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  1. 1. 13 Chapter Thirteen Managing Communication © 2011 Cengage Learning
  2. 2. Zappos (Las Vegas, Nevada)• What would the best customer service in the business look like? What would customers expect?• How can you make sure that every new person hired understands the corporate culture around great service?• How can you improve communication between headquarters, the call center, and the distribution warehouse?• What steps can you take to effectively and frequently talk about Zappos so that employees and customers have a deeper, more meaningful connection to the company? © 2011 Cengage Learning
  3. 3. What Is Communication?1. Explain the role that perception plays in communication and communication problems2. Describe the communication process and the various kinds of communication in organizations
  4. 4. Perception and Communication Problems 1.1 The basic perception process 1.2 Perception problems 1.3 How we perceive others 1.4 How we perceive ourselves© 2011 Cengage Learning
  5. 5. Basic Perception Process • Perception • Perceptual filters© 2011 Cengage Learning
  6. 6. Exhibit 13.1 Basic Perception Process© 2011 Cengage Learning
  7. 7. Perception Problems • Selective perception • Closure© 2011 Cengage Learning
  8. 8. Perceptions of Others • Attribution theory – we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people’s behavior • Defensive bias • Fundamental attribution theory© 2011 Cengage Learning
  9. 9. Attributions in the Workplace • Employees and coworkers are likely to attribute problems to external causes. • Managers tend to commit the fundamental attribution error.© 2011 Cengage Learning
  10. 10. Self-Perception Self-serving bias • The tendency to overestimate our value by attributing success to ourselves and failures to others or the environment© 2011 Cengage Learning
  11. 11. Management FactOne of the most frequent causes of communication problemsis jargon, vocabulary that is particular to a group. Any ideawhat “rightsizing,” “delayering,” and “unsiloing,” mean?Rightsizing means laying off workers. Delayering means firingmanagers. Unsiloing means getting workers in different partsof the company to work with people in other areas. Andbecause there is always new jargon being developed, it isimportant that managers not assume that other people, eventheir own employees, are familiar with their meaning. © 2011 Cengage Learning
  12. 12. Kinds of Communication 2.1 The communication process 2.2 Communication channels 2.3 Coaching and counseling, or one-on- one communication 2.4 Nonverbal communication© 2011 Cengage Learning
  13. 13. Exhibit 13.2 The Interpersonal Communication Process© 2011 Cengage Learning
  14. 14. Noise Anything that interferes with the transmission of the intended message. • The sender isn’t sure what message to communicate. • The message is not clearly encoded. • The wrong communication channel is chosen. • The message is not received or decoded properly. • The receiver doesn’t have the experience or time to understand the message.© 2011 Cengage Learning
  15. 15. Conduit Metaphor The mistaken assumption that senders can pipe their intended messages directly into the heads of receivers with perfect clarity and without interfering with perception of message.© 2011 Cengage Learning
  16. 16. Formal Communication Channel The system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information. Downward Upward Horizontal communication communication communication© 2011 Cengage Learning
  17. 17. To Improve Communication • Decrease reliance on downward communication • Increase chances for upward communication • Encourage much better use of horizontal communication© 2011 Cengage Learning
  18. 18. Informal Communication Channel The transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels.© 2011 Cengage Learning
  19. 19. Exhibit 13.3 Grapevine Communication Channels© 2011 Cengage Learning
  20. 20. Managing Grapevines • Worst thing to do is withhold information • Keep employees informed about possible changes and strategies • Do not overlook the grapevine as a tremendous source of information and feedback© 2011 Cengage Learning
  21. 21. Coaching Communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person’s on-the-job performance. Mistakes managers make • Wait for a problem before coaching • Wait too long before talking to employee about problem© 2011 Cengage Learning
  22. 22. Counseling Communicating with someone about non-job-related issues • Managers should not be clinicians • Discuss specific performance problems • Listen if the employee shares personal issues© 2011 Cengage Learning
  23. 23. Nonverbal Communication • Kinesics • Paralanguage© 2011 Cengage Learning
  24. 24. How to Improve Communication3. Explain how managers can manage effective one-on-one communication4. Describe how managers can manage effective organization-wide communication
  25. 25. Protect Personal, Confidential Information • As a manager, you have a moral and legal obligation to protect employee’s privacy. Moreover, sharing others’ personal, confidential information may dissuade employees from confiding in managers or seeking help from a company’s employee assistance program. • If you’re a manager, sometimes you have to inform your boss or human resources about a situation. But inform only those who have a need to know and who are also obligated to protect employee privacy. • Not all information that employees disclose to you should be protected. Information about discrimination, sexual harassment, potential workplace violence, or conflicts of interest between employees and the company may need to be shared with upper management to protect the rights and well-being of others.© 2011 Cengage Learning
  26. 26. Managing One-on-One Communication 3.1 Choose the right communication medium 3.2 Be a good listener 3.3 Give effective feedback 3.4 Improve cross-cultural communication© 2011 Cengage Learning
  27. 27. Communication Medium The method used to deliver a message • Oral communication • Written communication© 2011 Cengage Learning
  28. 28. Listening • Most people are terrible listeners, retaining only about 25% of what they hear • About 45% of total communication time is spend listening© 2011 Cengage Learning
  29. 29. Hearing and Listening • Hearing • Listening© 2011 Cengage Learning
  30. 30. Active Listening Assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that shows you’ve accurately heard what he or she said • Clarify responses • Paraphrase • Summarize© 2011 Cengage Learning
  31. 31. Exhibit 13.4 Clarifying, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Responses for Active Listeners© 2011 Cengage Learning
  32. 32. Empathetic Listening Understanding the speaker’s perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker • Show desire to understand • Reflect the speaker’s emotions “So right now it sounds like you’re feeling…” “Do you feel a bit…?” “I could be wrong, but I’m sensing that you’re feeling...”© 2011 Cengage Learning
  33. 33. Giving Feedback • Destructive feedback • Constructive feedback© 2011 Cengage Learning
  34. 34. Giving Constructive Feedback • Immediate • Specific • Problem-oriented© 2011 Cengage Learning
  35. 35. Cross-Cultural Communication Transmitting information from a person in one culture to a person from another culture • Familiarize yourself with a culture’s general work norms. • Determine whether a culture is emotionally affective or neutral. • Develop respect for other cultures. • Understand how address terms and attitudes toward time differ from culture to culture© 2011 Cengage Learning
  36. 36. Improving Cross-Cultural Communication • Determine whether culture is emotionally affective or neutral • Respect other cultures • Know address terms • Understand cultural attitudes toward time© 2011 Cengage Learning
  37. 37. Exhibit 13.5 Affective and Neutral Cultures© 2011 Cengage Learning
  38. 38. Address Terms The cultural norms that establish whether you address people by their first names, family names, or titles “Chuck” or “Mr. Ramsey” or “Doctor”?© 2011 Cengage Learning
  39. 39. Exhibit 13.6 Attitudes to Time© 2011 Cengage Learning
  40. 40. Temporal Concepts • Appointment time • Schedule time • Discussion time • Acquaintance time© 2011 Cengage Learning
  41. 41. Managing Organization-Wide Communication 4.1 Improving transmission by getting the message out 4.2 Improving reception by finding ways to hear what others feel and think.© 2011 Cengage Learning
  42. 42. Improving Transmission • E-mail • Online discussion forums • Televised/videotaped speeches and meetings • Voice messaging© 2011 Cengage Learning
  43. 43. Organizational Silence Withholding information about organizational problems or issues Occurs when employees believe that telling management about problems won’t make a difference, or that they’ll be punished.© 2011 Cengage Learning
  44. 44. Improving Reception • Company hotlines • Survey feedback • Frequent informal meetings • Surprise visits • Blogs© 2011 Cengage Learning
  45. 45. Friday Night Lights <click image for video> 1. Both the speaker and the listener(s) are necessary components in the communication process. Coach Gaines is the speaker and each team member and the assistant coaches are listeners. Only Gaines spoke. Did he still meet the basic requirements of effective communication? Draw examples from his speech to support your conclusions. 2. How well do the members of the team and the assistant coaches seem to be listening to the message the coach is communicating to them? How can you tell? 3. Assess the effectiveness of the coach’s communication to the team. How do you expect the team to play in the second half of the game as a result? © 2011 Cengage Learning
  46. 46. Greensburg Public Schools <click image for video> 1. Why was communication so difficult in the days following the tornado? 2. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of text messaging as the preferred communication channel in Greensburg after the tornado. 3. In what ways has communication in Greensburg improved since then? © 2011 Cengage Learning