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Economic Evaluation VR: VDC-Whitepaper

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Overview of costs and benefits of virtual reality, potential savings, aspects and models for cost-effectiveness assessment, created by the Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) in Fellbach.

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Economic Evaluation VR: VDC-Whitepaper

  1. 1. Whitepaper Economic Evaluation VR Benefit, Costs, Models, Indicators © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Kfm. Christoph Runde Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstr. 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de Benefit, Costs, Models, Indicators
  2. 2. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Content Motivation General advantages of VR technologies Benefit aspects of VR Cost aspects of VR Models economic evaluation, amortization Content Models economic evaluation, amortization Indicators Literature & Sources
  3. 3. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Motivation economic evaluation of VR Use of virtual reality possibly important for many companies Investment costs in VR are well determinable Traditional business management: Cost and benefit streams are considered cost center-related, not across-the-board Problematic: cost allocation, if these costs and benefits and the assigned cost Motivation Problematic: cost allocation, if these costs and benefits and the assigned cost centers are away from the application area of VR ( benefit) Evaluation of new technologies in product development: Variety of procedures, from classical investment calculation to benefit analyzes Traditional benefit assessment is based on time-cost-quality Due to their future effect, investment decisions are among others the most important and difficult decisions which a company has to make
  4. 4. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Frontloading, Assessment of costs vs. Cost incurrence Motivation Example [Source: Munroe & Associates] (Gemeinkosten)
  5. 5. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent General advantages of VR technologies VR can do some things at all or better than traditional WIMP systems (WIMP = windows-icon-menu-pointer), e.g. Enabling not only higher-dimensional (3-6DOF), but also spatial interaction for manipulation and navigation Evaluation of manual assembly suitability by means of haptics, force feedback Evaluation of olfactory exposure by means of odorant emitters General Advantages Evaluation of olfactory exposure by means of odorant emitters Portable odorant emitter for firefighter trainingInspection mountability geometry data Spatial interaction
  6. 6. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent General advantages of VR technologies Handling more graphic and acoustic depth criteria General Advantages Virtual Reality [Source: Run07]
  7. 7. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent General advantages of VR technologies: Research results Positioning in space, shaping in space [Sca03, Gau04, Rös98, Wan98, Hin96] Spatial modeling tasks, with positioning and alignment aspects [Lia93] Spatial search [Pau93, War93] Navigation [Pau93, Bow02, Dee92] General Advantages Navigation [Pau93, Bow02, Dee92] Assessment of spatial point clouds [Nel98] Auditory assessment [Kur04] Assembly sequence planning [Ye99] Cooperation support [Fje04] Creativity support [Rös98] Robot programming, evaluation in CAVE
  8. 8. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Example 1: Effectiveness use of mouse/Windows systems in comparison with VR environment [Source: Gau04] Basic task: Placement of 4 bodies on 4 specific surfaces General conditions: o 6DOF device, no haptic feedback, no stereo vision, no snap o 6DOF device, no haptic feedback, stereo vision, no snap o 6DOF device, haptic feedback, no stereo vision, no snap General Advantages o 6DOF device, haptic feedback, no stereo vision, no snap o 6DOF device, haptic feedback, no stereo vision, snap o 6DOF device, haptic feedback, stereo vision, no snap o 6DOF device, haptic feedback, stereo vision, snap o 3DS Max Measurement of the number of clicks Visualization and evaluation of the clicks in 3DS Max 20% of the clicks have to be spent to switch between modes of movement, about 40 clicks per task
  9. 9. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Example 2: Comparison of productivity and quality in design ΀^ŽƵƌĐĞ͗ ^͘ dĂŶŽ͕ :ĂƉĂŶ΁ Task: Design of a new car 11 designers 3 methods 60 minutes/ method Review column 2 and 3 by senior designer Tools # Sketch # Ideas Quality (5: max) Paper & Pen 6.7 (2 – 21) 4.2 (1 – 8) 4.0 (3 – 5) 3D – CAD 1.2 (1 – 2) 0.4 (0.3 – 0.5) 1.6 (1 – 2) Godzilla 5.7 0.9 2.2 Legend: average (min – max) General Advantages designer Result: Regarding sketches paper and Godzilla are similarly comfortable More useful ideas using the sketching tool compared to 3D-CAD Godzilla (2D/3D sketch tool) 5.7 (1 – 12) 0.9 (0.5 – 1) 2.2 (1 – 3) 3D-CADPaper & Pen Sketching tool
  10. 10. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Benefit definition Measure for the satisfaction of needs through the use and consumption of goods [Gab97] Satisfaction of needs against the background of the respective target system Distinction directly - indirectly - strategically Benefit Benefit categories Comparison of benefit categories [Run06] Benefit categories Direct Indirect Strategic Criteria Enterprise level allocation Operative level Tactical level – department manager Strategic level – higher management Quantifiability Monetarily assessable Quantifiable, not monetarily assessable Not quantifiable Measurability Can be calculated Calculable Can be decided Time horizon Short-term Medium-term Long-term
  11. 11. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Market research [Dec02, Klo03, Les96] (user survey) identifies the following perceived advantages of VR application: Competitive advantages through Support of success factors Faster and more efficient processes Higher planning quality and reliability Cost savings through error reduction and thus avoiding consequential costs Zeit VR Benefit Time In detail: [Klo03] (in order of relevance / approval): easier for non-experts, increased transparency of complex products and thus reduction of errors, improved internal communication (across departments), VR as a discussion platform for technical questions, increase of product quality, reduction of iteration loops in product development, optimization of the product development process, intuitive interaction with the product, improved understanding of the product through immersion, true-to-scale consideration of the products in early product development stages, saving of physical prototypes, improved integration of the individual product development phases, increased product acceptance by the customer, improved external communication (data exchange), improved handling of higher number of variants, more creative product development process [Dec02] (in order of relevance / approval): visualization of malfunctions, visualization of product functions, determination of customer requirements, quoting, operating ergonomics, design optimization, generation of design alternatives, quality improvements, development time reduction, cost reduction thus avoiding consequential costs Kosten Qualität VR Costs Quality
  12. 12. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Savings with VR: Savings – Findings out of surveys and interviews Klocke, Fraunhofer IPT [Klo03] lists: Troubleshooting costs Product quality Iteration loops Prototype construction costs Process quality Development time Belker, Siemens Transportation [Bel08] lists: Development: o Reduction of construction support o Reduction of alteration costs o Elimination of 2D production drawings Production Planning: o Reduction of alteration costs o Reduction of production support o Reduction of production resource investments o Reduction of production resource planning Grimm, ICIDO [Gri09] lists: Development: Reduction of product defects Production: o Increase of productivity o Optimization of work processes, buildability, ergonomics Sales & Marketing: o Avoidance of false products Benefit Development time Cycle time Development costs o Reduction of production resource planning Manufacturing: o Reduction of error o Reduction of overhead costs o Reduction of start-up times/ production start-up costs Logistics: o Reduction of coordination/ voting costs o Logistics planning Local Manufacturing: o Optimization training o Optimization training materials o Optimization support o Avoidance of false products o (Avoidance theft of ideas) o Reduction of logistic problems Aftersales: o Reduction of service errors o Reduction of operating errors o Reduction of installation errors o Reduction of product recalls
  13. 13. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Relevance: Example 1 – Alteration costs Benefit Alteration costs State of knowledge in product development Errors and alteration costs Reasons for high alteration costs: •Costs are increasing progressively with the progress of the project [Source: Vis03] Alteration costs/ possibility for modification in product development (Source: TU Ilmenau) Possibility for modification progress of the project •Most of the errors are detected too late Alteration costs Frequency of change
  14. 14. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Relevance: Example1 – Alteration costs depending on product complexity [Abe06] Benefit Abe06] Intensity of VR usage depending on product complexity according to a survey by the Fraunhofer IPT [Source: Klo03]
  15. 15. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Relevance: Example 2- Product recalls The number of product recalls increases Benefit Other Toys [Source: Rapex] The Rapid Exchange of Information System (RAPEX) is an EU rapid alert system for consumer protection. Via RAPEX information from member states about dangerous or potentially dangerous consumer goods are exchanged (excluding food and pharmaceutical products and medicines): http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/dyna/rapex/rapex_archives_en.cfm Electric devices Vehicles Textile, Fashion Children´s items
  16. 16. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Relevance: Example 3 – Accidents at work [Gri09] Every year there are about 51,000 accidents on machines 1/3 of them can be traced to technical causes Many others can be traced on poor usability Benefit usability Costs (direct and indirect) of an accident at work amount to an average of 25,000 euros On average, 40 accidents per 1000 workers happen every year EU project IMOSHION (IMproving Occupational Safety & Health in European SMEs with help of simulatION and Virtual Reality).
  17. 17. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Cost aspects: Separation in one-time costs and running costs Part 1: one-off costs Preparatory works o Consulting & Planning o System selection o Process Reengineering o Restructuring of the information flow Plannable follow-up and expansion investments in o VR-SW/HW o Infrastructure o Additional SW Costs o Restructuring of the information flow o Feasibility studies, etc. Software Hardware: VR, infrastructure Complementary software o Conversion software o Modelers, reducers o Model libraries, texture libraries o Interfaces, plug-ons, etc. Additional SW Adjustment programming, interface development Internal marketing & communication Initial education Specialists recruitment
  18. 18. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Cost aspects: Separation in one-time costs and running costs Part 2: running costs Maintenance work for the VR system and for additional SW / HW Regular adjustments Continuous integration with internal and external applications (e.g. CAD, Regular adjustment of business processes Costs of VR operation and required supervisor Continuous further training and Costs and external applications (e.g. CAD, CAE, PLM, standard software), development of suitable interfaces Data transfer from other systems to the VR system, data preparation, data search: o working time o computing time Communication costs (networks) Continuous further training and user consulting Participation in conferences and user groups Rental rates, leasing fees Repairs
  19. 19. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Methods of valuation Retrospective (ex-post): actual values for costs and benefits Static (one-period) methods͗ LJŶĂŵŝĐ ŵĞƚŚŽĚƐ͗ ĨŽƌ ƉƌŽƐƉĞĐƚŝǀĞ ;ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƚŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƐƚĂƌƚͲƵƉ ƉŚĂƐĞͿ ĂƐ ǁĞůů ĂƐ ĨŽƌ ƌĞƚƌŽƐƉĞĐƚŝǀĞ ƉƌŽĨŝƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ ĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚ ;ŽŶŐŽŝŶŐ ŽƉĞƌĂƚŝŽŶͿ Costs Prospective (ex-ante): ƐƚŝŵĂƚĞƐ͕ ƚƌĂŶƐĨĞƌĂďůĞ ĞŵƉŝƌŝĐĂů ǀĂůƵĞƐ Important: develop objectives (e.g. “reduce rework by 15%”), check compliance methods͗ (cost comparison calculation, profitability calculation, amortization calculation, cash value method, actuarial return,...) ;ŽŶŐŽŝŶŐ ŽƉĞƌĂƚŝŽŶͿ o ĞŶŐƚŚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ ĂŶĚ ĚŝǀŝĚĞĚ o /ŶĨůƵĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƐƚĂƌƚͲƵƉ ďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌ ;ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ĐŽƐƚ ƐĂǀŝŶŐƐͿ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƚĂŬĞŶ ŝŶƚŽ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ o ŝƐĐŽƵŶƚŝŶŐ ƚĂŬĞƐ ŝŶƚŽ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ƐĂǀŝŶŐƐ ĂƌĞ ůĞƐƐ ǀĂůƵĂďůĞ ŝŶ o ůĂƚĞƌ ƉĞƌŝŽĚƐ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ĞĂƌůLJ ŽŶĞƐ
  20. 20. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Model of economic evaluation 2 cost categories: one-off – running 3 benefit categories: direct – indirect – strategic Following: Assignment of benefit categories to assessment procedures. Here: o Strategic: Balanced Scorecard Models o Indirect: Process cost calculation o Direct: Net present value method Assignment of cost categories to assessment procedures. Here: One-off and running: Total Cost of Ownership Further aspects which are necessary for evaluation: Assignment of cost savings/ benefits potential to benefit categories Integration into an overall model of economic evaluation
  21. 21. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Model of economic evaluation ΀ZƵŶϬϲ΁ Models ƉƌŽĨŝƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ WŽƚĞŶƚŝĂů ďĞŶĞĨŝƚƐ sĂůƵĂƚŝŽŶ ŵĞƚŚŽĚƐ /ŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶ ĐƚƵĂů ƐƚĂƚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ WƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨƉƌŽĨŝƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŽƐƚ ĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝĞƐ ĞŶĞĨŝƚ ĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝĞƐ KŶĞͲŽĨĨ ĐŽƐƚƐ ZƵŶŶŝŶŐ ĐŽƐƚƐ sZ ĂƉƉůŝĐĂƚŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ dĂƌŐĞƚ ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚ // Ͳ ŝŶĚŝƌĞĐƚ ďĞŶĞĨŝƚ /// Ͳ ĚŝƌĞĐƚ ďĞŶĞĨŝƚ / Ͳ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐ ďĞŶĞĨŝƚ
  22. 22. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Actual state analysis and target concept: Transfer in a specification sheet Company characteristics Actual state of the planned areas of application Objectives and expectations System requirements Technical requirements Hardware / software requirements Models Hardware / software requirements Quantity structure Employees Future users Non-company employees Project organization Temporal implementation framework Requirements for the system provider Desires regarding the offering structure and content
  23. 23. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Example from the VDC network: Work with prospective (ex-ante) values: Additional quantity through better completion rates, o As market requirements are getting better fulfilled o Through additional value-to-customer Loss of sales per additional day Time-to-Market (in €) Time savings Reduction of number of change orders o Concept phase o Detailled design phase o Production phase through better coordination (in %) Reduction of personnel and material costs for Models o Concept phase o Detailed design phase o Production planning phase o Production phase through better coordination (in %) Remarks: Fast, transparent, simple, success is measurable Estimates, transferable empirical values Estimating the impact of strategic benefits on measurable monetary areas (sales figures) No consideration of non-time-saving efficiency increases (e.g. higher project throughput/ time) No consideration of contribution to strategic corporate goals (quality leader, innovation leader, ...) o Warranty cases with virtual validation o Manufacturing devices with virtual training o Prototypes per year (in €)
  24. 24. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Amortization Rule of thumb: Procurement costs VR system: from the supplier´s documents Follow-up costs/ year : at least 45% of the investment sum from o 20% depreciation over 5 years Profitability improvement: Start with high marginal product/ marginal profit - Start with low investment and highest possible benefit, later expansion - Distribute several constant investments over the project duration (avoidance the Models o 20% depreciation over 5 years o Annual maintenance and new software versions: 10-20% o Insurance and operationg costs: 3-5% Additional running costs: (slide 18) the project duration (avoidance the compounding of initial investments) Implement several areas of application Maximize capacity utilization
  25. 25. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Amortization Models Areas of application of VR Engineering AV Obstacles to full time capacity utilization of VR systems according to a survey by the Fraunhofer IPT [Klo03] Source: Siemens Transportation [Bel08] AV construction AV assembly Training Marketing/ Sales Maintenance
  26. 26. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Amortization Models Length of the amortisation period according to a survey by the Fraunhofer IPT [Klo03] Source: Siemens Transportation [Bel08] Holistic implementation enables amortization within 2 years
  27. 27. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent View on processes Problem of recording benefits: Increases in productivity often only become visible in subsequent areas Cost center problem therefore: Extensively assess processes in the affected Conditions: Adaptation of processes to increased communication Changeover employee´s way of working Conversion management structure Consistency in the combination of data Models Extensively assess processes in the affected areas Create comparability, for example Before-after considerations or Initially develop only one product family with new methods Comparison Spreading the new methods Consistency in the combination of data Process integration = process change Alteration costs, time delay have to be taken into account
  28. 28. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Project management: Budget Models Reasons for the failure of IT-projects according to a survey of the GPM e.V. [Engel 2006] Allocate budget safely in the long term! Problems of SMEs regarding the implementation of software projects according to a survey of the project SÍKEBA [Jansen 2008]
  29. 29. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Conclusion: When should considerations be made? Indicators need for action Length of development time Number of correction loops Number of voting meetings and business trips Reworks on offers and order correction Late detected problems in manufacturing and Indicators Conclusion: VR AR offer good oppurtunities for the industry Conclusion: VR AR offer good oppurtunities for the industry Number of namings for the point of occurence Late detected problems in manufacturing and assembly Production and assembly time, throughput time Number of accidents at work Number of errors in operation, service, installation Number of recalls Customer satisfaction Plagiarism Assessment of the Berlin circle on the probability of wide use of VR [Gau06] The probability of occurence was assessed as middle-high
  30. 30. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent References Bel08 Belker, Reinhard: Virtuelle Produkt- und Produktionsentwicklung, Siemens AG, Siemens Transportation, Krefeld 2008 Bow02 Bowman, D.: Principles for the Design of Performance- oriented Interaction Techniques. In: Stanney, K. M. (Edit.): Handbook of Virtual Environments. Design, Implementation and Applications. 2002. New Jersey, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Publishers 2002, pp. 277-300 Dee92 Deering, M.: High Resolution Virtual Reality. International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques; 26 (1992) No. 2, pp. 195-202 Dec02 Decker R.; Bödeker, M.; Franke, K.: Potentiale und Grenzen von Virtual Reality-Technologien auf industriellen Anwendermärkten. Possibilities of virtual reality Gau06 Gausemeier, J.: Augmented Reality und Virtual Reality in der Produktentwicklung. In: VEC Innovation Days, 11.- 12.7.2006, Stuttgart. Stuttgart: DaimlerChrysler AG, 2006 Gri09 Grimm, Sebastian: Icido Virtual Reality. Risikominimierung mit Virtual Reality, EuroMold, Demat: Frankfurt 2009 Hin96 Hinckley, K.: Haptic Issues for Virtual Manipulation. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 1996 Jan08 Jansen, A.; Stein, B.; Müller, C.; Ehlbeck, I.: SIKEBA - Software-Einführung in kmU - eine Bestandsaufnahme. URL: http://www.bao.de/docdown/vortrag_workshop_sikeba.pdf (21.08.2008) Klo03 Klocke, F.: Vorsprung durch Virtual Reality; Eine Studie über den industriellen Einsatz von VR. Aachen: Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionstechnologie IPT, 2003 Kur04 Kurniawan, S. H.; Sporka, A. J.; Nemec, V.; Slavik, P.: Design Pau93 Pausch, R., Shackelford, M. A., Proffitt, D.: A User Study Comparing Head-Mounted and Stationary Displays. Proceedings IEEE Symposium on Research Frontiers in Virtual Reality, October 1993 Rös98 Rössler, A.; Blach, R.; Braczyk, H.-J.: Kreativitätsunterstützung durch Erfahrung in virtuellen Umgebungen. Landesmuseum für Technik und Arbeit, Mannheim; Akademie für Technikfolgenabschätzung in Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart: Kreativität als Chance für den Standort Deutschland. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1998 Run07 Runde, C.: Konzeption und Einführung von Virtueller Realität als Komponente der Digitalen Fabrik in Industrieunternehmen. Heimsheim : Jost-Jetter Verlag, 2007 Run06 Runde, C. ; Westkämper, E. ; Kunst, S.: Ein Modell zur Wirtschaftlichkeitsbewertung des Einsatzes von Virtual Reality für Aufgaben in der Digitalen Fabrik. In: Gausemeier, Literature Anwendermärkten. Possibilities of virtual reality technologies, University Bielefeld. IM Information Management Consulting (2002) Band 17 Eng06 Engel, C.; Menzer, M.; Nienstedt, D.: GPM Deutsche Gesellschaft für Projektmanagement e.V. (Hrsg.) / PA Consulting Group (Hrsg.): Projektmanagementstudie 2006. Ergebnisse der Projektmanangementstudie Konsequente Berücksichtigung weicher Faktoren, Frankfurt / München, 2006 Fje04 Fjeld, M.; Morf, M.; Krueger, H.: Activity theory and the practice of design: evaluation of a collaborative tangible user interface. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management 4 (2004) No. 1, pp. 94-116 (Switzerland) Gab97 N. N.: Gablers Wirtschaftslexikon. 14. vollständig überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Wiesbaden: Gabler- Verlag 1997 Gau04 Gauldie, D.; Wright, M.; Shillito, A. M.: 3D Modelling is not for WIMPs Part II: Stylus/Mouse Clicks. In: Proceedings of EuroHaptics 2004, München, 2004 and evaluation of computer-simulated spatial sound. In: Proceedingsof the second Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology, Cambridge, UK, 22.03.–24.03.2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2004, pp. 137-146 Les96 Leston, J.; Ring, K.; Kyra, E.: Virtual reality. Business applications, markets and opportunities. London: Ovum Ltd. 1996 Lia93 Liang, J.; Green, M.: JDCAD: A Highly Interactive 3D Modelling System. 3rd International Conference on CAD and Computer Graphics, Beijing, China, August 1993, pp. 217-222 Nel98 Nelson, L.; Cook, D.; Cruz-Neira, C.: XGobi vs the C2: An Experiment Comparing Data Visualization in an Immersive Virtual Environment with a 2-D Workstation Display. In: Cruz-Neira, C.; Riedel, O. (Edit.): 2nd International Immersive Projection Technology Workshop, Iowa State University, Ames, USA, 11.05.–12.05.1998 Reality für Aufgaben in der Digitalen Fabrik. In: Gausemeier, J.: Augmented Virtual Reality in der Produktentstehung : 5. Paderborner Workshop, 31. Mai und 1. Juni 2006, Paderborn Sca03 Scali, S.; Wright, M.; Shillito, A. M.: 3D-Modelling is not for WIMPs. In: Volume 2 of the Proceedings of HCI International 2003, 10th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Kreta, Griechenland, 2003 Vis03 Visintin, Gabi: Return on Investment bei VR- und Simulationslösungen. In: cad-cam, Carl-Hander-Verlag, 2003 Wan98 Wang, Y.; MacKenzie, C. L.: The Structure of Object Transportation and Orientation in Human-Computer Interaction. In: CHI ’98 Proceedings. New York: ACM Press 1998, pp. 312-319 War93 Ware, C.; Arthur, K.; Booth, K. S.: Fish Tank Virtual Reality. INTERCHI’93, pp. 37 – 41 Ye99 Ye, Nong; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, A.; Dech, F.: A Comparative Study of Assembly Planning in Traditional and Virtual Environments. In: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics - Part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol. 29, No. 4, November 1999
  31. 31. Motivation BenefitGeneral Advantages LiteratureCosts Models IndicatorsContent Further literature N.N.: The transition from 2D drafting to 3D modeling benchmark report, 2006. Hrsg: Aberdeen Group. URL: http://images.autodesk.com/ emea_apac_main/files/aberdeen_3dmodeling_benc hmark.pdf (21.8.2008) Fahlbusch, M.: Einsatz von Simulation und Virtual Reality als Lehrunterstützung in der Fabrikplanung. In: Schulze, T.; Lorenz, P.; Hinz, V. (Hrsg.): Simulation und Visualisierung 2000, Tagungsband „Simulation und Visualisierung 2000“ am Institut für Simulation und Graphik der Otto-von-Guericke- Universität, 2000, Magdeburg. Erlangen: SCS- Verlag 2000 Michel, R.; Torspecken, H.-D.; Jandt, J.: Neuere Formen der Kostenrechnung mit Prozesskostenrechnung – Kostenrechnung II. 4. erweiterte Auflage. München: Carl Hanser-Verlag 1998 N. N.: Richtlinie VDI 2216, 1994-11: Datenverarbeitung in der Konstruktion – Einführungsstrategien und Wirtschaftlichkeit von CAD-Systemen. Düsseldorf: VDI-Verlag 1994 Nagel K.: Nutzen der Informationsverarbeitung: Methoden zur Bewertung von strategischen Wettbewerbsvorteilen, Produktivitätsverbesserungen Porter, M. E.: Towards a Dynamic Theory of Strategy. Strategic Management Journal 12 (1991), pp. 95-112 (Hoboken, NJ/USA) Potthof, I.: Kosten und Nutzen der Informationsverarbeitung – Analyse und Beurteilung von Investitionsentscheidungen. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitätsverlag 1998 Schabacker, M.: Bewertung der Nutzen neuer Technologien in der Produktentwicklung. In: Vajna, S. (Hrsg.): Buchreihe „Integrierte Produktentwicklung“. Reihe für die Dissertationen des Lehrstuhls für Maschinenbauinformatik, Otto- von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Band 1, Literature Verlag 2000 Heitsch, J.-U.: Multidimensionale Bewertung alternativer Produktionstechniken: Ein Beitrag zur technischen Investitionsplanung. Dissertation. Aachen: Shaker-Verlag 2000 Hippelein, T.: Wirtschaftlichkeit von Portalprojekten. Diplomarbeit, Lehrstuhl für Betriebswirtschaftslehre, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 2004 Joosten, H.; Mersinger, M.; Runde, C.; Stallkamp, J.: Integrieren mit Virtueller Realität – Virtuelle Realität als Integrationsplattform für Planung, Inbetriebnahme und Betrieb. wt Werkstattstechnik online 91 (2001) Nr. 6, S. 315–319. Internetadresse: www.werkstattstechnik.de Düsseldorf: Springer- VDI-Verlag Produktivitätsverbesserungen und Kosteneinsparungen. München: Oldenbourg- Verlag 1988 Nohr, H.: Steuerung und Erfolgsmessung im Wissensmanagement mit der Balanced Scorecard. Internetadresse: www.wissensmanagement.net/online/archiv/2001/0 8_0901/balanced_scorecard.shtml. Stand: 02.11.2005 Olfert, K.: Einführung in die Betriebswirtschaftslehre. 6. Auflage. Ludwigshafen: Friedrich Kiehl Verlag 1992 Pietsch, T.: Bewertung von Informations- und Kommunikationssystemen. 2. neu bearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag 2003 von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Band 1, Magdeburg, 2001 Schiefer, J. u.a.: ProFounD – Eine praxiserprobte Methode zur ganzheitlichen Bewertung und Steuerung von Investitionsvorhaben. Stuttgart: Star Publishing GmbH 2003 Singer, U.: Die Beurteilung der Wirtschaftlichkeit von Investitionen in Neue Produktionstechnologien. Dissertation, Bamberg, 1990 Wildemann, H.: Strategische Investitionsplanung – Methoden zur Bewertung neuer Produktionstechnologien. Wiesbaden: Gabler- Verlag 1987
  32. 32. Thank you very much for your interest! You are interested in this topic and you are looking for contact persons/ implementation partners? Please contact us. © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstraße 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de

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