, textures and flavors </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusions are added near the end of mixing process </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Toughening Ingredients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create viable structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce spread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tenderizing Ingredients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soften the cookie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable spread </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tougheners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starches and proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: flour, water, cocoa powder, salt, eggs, milk, milk solids </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars and Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Sugar, natural and manufactured fats, egg yolks, starches derived from corn or wheat, leavening agents </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Granulated, liquid and inverted sugars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hygroscopic characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller the sugar granule, more the cookie spreads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds softness by retaining moisture </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Butter, vegetable shortenings, vegetable oil, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interfere with starch and gluten-forming proteins </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch derived from wheat and corn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorb moisture but no structural strength </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cornmeal, corn flour and corn starch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potato starch </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Ingredient Functions for Cookies <ul><li>Tenderizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Leavening Agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide gives rise and tender texture to the cookies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baking Soda (sodium bicarbonate) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double acting Baking Powder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baking soda, acid salts and cornstarch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baking Ammonia </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Types of Cookies <ul><li>Dropped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate chip cookies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spritz cookies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cut-out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar cookies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lemon bars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bar or Sliced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biscotti </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Icebox </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diamant, Checkerboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stencil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gingerbread </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Minimal gluten development </li></ul><ul><li>Room temperature ingredients, except for butter for sanding method </li></ul><ul><li>Creaming, Sponge, Sanding and One-stage method </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Creaming Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing of fats and sugars to incorporate air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More air incorporated, more spread of the cookies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual addition of eggs, then other liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporation of dry ingredients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of creaming method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run Out – failure to distribute fat/sugar phase when adding eggs </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sponge Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For softer textured cookies (brownies, macaroons, lady fingers etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of whole egg, egg yolk or egg white foams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meringue: soft peak, medium peak and stiff peak </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sponge Method – Whole Egg Method (Brownie Method) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whip whole eggs and sugar to the ribbon stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate sifted dry ingredients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portion and bake </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sponge Method – Separated Egg Method (Lady Finger Method) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whip egg yolk and sugar to the ribbon stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a separate bowl, whip egg whites and sugar to medium peak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate the egg yolk mixture and meringue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fold in sifted dry ingredients </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sponge Method– Meringue Method (Parisian Macaroon Method) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whip egg whites and sugar to stiff peak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add dry ingredients and mix until desired stage </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Sanding Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine dry ingredients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blend in cold butter until it resembles coarse cornmeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add eggs and mix until dough is formed </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>One Stage Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the ingredients are mixed at once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less control over gluten development </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Cookies Properties and Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crispness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Softness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chewiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandiness </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Crispness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited moisture in cookie formula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A low or excessive amount of sugar content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller, thinner cookies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A longer baking time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twice-baking </li></ul></ul></ul>Cookie Mixing Methods: Cookies Properties and Causes © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. <ul><li>Softness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher moisture content in cookie formula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A high fat content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Humectants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger-sized cookies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brief and high temperature baking </li></ul></ul></ul>Cookie Mixing Methods: Cookies Properties and Causes © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. <ul><li>Chewiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher sugar content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher degree of tougheners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A longer mixing time </li></ul></ul>Cookie Mixing Methods: Cookies Properties and Causes © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Cookie Mixing Methods: Cookies Properties and Causes <ul><li>Sandiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More fat, less sugar, less liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of egg yolk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper mixing of fat-flour phase </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Cookie Mixing Methods <ul><li>Cookie Spread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cookie’s outward expansion from its unbaked state during baking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be controlled by adjusting ingredients and mixing methods </li></ul></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. <ul><li>Cookie Spread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer fat-sugar mixing in creaming method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of smaller granule sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower protein content flour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warmer cookie dough before baking </li></ul></ul></ul>Cookie Mixing Methods © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. <ul><li>Cookie Spread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased Spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite of increasing spread </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less creaming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower amount of chemical leavening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase toughening ingredients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher baking temperature </li></ul></ul></ul>Cookie Mixing Methods © 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. The Baking Process <ul><li>Freezing of cookie dough </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dough with double acting baking powder has a high tolerance to freezing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most cookies should be baked as quickly as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Indication of doneness – edge of the cookie can be lifted while still in the oven </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. Conclusion <ul><li>One of the simplest forms of pastry, yet have many varieties and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Many basic skills are required for assembling cookies </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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