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Virtual Reality in Manufacturing Processes: VDC-Whitepaper

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Virtual Reality (VR) in engineering is often associated with applications in product evaluation in terms of mountability, maintainability, ergonomics or in industrial engineering. Nevertheless, several VR applications have been established in recent years that deal with manufacturing processes.

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Virtual Reality in Manufacturing Processes: VDC-Whitepaper

  1. 1. Whitepaper Virtual Reality in Manufacturing Processes Applications, Challenges, Results © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Kfm. Christoph Runde Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstr. 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de ϭ Applications, Challenges, Results
  2. 2. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Environment Virtual Reality – Manufacturing processes Virtual Reality (VR) in Engineering often associated with mountability, maintainability, ergonomics, industrial engineering Recent years: several VR projects in manufacturing applications Basics 2 Image: Main groups of manufacturing processes according to DIN 8580 Manufacturingprocesses Primary Forming Forming Separating Joining Coating Change Material Charact.
  3. 3. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Environment Virtual Reality – Manufacturing processes Design of manufacturing processes: often a spatially complex task Thereby VR can basically be applied effectively VR applications: often post-processing of data from physical simulation, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Basics 3 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEM) Strong use of interaction metaphors Support of local or distributed cooperative work with VR Augmented reality (AR) for model validation Virtual machining center
  4. 4. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Applied VR techniques False color representation: a physical quantity (such as temperature, mechanical stress) is visualized via color coding. Samples: the viewer can use a measuring sensor to display measured values of the model. The sensor can be variable Image: Fraunhofer IPA Display level of cleanliness through false colors ZusammenfassungBasics 4 model. The sensor can be variable regarding the measured quantity. The sample may also be a source of particles (in a flow field). Sections: the 3D model is “cutted/ clipped” in order to visualize the areas of interest of the specific viewer. Image: Fraunhofer IPA Image: Visenso Sample for coating thickness measurement Cut through cast part
  5. 5. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Applied VR techniques Time-lapse, slow motion: dynamic animation (recognizing temporal relationships) can be accelerated, slowed down and frozen. Reinforcement: physical quantity (such as layer thickness, deviation in the case of oscillation) is reinforced in a way that it “becomes visible”. Image: Visenso Animation flow simulation Basics 5 Comparative presentation: alternative production processes (e.g. due to other process parameters such as feed rate) are shown simultaneously in order to be able to identify both the absolute values of the individual processes and differences between them. Subtractive presentation: only the difference between two process alternatives is displayed. This makes process differences even easier to identify. Image: Fraunhofer IPA Image: Visenso Reinforcement: display layer thickness varnish Comparing representation, differentiated display
  6. 6. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Applied VR techniques Selective representation based on values: only model areas whose elements have measured values in a specified area are displayed. This allows problem areas to be extracted very quickly. Superposition: different simulation results or a test part and a simulation result are Image: Fraunhofer IPA Selective representation based on value range Basics 6 test part and a simulation result are superimposed. If the simulated process results are superimposed with the method actually used, deviations indicate optimization potential of the simulation model or qualitative fluctuations of the procedure. Inline analysis with AR: furthermore, process parameters and measured values can be graphically overlaid on a workpiece, possibly even during the production process. Image: Project Arvika Image: Nee Superimposition simulation on trial Superimposition online-process data on workpiece
  7. 7. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Primary forming Manufacturing of a solid body out of shapeless material by creating a cohesion; in this case, the material properties of the workpiece appear and can be determined Amongst others all casting and separation techniques are manufacturing processes of Image: Visenso Casting simulation (flow, temperature) Primary Forming 7 techniques are manufacturing processes of primary forming VR applications: o Process analysis o Component analysis Image: Visenso Image: Visenso Casting simulation, filling level Casting simulation (flow, temperature)
  8. 8. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Primary forming: Casting Simulation objective: to achieve the desired component properties (strength, tolerances, prevention of cavities) in the case of an optimal casting process (process reliability, process speed). VR applications for casting simulation show Image: Visenso Casting simulation: flow, temperature Primary Forming 8 VR applications for casting simulation show the casting process itself and the result Viewer looks at melt flow in the course of time and temperature with or without shape Temperature profile during cooling Back off areas Take samples Put particle sources Image: Visenso Image: Visenso Casting simulation: cooling phase Cast part: detection of cavities
  9. 9. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Primary forming: Casting – Mechanical engineering Checking functionality machine Digital mock-up Kinematics Physics, control technology Process simulators Image: Visenso Diecasting mould Primary Forming 9 Image: Sun Image: Fraunhofer IPA Pressure die mould Continuous casting plant
  10. 10. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Primary forming: Casting – Mechanical engineering Functionality casting tool Kinematics Collisions/ clearance Primary Forming 10 Diecasting mould Image: Visenso GmbH
  11. 11. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Forming Manufacturing through plastic changing the shape of a solid body Maintaining mass and cohesion Pressure forming (such as rolling, closed-die forming, extrusion) and deep drawing rank among forming processes Simulation goal: achieve the desired component Image: Visenso Deep drawing simulation: engine hood Forming 11 Simulation goal: achieve the desired component properties (such as geometry, tolerances, thickness, strength) in the case of an optimal forming process (such as process reliability, process speed) Analysis of the forming process in the course of time Material strain/ stress Temperature developments Workpiece as reshaping result itself Image: Visenso Image: RWTH Aachen Simulation extrusion Simulation closed-die forming (forging)
  12. 12. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Forming: Deep drawing – Mechanical engineering Checking functionality machine Digital mock-up Kinematics Physics, control technology Process simulators Image: Visenso Deep drawing press Forming 12 Image: Visenso Image: Fraunhofer IPA Press mould Rollers steel mill
  13. 13. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Forming: Deep drawing – Mechanical engineering Functionality of molding tool Loads Kinematics Forming 13 Deep drawing press with engine hood Image: Visenso GmbH
  14. 14. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Separating Manufacture by reducing (partially or completely) the cohesion of bodies Amongst others drilling, milling, disassembly and cleaning rank among the separative manufacturing processes Interactively analyze the results of a Image: Visenso Simulation drilling Separating 14 Interactively analyze the results of a process simulation on the workpiece Evaluate machine tool programming: Virtual Machining Image: Visenso Image: Nee Simulation miling Fading online-process data on workpiece
  15. 15. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Separating: Machining Optimization of machining processes: detailed knowledge of processes is necessary Simulation of the chip formation process: expand understanding of the thermal and mechanical loads of tools and workpieces Simultaneous 3D illustration and Separating 15 mechanical loads of tools and workpieces Considerations regarding temperature and voltage path Also the chip as a geometrical structure and its physical properties are illustrated. Interesting aspects are temperature development, distribution and dissipation Avoid component warpage Image: Visenso Image: Visenso illustration and numeric information Simulation milling
  16. 16. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Separating: Disassembly Virtual environments with collision detection and sliding simulation are used in the investigation of assembly and disassembly For this purpose, the position and orientation of a component which has to Image: ESI – IC.IDO Assembly inspection with 2-handed interaction VR Separating 16 orientation of a component which has to be installed/ disassembled is specified with a spatial input system Virtually occurring collision forces are displayed Image: ESI – IC.IDO Image: Haption Disassembly examination in VR Tactile supported disassembly examination
  17. 17. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Separating: Cleaning • Focus on accessibility studies • Ray tracing algorithms: all relevant component surfaces detected by the cleaning agent? • Color marking, cuts and selection • Quickly identify critical areas • Technological proximity to coating simulation Image: Fraunhofer IPA Cleaning simulation Separating 17 • Technological proximity to coating simulation and raytracing • Simulation of dry-ice blasting: gentle blasting media deflection by means of an additional compressed air flow; improved ablation performance • Development nozzle (injector bend), rapid prototyping, evaluation of radiance trial simulation Image: Fraunhofer IPA Image: Fraunhofer IPA Cleaning simulation Cleaning simulation
  18. 18. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Joining: Welding Permanently applied joining or other combining procedures of two or more work pieces of geometrically determined solid form or shapeless material In doing so cohesion is created locally and increased as a whole Image: ESI ESI for AREVA: Simulation crack path in welding process Joining 18 All mounting topics as well as welding Comparative welding spot simulation with different parameter sets (animated) Offline programming of robots: safe and without occupying the real cell AR inline support welding process: correctly positioned and context-related superimposition of process variables in the real welding glasses: corrections during process Image: VDC Robot - welding cell Image: Visenso Visualization simulated welding spots
  19. 19. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Coating Manufacture by applying a firmly adherent layer of shapeless material to a workpiece The decisive factor is the immediately prior to coating state of the coating material Varnishing rank among the manufacturing processes of coating Image: Fraunhofer IPA Varnishing simulation: robot trajectories Coating 19 processes of coating The aim of the simulation is to achieve the desired properties (such as layer thickness) in the case of an optimal varnishing process (such as process reliability, process speed, use of resources) VR applications for varnishing simulation aim at the analysis of the varnishing process itself, the result and the training of the varnishing process Image: SimSpray Image: Fraunhofer IPA Varnishing trainer SimSpray Varnishing simulation: sample
  20. 20. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Coating: Varnishing Analysis of the 3D model grid values Virtual samples Selective area display: show only these areas in which elements have certain simulation result values (here: paint layer thicknesses between 21 and 42 µm) Spatial area display: according to spatial considerations: area selection via cubes (left window Image: Fraunhofer IPA Varnishing simulation: grid analysis Coating 20 considerations: area selection via cubes (left window in image below) Enclosed model area: right window (in image below) Upper right window: reinforced representation Bottom right window: top view, aligned in the coordinate system Selection: zooming on the entire screen Image: Fraunhofer IPA Image: Fraunhofer IPA Varnishing simulation: selective display Varnishing simulation: selection of area
  21. 21. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Change material characteristics Manufacture by changing the material´s properties of a workpiece Through changes in the submicroscopic or atomic area, e.g. by diffusion of atoms, generation and movement of dislocations in the atomic lattice, chemical reactions Image: RWTH Aachen Forged part Change Material Characteristics 21 Manufacturing process: Consolidate by forming and sintering Consolidate by forming: same VR tools as for forming VR tools specially for sintering: analysis of the sintering process and the workpiece Workpiece sections/ cuts through workpiece: clear view on workpiece properties (such as density, strength) Image: Fraunhofer ITWM Math2Market Image: Fraunhofer ITWM Math2Market Sinter material Sinter material
  22. 22. Separating Change Material Characteristics Basics Primary Forming Forming Joining Coating Summary Summary Virtual reality techniques are already used today for the analysis and design of numerous manufacturing processes In some application areas, such as casting, the use of VR is well-developed Other topics: general need to catch up Image: VDC View in virtual machining center Summary 22 Other topics: general need to catch up Research has shown that identified VR applications do not even represent half of all possible manufacturing processes At the same time, it became apparent that in a specific case often only a small part of the possible applicable VR technologies is used. Often it would be worth it to think outside the box Image: VDC Image: VDC View on virtual control View on injection moulding machine
  23. 23. ESI – IC.IDO: IDO.Explore http://www.icido.de/de/Produkte/VDP/IDO_Explore.html, abgerufen 2011 Fraunhofer IPA: Fraunhofer Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung (IPA): Fabrikplanung und Produktionsoptimierung, http://www.ipa.fraunhofer.de/index.php?id=79, abgerufen 2006 Fraunhofer IPA: Fraunhofer Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung (IPA): waterjet cleaning, Teilereinigung 5.3, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v-wRifXED5Q, abgerufen am 12.4.2012 Fraunhofer IPA: Fraunhofer Institut für Produktionstechnik und Sources Nee, YC.: Augmented Reality in Manufacturing & Assistive Technology Group, https://share.nus.edu.sg/eng/eir/Engineering%20Expertise%20Directory% 202009/default.aspx, abgerufen am 12.4.2012 DIN 8580: Norm DIN 8580 2003-09 Fertigungsverfahren – Begriffe, Einteilung RWTH Aachen: Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen: Visualization of Metal Forming Process, http://www.rz.rwth- aachen.de/aw/cms/rz/Themen/Virtuelle_Realitaet/research/projects/mechani cal_engineering/~plv/visualization_of_metal_forming_processes/?lang=de, 23 Fraunhofer IPA: Fraunhofer Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung (IPA): Lackiertechnik, http://www.ipa.fraunhofer.de/index.php?id=263, abgerufen 2006 Fraunhofer IPK: Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK, http://www.ipk.fhg.de, abgerufen am 12.4.2012 Fraunhofer ITWM: Fraunhofer Institut für Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik (ITWM): GeoDict, http://www.geodict.com, abgerufen am 12.4.2012 Math2Market GmbH ; www.math2market.de; abgerufen am 12.4.2012 Mujber, T.S.; et al.: Virtual reality applications in manufacturing process simulation, In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, S. 155-156, Elsevier, 2004 cal_engineering/~plv/visualization_of_metal_forming_processes/?lang=de, abgerufen am 12.4.2012 SimSpray: http://www.vrsim.net/simspray, abgerufen am 12.4.2012 Sun , Shu-Huang; Tsai, Li-Zhan: Development of virtual training platform of injection molding machine based on VR technology. In: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Springer-Verlag London, 2012 Tschirner, P.; Hillers, B.; Gräser, A.: A Concept for the Application of Augmented Reality in Manual Gas Metal Arc Welding. In: IEEE Computer Society (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2002), 30. September - 1. Oktober 2002, Darmstadt. New York/USA: IEEE Press, 2002, S. 257-258 Visenso GmbH: visual engineering solutions (2012), http://www.visenso.de, abgerufen am 12.4.2012
  24. 24. Thank you very much for your interest! You are interested in this topic and you are looking for contact persons/ implementation partners? Please contact us. © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstraße 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de 24

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