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© Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Kfm. Christoph Runde,
Franziska Jöckel
Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach
Auberlenstr. 13
70736 Fellbach
www.vdc-fellbach.de
Whitepaper
Eye Tracking
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 2
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Market analysis
3. Construction types
4. Measurement methods
5. Application fields
6. Summary
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 3
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Market analysis
3. Construction types
4. Measurement methods
5. Application fields
6. Summary
Introduction
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 4
 Eye tracking refers to the visual movements of a person,
consisting mainly of fixations (points that are focused), saccades
(fast eye movements) and regressions.
 Eye tracking systems consist of
(1) recording devices/ techniques
(2) the algorithms for processing the raw measurement data and
(3) the utilization in the form of representation methods of the
processed information.
Introduction to the field of technology
Introduction
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 5
 The purpose of eye tracking is usually to determine where a person is
looking
 In order to calculate the intersection of the human visual axis with relevant
objects, the following three parameters must be recorded:
o Viewing direction
o Eye position in the spatial coordinate system
o Coordinates of all relevant objects in the spatial coordinate system
 Eye tracking technologies deal with capturing either the first or the first
two types of information
 If the viewing objects are on a screen, tracking systems also involve the
third type of information; otherwise it requires a 3D space model
Introduction to the field of technology
Introduction
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 6
Anatomy of the human eye with several basic terms
Introduction to the field of technology
Anatomy of the
human eye
Image: anatomyclass01.us
Introduction
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 7
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Market analysis
3. Construction types
4. Measurement methods
5. Application fields
6. Summary
Market Analysis
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 8
Market figures, market development
 Dynamically growing market
 Market volume 2018: approximately
$ 400 million
 By 2023, the market volume will
reach $ 1.43 billion
 Assistive communication applications
had the largest eye-tracking market
share in 2016
 North America as the largest regional
market
 External systems as the most
important form of eye tracking
systems
Image: Eye Tracking Market, 2018 Global market development eye
tracking 2016-2023
Market Analysis
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 9
Market participants
 Among the most important eye tracking companies rank:
o Tobii AB,
o Eyetracking Inc.,
o Seeing machines Ltd.,
o Smarteye AB,
o Sensomotoric Instruments (SMI)
GmbH [now part of Apple],
 Detailed overview of companies with assigned
technologies and application markets on the next slide
o LC Technologies Inc.,
o Eyetech Digital Systems Inc.,
o Ergoneers GmbH,
o PRS IN VIVO,
o SR Research Ltd.
Market Analysis
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 10
Market participants
Zu den wichtigsten Eye-Tracking Unternehmen zählen:
 Tobii AB,
 Eyetracking Inc.,
 Seeing machines Ltd.,
 Smarteye AB,
 Sensomotoric Instruments (SMI) GmbH
[nun Teil von Apple],
Weitere:
 Eye Sight
 Sightcorp
 Cogisen
 Irisbond
 Tobii Pro
 Pupil labs
 LC Technologies Inc.,
 Eyetech Digital Systems Inc.,
 Ergoneers GmbH,
 PRS IN VIVO,
 SR Research Ltd.
 GazeHawk
 Eyezag
 Eyeware
 Lumen research
 Arrington research
 Gazepoint
Company Technologies Application markets
Tobii AB External systems, Mobile eye tracking Gaming & Entertainment (VR), Medicine, Industry, Automotive, Assistive technology
Smart Eye AB External systems Automotive, Medicine, Research consumer
Sensomotoric Instruments External systems, Mobile eye tracking Research
Eye Sight External systems Automotive, Smart Home, Consumer
Sightcorp Software Smart Environments, Market research, Security, R&D
Cogisen Software -
Irisbond External systems, Software Assistive technology
Tobii Pro External systems, Mobile eye tracking, SW Psychology, Neurosciences, (Market) research, Usability, Sport, Education
Ergoneers Mobiles eye tracking, Software Transport, Market researcj, Usability, Biomechanics, Sport
Pupil Labs Mobiles eye tracking, Software Research (vision)
Gaze Hawk Software Usability
Eyezag External systems Market research, Consumer research, Usability
Seeing Machines External systems Automotive, Traffic
Eyeware Software Research (academic, industrial), Consumer
SR Research External systems, Mobile eye tracking Research (children, language, cognitive illness), Attention
PRS IN VIVO Software, Service Market research, Purchasing behavior
Eyetech External systems Assistive technology, Automotive, Entertainment, Medicine, Research, Security
Lumen Research External systems, Mobile eye tracking Attention
Arrington Research External systems, Mobile eye tracking -
Gazepoint External systems Market/ consumer research, Development (Human Computer Interaction)
Tabelle:Neumann,V.,2018
Market Analysis
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 11
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Market analysis
3. Construction types
3.1 Tower-Mounted Eye Tracking
3.2 Remote Eye Tracking
3.3 Mobile systems
4. Measurement methods
5. Application fields
6. Summary
Construction Types
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 12
Tower-Mounted Eye Tracking
 Head of the test person is fixed in the device
 Three techniques ca be distinguished:
o Pan tilt systems: mechanically movable components
enable the camera (optics) to track the test person´s
head movements
o Tilting mirror systems: camera and optics remain fixed
in space, servo-driven mirrors allow tracking of the eye
during head movements
o Fixed camera systems: these systems do without any
mechanically moving components and achieve freedom
of movement by means of image processing methods
 Advantage: Delivers more accurate results in higher image
frequency, disadvantage: intrusive, immobile
Image: Fa. SR Research
EyeLink 1000
tower mounted
eye tracker
Construction Types
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 13
Remote Eye Tracking
 Enables non-contact measurements, eliminating the
need for mechanical components such as
transmission cables or chin restraints
 The test person can move freely within a certain
range of motion after successful calibration
 Compensation of head movements: a person can fix
a place and perform head movements without
losing the fixation location
 To register eye movements on a computer screen,
the components of the device can either be
installed directly in a screen or mounted below or
next to it
 Advantage: not intrusive, disadvantage: immobile
Remote
Eyetracker
(integrated in
screen)
TobiiImage: Tobii
Construction Types
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 14
Mobile systems
 Eye tracking solutions are installed in glasses
frames or similar and are connected to a portable
computer
 One camera system is pointed on the
environment (world cam), one on the pupil (eye
cam)
 An algorithm projects one into the other
 These systems make it possible to largely observe
people in natural interaction with products and
media
 Possible applications outside the laboratory
 Advantage: mobile, disadvantage: intrusive
Mobile eye
tracker
Eye squere
Image: eve spare
Construction Types
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 15
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Market analysis
3. Construction types
4. Measurement methods
4.1 Eye attached tracking
4.2 Electric potential measurement
4.3 Optical methods
 Oculography
 Infrared or LASER reflections
 3D Tracking
5. Application fields
6. Summary
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 16
Eye attached tracking
The position and orientation of an object connected
with the eye (e.g. a specific contact lens) can be
measured:
 Reflection of mirrored contact lenses is recorded by a
camera
 Electromagnetic tracking by means of a search coil:
contact lenses provided with coils are exposed to a
magnetic field  eye movement can be calculated
from induced tension
 Photoelectric tracking: photoelectric sensors conduct
electricity as a function of the incident light and thus
of the eye movement
 Video-based tracking of artificial markers (black dots
on the sclera)
Mirror
reflection
systems
Search
Coil
Photo-
electric
limbus
tracker
Image: Holqvist, K; Andersson 2017
Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017
Image: Gilroy, H., 2018
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 17
Electric potential measurement
 Measuring the electrical potential by positioning
electrodes around the eye
 Electrooculograms (electro-oculography - EOG)
measure the electrical voltage between the retina
(negative pole) and the cornea (positive pole)
 Imec, a research center for nanoelectronics and
digital technologies, has introduced a fast, wireless
eye tracking system (ITF Belgium 2018) based on
EOG
o Five dry contact electrodes on glasses
o Ergonomic design of everyday glasses
o Sampling rates of 256 per second
Example of an EOG
system
Image: imec
Fast, wireless eye
tracking
ergonomically
designed
Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 18
Optical detection - Oculography
1. Oculography
 Optical detection of eye properties during rotation
and translation
 Measurands of oculography
o Pupil shape
o Eyelid angle and cornea curvature
o Position of the limbus
o Retina
o Position face and eyes
 Two fundamentally different methods can be
distinguished regarding the evaluation of these
measured values:
o Regression analysis (appearance-based approach)
o Parametric-geometric fitting
Retina
characteristics
around the visual
nerve
Example pupil
forms
Example of a
bright pupil
Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017
Image: N.N., 2018
Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018
Optical detection - Oculography
 Regression analysis (appearance-based approach): The captured 2D image is
compared to and merged with previously acquired images that have already been
logically assigned to a meaning
 Parametric geometric fitting – today used for eyes and face
o Eyes: geometric image recognition, in which image features are mathematically
detected  fitting of a known geometric primitive
o Face: Face-model-based approach determines
facial features from the 2D image
Camera images of
eyes for evaluation
The feature-based
evaluation„Iris-
Fitting“
Optical determination
of facial characteristics
from a 2D image
19
Image: Eyeware
Image: Eyeware
Image: tobii
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 20
Optical detection - Oculography
Advantages of oculography:
+ Mostly non-intrusive procedure (exception: retina tracking)
+ Falling prices of digital camera systems
+ Retina tracking is very accurate
Disadvantages of oculography:
- Retina tracking is intrusive
- Regression analysis, parametric-geometric fitting and face-model-based
approach are less accurate/ reliable
- Dependency on lighting conditions
- If only one camera is used, 3D spatial information is missing; oculography is
unable to determine the focal point
- Stereoscopic camera systems limit the working space
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 21
Optical detection – Infrared or LASER reflection
2. Infrared or LASER (light amplification by stimulated
emission of radiation) reflection
 For the absolute direction of view, several eye features
must be measured, so that the head movement can be
distinguished from the eye rotation
 Measuring principles of infrared or LASER reflection
o Pupil center-cornea-reflection (PCCR): measurement of
corneal reflection (also called Purkinje reflections/ image)
relative to the pupil center
o Dual Purkinje Imaging (DPI) eye trackers: also measure the
fourth Purkinje image  differentiate between
translational and rotational eye movement; DPI-Eye
trackers are very precise, but the viewer's head has to be
fixed
o The regression analysis or the parametric-geometric fitting
can be used to determine the pupil center
The four Purkinje-
reflections
The user of this DPI
eye tracker fixes her
head by biting in a
fixed dental imprint
Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017
Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 22
Optical detection – Infrared or LASER reflection
Advantages of infrared/ LASER reflection:
+ PCCR systems are not intrusive (exception: mobile PCCR glasses)
+ If multiple cameras are used, the estimation of the head position in absolute 3D
space is also possible
+ If (non-visible) infrared light is used, the entire setup is more independent of the
given lighting situation
Disadvantages of infrared/ LASER reflection:
- DPI systems are intrusive
- Natural sunlight interferes with the use of outdoor PCCR and DPI trackers
- Limited range (about 1m)
- If several cameras are used to generate 3D information, the working space is
additionally reduced
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 23
Optical recording – 3D Tracking
3. 3D Tracking
Measurement of the absolute head position in 3D space
 Predominant technological approaches when using separate
tracking systems:
o Inertial measuring systems: determine position and angle
changes by integrating the acquired accelerations. The
incorporation of additional sensors (for example magnetic
field sensors) gives the designation nine-degree of inertial
measuring system (9DOF-IMU). 9DOF IMUs are cost
effective, enable fast measurements, but do not handle
absolute tracking.
o Optical tracking: Infrared cameras detect active (IR LEDs)
or passive (IR reflectors) IR light spots arranged in a
specific spatial structure. The computer can calculate the
position and orientation of the observed object from the
pattern of the IR light spots, which is detected by at least
two cameras.
Shutter glasses
(Volfoni ) which
enables stereoscopic
vision, combined
with an eye tracker
system of SMI and
an external optical
tracking system of
A.R.T.
Head Mounted
Display (HMD)
"Vive" with
assigned tracking
cameras (black
cubes) and input
devices/ controller
Image: HTC
Image: itersnews, 2018
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 24
Optical recording – 3D Tracking
 Using 3D depth cameras
o Camera systems that - unlike normal analog or
digital cameras that display grayscale or color
values of objects - allow the representation of
distances of an entire scene.
o 3D camera and outside-in-tracking: regarding the
outside-in-tracking, the tracker (here: the 3D
camera) is located in the reference, i.e. in the fixed
spatial environment, and "looks" at the moving,
tracked object (such as a flystick or the user's head)
Microsoft Kinect
system with
explanation of the
integrated sensors
Image: Microsoft
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 25
Optical recording – 3D Tracking
Measurement of head geometry
3D cameras can generate a 3D image of their
environment. Eyeware uses this approach to create a
user-specific 3D model of the head. Thereby the precise
head geometry is known.
Measurement of the position of the eyes
Using a laser, an eye tracker scans circularly over the iris,
which reproduces the torsion rotation of the iris by
comparing the striation on successive recordings. These
trackers can thus determine the 3D position of the eye in
the head coordinate system. Commercial tracking
systems currently do not use this technology.
Eyeware 3D head
modelImage: Eyeware
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 26
Optical recording – 3D Tracking
Advantages of 3D Tracking
+ Separate tracking systems can achieve long ranges (10-20m) and, when connected in parallel,
a large working space (e.g. 10m x 50m)
+ 3D cameras are inexpensive
+ 3D cameras are not intrusive
+ 3D cameras provide 3D head position and orientation information
+ 3D cameras can create a 3D image of the head  more precise localization of the eyes
Disadvantages of 3D Tracking
 The LASER detection according to Irie is intrusive and costly
 Separate tracking systems are usually costly. 9DOF IMUs are inexpensive, but can not be used
as a stand-alone system, as they do not allow absolute tracking.
 Separate tracking systems are almost always intrusive. Markerless motion capturing tracks
primarily the trunk, arms, hands, legs and feet. The accuracy of the detection of the head
would be insufficient to derive a viewing direction.
.
Measurement Methods
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 27
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Market analysis
3. Construction types
4. Measurement methods
5. Application fields
 Usability
 Market research
 Film
 Psychology
 Ergonomics
6. Summary
Application Fields
 Medicine
 Educational sciences
 Security
 Virtual Reality
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 28
Usability
 Used by User Experience (UX) and Human-Computer
Interaction (HCI) researchers
 Exploring usability in human-computer interactions 
Explaining human behavior based on objective data
 Use in the field of software ergonomics: usability tests
analyze the perception of test persons during the
execution of tasks with software or on a website
 Use in the ergonomic, UX and HCI-compliant design of
all machine operations (e.g. kiosk systems) and cockpit
systems of any vehicle (e.g. cars)
Examination of
the usability of a
railway station
displayImage: Kuerzel, E., 2018
Application Fields
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 29
Market research
 A method to objectively measure the attention of
consumers and their spontaneous reaction to
advertising messages  effective design of
communication
 Research aspects include the design of sales
packaging, retail stores, point-of-sale promotions,
websites, newspapers and magazines and product
design
Market research
with eye tracking:
supermarket testImage: Kuerzel, E., 2018
Application Fields
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 30
Film
 Motion control of the extremities (also gestures) of
virtual avatars in animated films by actors using
Motion Capturing
 The technique is also used for capturing facial
expressions
 Meanwhile, the capturing repertoire includes eye
tracking
Pascal Langdale as Caleb Smith in Faster
than Night photo by Vanessa Shaver, 3D
model by Dionisios Mousses/SIRT Centre
Image: Gilroy, H., 2018
Application Fields
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 31
Psychology
 Applications in psychology and neuroscience to
understand how and why eye movements arise and
how we visually capture information
 Examination aspects are image and movement
perception
Eye tracking/
cognitive
neuroscienceImage: Crane, H.D., 1978
Application Fields
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 32
Ergonomics
 Eye tracking is used in ergonomics in order to
evaluate performance, compare novices with
experts, develop effective training protocols and
cognitive strategies
 The same applies to the ergonomic, intuitive and
efficient design of work systems in terms of
usability
Image: Usability.gov
Image: TU
Chemnitz
Image: TU
Chemnitz
Eye tracking
examinations in
a usability lab
Heat Maps
represent where
and how long
the attention is
directed
Image: Usability.gov
Application Fields
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 33
Medicine
 Eye lasers: eye tracking measures the movements
of the eye and adjusts the laser. Possibly the laser
will be switched off until the eye has regained the
desired position.
 Increasing importance in psychiatry (more reliable
and earlier diagnoses, such as autism, ADHD)
 In competitive sports, there is great interest in
finding out how to train sport-specific eye
movement strategies
 Optimization/ support of the work of a doctor:
checking the concentration (on the right place),
control of functions with the eyes
High speed
trackingImage: Irie, K., 2002
Application Fields
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 34
Educational sciences
 Eye tracking is used in educational science to study
learning processes
 In addition, classrooms and laboratories are
equipped with this technology in order to educate
the next generation in the use of eye tracking in a
wide variety of areas
Tobii Pro eye
tracking
reveals
student
attention in
classroomImage:
tobiipro.com
Application Fields
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 35
Security
 Driving assistance systems
o By using eye tracking technologies, the driver's
condition can be monitored and supported based on
the opening degree of the eye, the head posture,
including movements, and the rate of blinks
o Thereby microsleep, inattention and loss of control
can be prevented
 Smart home, device and data security, public
events  capturing persons, behavioral patterns
Application Fields
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 36
Virtual Reality
 HMD integrated eye tracking was immediately an
issue with the advent of low-cost HMDs
 Autostereoscopic display systems based on
parallax barrier technology are aligned with the
viewer's position relative to the display. Therefore
the position of the viewer´s eyes must be known.
 Development of the technology "Foveated
Rendering": The main burden of the GPU is to be
concentrated on the areas of a 3D scene that the
user focuses on; whereas marginal areas should
be allocated less GPU capacity  prerequisite: eye
tracking
 Main areas of application: usability, design
studies, market research
SMI for
Oculus Rift at
Carrefour
Arrington
Research
Eyeframe
FOVE:
HMD with
integrated eye
trackingImage: FOVE
Image: FH Kufstein
Image: mellottsvrpage.com
Application Fields
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 37
Structure
1. Introduction
2. Market analysis
3. Construction types
4. Measurement methods
5. Application fields
6. Summary
Summary
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 38
Summary
Application fields
• Usability
• Market research
• Film
• Psychology
• Ergonomics
• Medicine
• Educational sciences
• Security
• Virtual Reality
Eye tracking-
Measurement
methods
• Eye attached tracking
• Electric potential
measurement
• Optical methods
• Oculography
• Infrared or LASER
reflection
• 3D tracking
Eye tracking-
Construction types
• Tower-Mounted Eye
Tracking
• Remote Eye Tracking
• Mobile systems
Summary
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 39
Summary
 There is a variety of different types and methods of eye trackers today. These are
very different in terms of usage context, measurement, precision and price.
 The contact lens method and the electrical potential measurement no longer
have any practical significance on the market today. DPI trackers are of very close
medical importance.
 Today, eye tracking is done using optical techniques: oculography and pupil
center-cornea-reflection (PCCR) are the dominating procedures. The use of 3D
cameras is not yet a product on the market.
 For HCI examinations, external systems are often used because they are not
intrusive and the workspace with the interaction space in front of the machine
interface is restricted anyway.
 High-precision, space-stable installation systems, such as for retina detection, are
used primarily in medical applications.
 There is not the "best" eye tracking system (dependency on the application).
Summary
Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction
24.09.2018 40
Sources
 Bergstrom, Jennifer Romano; Schal, Andrew:
Eye Tracking in User Experience Design.
Morgan Kaufmann, 2014, ISBN 978-0-12-
416709-4.
 Crane, H.D.; Stelle, C.M.: Generation-V dual-
Purkinje-image eyetracker. Applied Optics,
17(5), 1978, S. 527-537
 Duchowski, Andrew T.: Eye Tracking
Methodology. Theory and Practice. Third
Edition. Spring-er-Verlag, London, 2017
 Eye Tracking Market 2018 Leading Growth
Drivers, Emerging Audience, Segments, Sales,
Prof-its & Analysis [aus:
http://www.crossroadstoday.com/story/37763
460/eye-tracking-market-2018-leading-
growth-drivers-emerging-audience-segments-
sales-profits-analysis]
 Gilroy, H.: Facial Capture. Online unter:
https://praxistheatre.com/author/fasterthannig
ht/ page/2/; abgerufen am 31.3.2018
 Holmqvist, K.; Andersson, R.: Eye Tracking. A
comprehensive guide to methods, paradigms,
and measures. Second edition. Lund Eye
Tracking Research Institute AB, Lund, 2017
 itersnews: Displays. 3D eye tracking smart
glass gives immersive 3D gaming experience.
Online unter: http://itersnews.com/?p=24045;
abgerufen am 31.3.2018
 Kuerzel, Eric: How Eye Tracking is Driving the
Next Generation of AR and VR; online unter:
https://vrscout.com/news/eye-tracking-driving-
next-generation-ar-vr/; abgerufen am
31.3.2018
 Lobe, Adrian: Schau mir in die Augen, Kunde.
In: TagesWoche am 31.01.2015; online unter
https://tageswoche.ch/allgemein/schau-mir-in-
die-augen-kunde/; abgerufen am 31.3.2018
 abgerufen am 31.3.2018
 tobii: Was ist Ihr Anwendungsfeld?; online
unter:
https://www.tobiipro.com/de/anwendungsfeld
er/ ; abgerufen am 31.3.2018
 tobii: Year-End Report January – December
2017; online unter:
https://www.tobii.com/group/
investors/calendar/year-end-report-q4-2017/;
abgerufen am 31.3.2018
 Nielsen, Jakob; Pernice, Kara: Eyetracking
Web Usability. New Riders Publishing,
Thousand Oaks, CA, USA 2009, ISBN 978-0-
321-49836-6.
 Irie, K.; et al.: LASER-based eye-tracking
system. Behavior Research Methods, 34(4),
2002, S. 561-572
VDC and Visual Sweden members regarding this topic
24.09.2018 41
© Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC)
Thank you very much for your interest!
You are interested in this topic and you are looking for contact persons/
implementation partners? Please contact us.
Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach
Auberlenstraße 13
70736 Fellbach
www.vdc-fellbach.de

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Eye Tracking Technologies: VDC-Whitepaper

  • 1. © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Kfm. Christoph Runde, Franziska Jöckel Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstr. 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de Whitepaper Eye Tracking
  • 2. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 2 Structure 1. Introduction 2. Market analysis 3. Construction types 4. Measurement methods 5. Application fields 6. Summary
  • 3. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 3 Structure 1. Introduction 2. Market analysis 3. Construction types 4. Measurement methods 5. Application fields 6. Summary Introduction
  • 4. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 4  Eye tracking refers to the visual movements of a person, consisting mainly of fixations (points that are focused), saccades (fast eye movements) and regressions.  Eye tracking systems consist of (1) recording devices/ techniques (2) the algorithms for processing the raw measurement data and (3) the utilization in the form of representation methods of the processed information. Introduction to the field of technology Introduction
  • 5. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 5  The purpose of eye tracking is usually to determine where a person is looking  In order to calculate the intersection of the human visual axis with relevant objects, the following three parameters must be recorded: o Viewing direction o Eye position in the spatial coordinate system o Coordinates of all relevant objects in the spatial coordinate system  Eye tracking technologies deal with capturing either the first or the first two types of information  If the viewing objects are on a screen, tracking systems also involve the third type of information; otherwise it requires a 3D space model Introduction to the field of technology Introduction
  • 6. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 6 Anatomy of the human eye with several basic terms Introduction to the field of technology Anatomy of the human eye Image: anatomyclass01.us Introduction
  • 7. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 7 Structure 1. Introduction 2. Market analysis 3. Construction types 4. Measurement methods 5. Application fields 6. Summary Market Analysis
  • 8. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 8 Market figures, market development  Dynamically growing market  Market volume 2018: approximately $ 400 million  By 2023, the market volume will reach $ 1.43 billion  Assistive communication applications had the largest eye-tracking market share in 2016  North America as the largest regional market  External systems as the most important form of eye tracking systems Image: Eye Tracking Market, 2018 Global market development eye tracking 2016-2023 Market Analysis
  • 9. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 9 Market participants  Among the most important eye tracking companies rank: o Tobii AB, o Eyetracking Inc., o Seeing machines Ltd., o Smarteye AB, o Sensomotoric Instruments (SMI) GmbH [now part of Apple],  Detailed overview of companies with assigned technologies and application markets on the next slide o LC Technologies Inc., o Eyetech Digital Systems Inc., o Ergoneers GmbH, o PRS IN VIVO, o SR Research Ltd. Market Analysis
  • 10. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 10 Market participants Zu den wichtigsten Eye-Tracking Unternehmen zählen:  Tobii AB,  Eyetracking Inc.,  Seeing machines Ltd.,  Smarteye AB,  Sensomotoric Instruments (SMI) GmbH [nun Teil von Apple], Weitere:  Eye Sight  Sightcorp  Cogisen  Irisbond  Tobii Pro  Pupil labs  LC Technologies Inc.,  Eyetech Digital Systems Inc.,  Ergoneers GmbH,  PRS IN VIVO,  SR Research Ltd.  GazeHawk  Eyezag  Eyeware  Lumen research  Arrington research  Gazepoint Company Technologies Application markets Tobii AB External systems, Mobile eye tracking Gaming & Entertainment (VR), Medicine, Industry, Automotive, Assistive technology Smart Eye AB External systems Automotive, Medicine, Research consumer Sensomotoric Instruments External systems, Mobile eye tracking Research Eye Sight External systems Automotive, Smart Home, Consumer Sightcorp Software Smart Environments, Market research, Security, R&D Cogisen Software - Irisbond External systems, Software Assistive technology Tobii Pro External systems, Mobile eye tracking, SW Psychology, Neurosciences, (Market) research, Usability, Sport, Education Ergoneers Mobiles eye tracking, Software Transport, Market researcj, Usability, Biomechanics, Sport Pupil Labs Mobiles eye tracking, Software Research (vision) Gaze Hawk Software Usability Eyezag External systems Market research, Consumer research, Usability Seeing Machines External systems Automotive, Traffic Eyeware Software Research (academic, industrial), Consumer SR Research External systems, Mobile eye tracking Research (children, language, cognitive illness), Attention PRS IN VIVO Software, Service Market research, Purchasing behavior Eyetech External systems Assistive technology, Automotive, Entertainment, Medicine, Research, Security Lumen Research External systems, Mobile eye tracking Attention Arrington Research External systems, Mobile eye tracking - Gazepoint External systems Market/ consumer research, Development (Human Computer Interaction) Tabelle:Neumann,V.,2018 Market Analysis
  • 11. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 11 Structure 1. Introduction 2. Market analysis 3. Construction types 3.1 Tower-Mounted Eye Tracking 3.2 Remote Eye Tracking 3.3 Mobile systems 4. Measurement methods 5. Application fields 6. Summary Construction Types
  • 12. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 12 Tower-Mounted Eye Tracking  Head of the test person is fixed in the device  Three techniques ca be distinguished: o Pan tilt systems: mechanically movable components enable the camera (optics) to track the test person´s head movements o Tilting mirror systems: camera and optics remain fixed in space, servo-driven mirrors allow tracking of the eye during head movements o Fixed camera systems: these systems do without any mechanically moving components and achieve freedom of movement by means of image processing methods  Advantage: Delivers more accurate results in higher image frequency, disadvantage: intrusive, immobile Image: Fa. SR Research EyeLink 1000 tower mounted eye tracker Construction Types
  • 13. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 13 Remote Eye Tracking  Enables non-contact measurements, eliminating the need for mechanical components such as transmission cables or chin restraints  The test person can move freely within a certain range of motion after successful calibration  Compensation of head movements: a person can fix a place and perform head movements without losing the fixation location  To register eye movements on a computer screen, the components of the device can either be installed directly in a screen or mounted below or next to it  Advantage: not intrusive, disadvantage: immobile Remote Eyetracker (integrated in screen) TobiiImage: Tobii Construction Types
  • 14. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 14 Mobile systems  Eye tracking solutions are installed in glasses frames or similar and are connected to a portable computer  One camera system is pointed on the environment (world cam), one on the pupil (eye cam)  An algorithm projects one into the other  These systems make it possible to largely observe people in natural interaction with products and media  Possible applications outside the laboratory  Advantage: mobile, disadvantage: intrusive Mobile eye tracker Eye squere Image: eve spare Construction Types
  • 15. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 15 Structure 1. Introduction 2. Market analysis 3. Construction types 4. Measurement methods 4.1 Eye attached tracking 4.2 Electric potential measurement 4.3 Optical methods  Oculography  Infrared or LASER reflections  3D Tracking 5. Application fields 6. Summary Measurement Methods
  • 16. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 16 Eye attached tracking The position and orientation of an object connected with the eye (e.g. a specific contact lens) can be measured:  Reflection of mirrored contact lenses is recorded by a camera  Electromagnetic tracking by means of a search coil: contact lenses provided with coils are exposed to a magnetic field  eye movement can be calculated from induced tension  Photoelectric tracking: photoelectric sensors conduct electricity as a function of the incident light and thus of the eye movement  Video-based tracking of artificial markers (black dots on the sclera) Mirror reflection systems Search Coil Photo- electric limbus tracker Image: Holqvist, K; Andersson 2017 Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017 Image: Gilroy, H., 2018 Measurement Methods
  • 17. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 17 Electric potential measurement  Measuring the electrical potential by positioning electrodes around the eye  Electrooculograms (electro-oculography - EOG) measure the electrical voltage between the retina (negative pole) and the cornea (positive pole)  Imec, a research center for nanoelectronics and digital technologies, has introduced a fast, wireless eye tracking system (ITF Belgium 2018) based on EOG o Five dry contact electrodes on glasses o Ergonomic design of everyday glasses o Sampling rates of 256 per second Example of an EOG system Image: imec Fast, wireless eye tracking ergonomically designed Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017 Measurement Methods
  • 18. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 18 Optical detection - Oculography 1. Oculography  Optical detection of eye properties during rotation and translation  Measurands of oculography o Pupil shape o Eyelid angle and cornea curvature o Position of the limbus o Retina o Position face and eyes  Two fundamentally different methods can be distinguished regarding the evaluation of these measured values: o Regression analysis (appearance-based approach) o Parametric-geometric fitting Retina characteristics around the visual nerve Example pupil forms Example of a bright pupil Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017 Image: N.N., 2018 Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017 Measurement Methods
  • 19. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 Optical detection - Oculography  Regression analysis (appearance-based approach): The captured 2D image is compared to and merged with previously acquired images that have already been logically assigned to a meaning  Parametric geometric fitting – today used for eyes and face o Eyes: geometric image recognition, in which image features are mathematically detected  fitting of a known geometric primitive o Face: Face-model-based approach determines facial features from the 2D image Camera images of eyes for evaluation The feature-based evaluation„Iris- Fitting“ Optical determination of facial characteristics from a 2D image 19 Image: Eyeware Image: Eyeware Image: tobii Measurement Methods
  • 20. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 20 Optical detection - Oculography Advantages of oculography: + Mostly non-intrusive procedure (exception: retina tracking) + Falling prices of digital camera systems + Retina tracking is very accurate Disadvantages of oculography: - Retina tracking is intrusive - Regression analysis, parametric-geometric fitting and face-model-based approach are less accurate/ reliable - Dependency on lighting conditions - If only one camera is used, 3D spatial information is missing; oculography is unable to determine the focal point - Stereoscopic camera systems limit the working space Measurement Methods
  • 21. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 21 Optical detection – Infrared or LASER reflection 2. Infrared or LASER (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) reflection  For the absolute direction of view, several eye features must be measured, so that the head movement can be distinguished from the eye rotation  Measuring principles of infrared or LASER reflection o Pupil center-cornea-reflection (PCCR): measurement of corneal reflection (also called Purkinje reflections/ image) relative to the pupil center o Dual Purkinje Imaging (DPI) eye trackers: also measure the fourth Purkinje image  differentiate between translational and rotational eye movement; DPI-Eye trackers are very precise, but the viewer's head has to be fixed o The regression analysis or the parametric-geometric fitting can be used to determine the pupil center The four Purkinje- reflections The user of this DPI eye tracker fixes her head by biting in a fixed dental imprint Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017 Image: Duchowski, A. T., 2017 Measurement Methods
  • 22. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 22 Optical detection – Infrared or LASER reflection Advantages of infrared/ LASER reflection: + PCCR systems are not intrusive (exception: mobile PCCR glasses) + If multiple cameras are used, the estimation of the head position in absolute 3D space is also possible + If (non-visible) infrared light is used, the entire setup is more independent of the given lighting situation Disadvantages of infrared/ LASER reflection: - DPI systems are intrusive - Natural sunlight interferes with the use of outdoor PCCR and DPI trackers - Limited range (about 1m) - If several cameras are used to generate 3D information, the working space is additionally reduced Measurement Methods
  • 23. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 23 Optical recording – 3D Tracking 3. 3D Tracking Measurement of the absolute head position in 3D space  Predominant technological approaches when using separate tracking systems: o Inertial measuring systems: determine position and angle changes by integrating the acquired accelerations. The incorporation of additional sensors (for example magnetic field sensors) gives the designation nine-degree of inertial measuring system (9DOF-IMU). 9DOF IMUs are cost effective, enable fast measurements, but do not handle absolute tracking. o Optical tracking: Infrared cameras detect active (IR LEDs) or passive (IR reflectors) IR light spots arranged in a specific spatial structure. The computer can calculate the position and orientation of the observed object from the pattern of the IR light spots, which is detected by at least two cameras. Shutter glasses (Volfoni ) which enables stereoscopic vision, combined with an eye tracker system of SMI and an external optical tracking system of A.R.T. Head Mounted Display (HMD) "Vive" with assigned tracking cameras (black cubes) and input devices/ controller Image: HTC Image: itersnews, 2018 Measurement Methods
  • 24. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 24 Optical recording – 3D Tracking  Using 3D depth cameras o Camera systems that - unlike normal analog or digital cameras that display grayscale or color values of objects - allow the representation of distances of an entire scene. o 3D camera and outside-in-tracking: regarding the outside-in-tracking, the tracker (here: the 3D camera) is located in the reference, i.e. in the fixed spatial environment, and "looks" at the moving, tracked object (such as a flystick or the user's head) Microsoft Kinect system with explanation of the integrated sensors Image: Microsoft Measurement Methods
  • 25. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 25 Optical recording – 3D Tracking Measurement of head geometry 3D cameras can generate a 3D image of their environment. Eyeware uses this approach to create a user-specific 3D model of the head. Thereby the precise head geometry is known. Measurement of the position of the eyes Using a laser, an eye tracker scans circularly over the iris, which reproduces the torsion rotation of the iris by comparing the striation on successive recordings. These trackers can thus determine the 3D position of the eye in the head coordinate system. Commercial tracking systems currently do not use this technology. Eyeware 3D head modelImage: Eyeware Measurement Methods
  • 26. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 26 Optical recording – 3D Tracking Advantages of 3D Tracking + Separate tracking systems can achieve long ranges (10-20m) and, when connected in parallel, a large working space (e.g. 10m x 50m) + 3D cameras are inexpensive + 3D cameras are not intrusive + 3D cameras provide 3D head position and orientation information + 3D cameras can create a 3D image of the head  more precise localization of the eyes Disadvantages of 3D Tracking  The LASER detection according to Irie is intrusive and costly  Separate tracking systems are usually costly. 9DOF IMUs are inexpensive, but can not be used as a stand-alone system, as they do not allow absolute tracking.  Separate tracking systems are almost always intrusive. Markerless motion capturing tracks primarily the trunk, arms, hands, legs and feet. The accuracy of the detection of the head would be insufficient to derive a viewing direction. . Measurement Methods
  • 27. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 27 Structure 1. Introduction 2. Market analysis 3. Construction types 4. Measurement methods 5. Application fields  Usability  Market research  Film  Psychology  Ergonomics 6. Summary Application Fields  Medicine  Educational sciences  Security  Virtual Reality
  • 28. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 28 Usability  Used by User Experience (UX) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers  Exploring usability in human-computer interactions  Explaining human behavior based on objective data  Use in the field of software ergonomics: usability tests analyze the perception of test persons during the execution of tasks with software or on a website  Use in the ergonomic, UX and HCI-compliant design of all machine operations (e.g. kiosk systems) and cockpit systems of any vehicle (e.g. cars) Examination of the usability of a railway station displayImage: Kuerzel, E., 2018 Application Fields
  • 29. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 29 Market research  A method to objectively measure the attention of consumers and their spontaneous reaction to advertising messages  effective design of communication  Research aspects include the design of sales packaging, retail stores, point-of-sale promotions, websites, newspapers and magazines and product design Market research with eye tracking: supermarket testImage: Kuerzel, E., 2018 Application Fields
  • 30. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 30 Film  Motion control of the extremities (also gestures) of virtual avatars in animated films by actors using Motion Capturing  The technique is also used for capturing facial expressions  Meanwhile, the capturing repertoire includes eye tracking Pascal Langdale as Caleb Smith in Faster than Night photo by Vanessa Shaver, 3D model by Dionisios Mousses/SIRT Centre Image: Gilroy, H., 2018 Application Fields
  • 31. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 31 Psychology  Applications in psychology and neuroscience to understand how and why eye movements arise and how we visually capture information  Examination aspects are image and movement perception Eye tracking/ cognitive neuroscienceImage: Crane, H.D., 1978 Application Fields
  • 32. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 32 Ergonomics  Eye tracking is used in ergonomics in order to evaluate performance, compare novices with experts, develop effective training protocols and cognitive strategies  The same applies to the ergonomic, intuitive and efficient design of work systems in terms of usability Image: Usability.gov Image: TU Chemnitz Image: TU Chemnitz Eye tracking examinations in a usability lab Heat Maps represent where and how long the attention is directed Image: Usability.gov Application Fields
  • 33. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 33 Medicine  Eye lasers: eye tracking measures the movements of the eye and adjusts the laser. Possibly the laser will be switched off until the eye has regained the desired position.  Increasing importance in psychiatry (more reliable and earlier diagnoses, such as autism, ADHD)  In competitive sports, there is great interest in finding out how to train sport-specific eye movement strategies  Optimization/ support of the work of a doctor: checking the concentration (on the right place), control of functions with the eyes High speed trackingImage: Irie, K., 2002 Application Fields
  • 34. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 34 Educational sciences  Eye tracking is used in educational science to study learning processes  In addition, classrooms and laboratories are equipped with this technology in order to educate the next generation in the use of eye tracking in a wide variety of areas Tobii Pro eye tracking reveals student attention in classroomImage: tobiipro.com Application Fields
  • 35. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 35 Security  Driving assistance systems o By using eye tracking technologies, the driver's condition can be monitored and supported based on the opening degree of the eye, the head posture, including movements, and the rate of blinks o Thereby microsleep, inattention and loss of control can be prevented  Smart home, device and data security, public events  capturing persons, behavioral patterns Application Fields
  • 36. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 36 Virtual Reality  HMD integrated eye tracking was immediately an issue with the advent of low-cost HMDs  Autostereoscopic display systems based on parallax barrier technology are aligned with the viewer's position relative to the display. Therefore the position of the viewer´s eyes must be known.  Development of the technology "Foveated Rendering": The main burden of the GPU is to be concentrated on the areas of a 3D scene that the user focuses on; whereas marginal areas should be allocated less GPU capacity  prerequisite: eye tracking  Main areas of application: usability, design studies, market research SMI for Oculus Rift at Carrefour Arrington Research Eyeframe FOVE: HMD with integrated eye trackingImage: FOVE Image: FH Kufstein Image: mellottsvrpage.com Application Fields
  • 37. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 37 Structure 1. Introduction 2. Market analysis 3. Construction types 4. Measurement methods 5. Application fields 6. Summary Summary
  • 38. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 38 Summary Application fields • Usability • Market research • Film • Psychology • Ergonomics • Medicine • Educational sciences • Security • Virtual Reality Eye tracking- Measurement methods • Eye attached tracking • Electric potential measurement • Optical methods • Oculography • Infrared or LASER reflection • 3D tracking Eye tracking- Construction types • Tower-Mounted Eye Tracking • Remote Eye Tracking • Mobile systems Summary
  • 39. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 39 Summary  There is a variety of different types and methods of eye trackers today. These are very different in terms of usage context, measurement, precision and price.  The contact lens method and the electrical potential measurement no longer have any practical significance on the market today. DPI trackers are of very close medical importance.  Today, eye tracking is done using optical techniques: oculography and pupil center-cornea-reflection (PCCR) are the dominating procedures. The use of 3D cameras is not yet a product on the market.  For HCI examinations, external systems are often used because they are not intrusive and the workspace with the interaction space in front of the machine interface is restricted anyway.  High-precision, space-stable installation systems, such as for retina detection, are used primarily in medical applications.  There is not the "best" eye tracking system (dependency on the application). Summary
  • 40. Market Analysis Mission Measurement Methods Application FieldsConstruction Types SummaryIntroduction 24.09.2018 40 Sources  Bergstrom, Jennifer Romano; Schal, Andrew: Eye Tracking in User Experience Design. Morgan Kaufmann, 2014, ISBN 978-0-12- 416709-4.  Crane, H.D.; Stelle, C.M.: Generation-V dual- Purkinje-image eyetracker. Applied Optics, 17(5), 1978, S. 527-537  Duchowski, Andrew T.: Eye Tracking Methodology. Theory and Practice. Third Edition. Spring-er-Verlag, London, 2017  Eye Tracking Market 2018 Leading Growth Drivers, Emerging Audience, Segments, Sales, Prof-its & Analysis [aus: http://www.crossroadstoday.com/story/37763 460/eye-tracking-market-2018-leading- growth-drivers-emerging-audience-segments- sales-profits-analysis]  Gilroy, H.: Facial Capture. Online unter: https://praxistheatre.com/author/fasterthannig ht/ page/2/; abgerufen am 31.3.2018  Holmqvist, K.; Andersson, R.: Eye Tracking. A comprehensive guide to methods, paradigms, and measures. Second edition. Lund Eye Tracking Research Institute AB, Lund, 2017  itersnews: Displays. 3D eye tracking smart glass gives immersive 3D gaming experience. Online unter: http://itersnews.com/?p=24045; abgerufen am 31.3.2018  Kuerzel, Eric: How Eye Tracking is Driving the Next Generation of AR and VR; online unter: https://vrscout.com/news/eye-tracking-driving- next-generation-ar-vr/; abgerufen am 31.3.2018  Lobe, Adrian: Schau mir in die Augen, Kunde. In: TagesWoche am 31.01.2015; online unter https://tageswoche.ch/allgemein/schau-mir-in- die-augen-kunde/; abgerufen am 31.3.2018  abgerufen am 31.3.2018  tobii: Was ist Ihr Anwendungsfeld?; online unter: https://www.tobiipro.com/de/anwendungsfeld er/ ; abgerufen am 31.3.2018  tobii: Year-End Report January – December 2017; online unter: https://www.tobii.com/group/ investors/calendar/year-end-report-q4-2017/; abgerufen am 31.3.2018  Nielsen, Jakob; Pernice, Kara: Eyetracking Web Usability. New Riders Publishing, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA 2009, ISBN 978-0- 321-49836-6.  Irie, K.; et al.: LASER-based eye-tracking system. Behavior Research Methods, 34(4), 2002, S. 561-572
  • 41. VDC and Visual Sweden members regarding this topic 24.09.2018 41
  • 42. © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Thank you very much for your interest! You are interested in this topic and you are looking for contact persons/ implementation partners? Please contact us. Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstraße 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de