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Augmented Reality: VDC-Whitepaper

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Overview of technology, systems, potentials, functions, areas of application of augmented reality, created by the Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) in Fellbach.

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Augmented Reality: VDC-Whitepaper

  1. 1. © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Kfm. Christoph Runde Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstr. 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de Whitepaper Augmented Reality Technology, Systems, Potentials, Functions, Areas of application
  2. 2. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Reality, only better The Economist, Dezember 2007 Principles and chances Augmented Reality
  3. 3. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits  Overlay natural view with computer-generated information  Context sensitivity  Alpha-numeric or 3D content Historical origin:  Helmets of jet pilots Everyday use:  Entertainment, tourism  Driver information systems in windscreens of passenger car: navigation, night vision Basics Data glasses AR navigation support Vision support, but not yet superimposed Basics
  4. 4. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Display of installed pipes underneath plaster (Fraunhofer IGD) Context-sensitive presentation of computer-generated information using the real perspective  Simple comparison reality vs. model  Digitization is not always required  High comprehensibility by docking the computer graphic to a real object  Use in cases where phys. manual is difficult to handle Functions  Consistency checks digital model - phys. world  Instruction, clarification, support in the operating process  Marketing, entertainment  Visualization offset time General advantages of AR technology Planning equipment in factory hall (Volkswagen) Maintenance instructions (NASA) CAD model superimposed with phys. prototype (metaio) Benefits
  5. 5. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Optical see-through:  Semipermeable display or retinal display  Advantage: o natural view instantaneous, natural resolution, o large viewing angle  user-safe  Disadvantage: Referencing eye-glasses-environment very difficult (accuracy and latency) Video see-through:  Opaque display  Advantage: augmentation simple and consistent  Disadvantage: o restricted view o moderate resolution Technological basics: Optical- vs. Video see-through Technological Basics
  6. 6. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Marker in environment Pattern detection Relation of computer graphics and environment image has to be determined. Three possibilities:  Marker-based tracking: camera "sees" physical pattern (marker), and fades it with graphics o Advantage: fast, reliable o Disadvantage: markers have to be attached  Markerless optical tracking: image of environment is compared with 3D environment model in the computer  position of the camera can be calculated o Advantage: no markers have to be installed o Disadvantage: environment model must be known, very CPU- intensive, slowly  Non-optical tracking of the camera, e.g. mechanical, electromagnetical o Advantage: depending on the system fast and accurate o Disadvantage: additional system, small working space, possibly disturbing influences Technological basics: Tracking Camera on gauge arm Technological Basics
  7. 7. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Electromagnetic tracker Ultrasound tracker Optical tracker Articulated arm, mechanically detected  Electromagnetic tracking o Advantage: fast, inexpensive, penetrates tissue o Disadvantage: no metal, interference fields  Ultrasound tracking o Advantage: fast, inexpensive o Disadvantage: in case of occultations  Optical tracking (with infrared) o Advantage: very fast o Disadvantage: expensive, occultations  Mechanical tracking o Advantage: very fast, inexpensive o Disadvantage: small working space, limitation of the user Technological basics: Tracking Technological Basics
  8. 8. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Problem: The 3D graphics which has to be displayed may possibly be concealed by the real object. This area must not be displayed. Possibilities  3D model of reality is available o thereby the hidden, not to be shown can be calculated o disadvantage: 3D model has to be generated  No clipping, but only considerations along the interfering edge o no 3D model of reality necessary o the viewer himself has to recognize inconsistencies/ collisions Technological basics: Clipping Concealed area of the violet component (left) is not displayed Collision analysis: view along the interfering edge Technological Basics
  9. 9. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Head Mounted Display (HMD), video-see-through  Relation eye– display- camera (mechanically) determined  Marker-based tracking  Advantage: very simple use, consistent image  Disadvantage: limited vision, low resolution, wearing comfort, uncertainty Head Mounted Display (HMD), optical-see-through  Transparent display or laser projection into the eye  Advantage: natural field of vision, instantaneous perception, safety  Disadvantage: referencing eye – display - environment very difficult (even the smallest offsets on the head are problematic) Systems approach HMD with integrated cameras, view through HMD Transparent HMD, NASA application Systems Approach
  10. 10. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Projection AR  User looks on/ through projected area (optical see through)  Unlike HMD, users can move in front of projection screen  User must be tracked in 3D content  If the projection surface is movable, it has to be tracked as well  Advantages: comfortable, natural view  Disadvantages: projection surface must be present, consistency eye - projection surface – environment is difficult (especially with optical see-through) Systems approach Path information, projected on windscreen Use of space, projected on a wall in front Editing and display of a robot path on product (TUM) Systems Approach
  11. 11. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Handheld devices with integrated camera, mobile  Marker-based tracking, markerless tracking via image recognition  Hybrid tracking with inertial sensor  Advantages: very easy, mobile  Disadvantages: small screen, low resolution, content not in the natural view Handheld devices, fixed  Mechanical tracking  Mostly camera as lens, display as eyepiece  Advantages: very fast tracking, robust, easy to operate, theft-proof Systems approach Mobile phone or MDA with integrated camera and augmented view AR telescope, AR binoculars, mechanically tracked AR screen which can display CT/ MRT data, mechanically tracked Systems Approach
  12. 12. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Offline AR  Camera and display separated, display is no longer directed  Image acquisition, augmentation and display possibly not synchronous  Also work with still images (digital photography)  Advantages: high-resolution digital photography applicable (precision), comfortable, acceptance, feasibility  Disadvantages: recording and evaluation separated, perspective of the camera does not have to be own perspective anymore Systems approach Print and line marker; photograph, augment and assess scene Camera, screen and user at different positions Camera is only attached to gauge arm, screen is stationary Systems Approach
  13. 13. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Consistency checks model - environment  Verification model o Correct simulation? o Correct construction? AR areas of application Superimposition digital crash model with trial: how good is the model? Superimposition digital flow model with trial: how good is the model? (HLRS) Superimposition cable construction with physical component: well constructed? (metaio) Areas of Application
  14. 14. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Consistency checks model - environment  Verification environment o Implemented as planned? o Quality control, prototyping AR areas of application Verification of welding studs: realized as planned? (metaio) Verification of an industrial workplace: everything in gripping area? (Volkswagen) Verfication of structure and conveyor technology: no collisions in the case of new inputs? (Volkswagen) Areas of Application
  15. 15. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits  Instruction, clarification, support in operating process AR areas of application Cable packaging (Boeing) Repair instructions (NASA) Maintenance support (BMW) Areas of Application
  16. 16. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits  Instruction, clarification, support in operating process AR areas of application Display of the hidden: sensor data on machine Display of the hidden: infrastructure underneath plaster Assignment of logistical information in warehouse with RFID Areas of Application
  17. 17. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits  Instruction, clarification, support in operating process AR areas of application Navigation: next railway station (iPhone) Navigation in passenger car Product configurator Surgery support by superimposition of CT/ MRT data Areas of Application
  18. 18. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits  Marketing, entertainment AR areas of application Presentation fair: show (metaio) Presentation fair: explanations technology/ hidden (metaio) Crossmedia print, online & live: interactive print catalogue (metaio) Areas of Application
  19. 19. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits  Marketing, entertainment AR areas of application Point of sales: augmented packaging LEGO Web application: garment configurator Point of sales: virtual fitting with AR Areas of Application
  20. 20. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits  Marketing, entertainment AR areas of application Augmented playing pieces and cards Definition of a joint gaming space through a marker, interaction Geo gaming with AR Areas of Application
  21. 21. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Visualization offset time  Look into the future/ back in the past AR areas of application Future projection of a construction project on a construction site (Fh-IGD) Virtual archaeology at place of recovery Areas of Application
  22. 22. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits  Multicore and hybrid processors  Virtualisation and fabric computing  Social networks and social software  Cloud computing and cloud/web platforms  Web mashups  User Interface  Ubiquitous computing  Contextual computing  Augmented reality  Semantics Gartner’s top 10 disruptive technologies 2008-2012 Market Research
  23. 23. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Market Research
  24. 24. Technological Basics Areas of Application Market ResearchSystems ApproachBasics Benefits Overview VentureBeat Overview AR companies along the value chain Market Research
  25. 25. © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Thank you very much for your interest! You are interested in this topic and you are looking for contact persons/ implementation partners? Please contact us. Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstraße 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de

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