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3D Projection Technology: VDC-Whitepaper

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Content:
Basics
Projection systems
Construction types of projection systems
Display systems
Autostereosc. systems
Volumetr. displays
Further trends

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3D Projection Technology: VDC-Whitepaper

  1. 1. Whitepaper 3D Projection Technology Active-, Passive- Projection Technology © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Kfm. Christoph Runde Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstr. 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de Active-, Passive- Projection Technology
  2. 2. VDC-Technology screening: 3D projection technology Basics Projection systems Construction types projection systems Further trends xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends
  3. 3. Basics: Terms and motivation 3D visualization = spatial vision Providing two, slightly offset perspectives for the viewer Possibly head tracking Thereby: xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends Thereby: Brain assigns spatialities better Better feeling for the near and far Building a mental, spatial environment model is easier Support for 3D interaction (space must be known for this)
  4. 4. Graphical depth criteria What does the brain calculate/ work with? Source: Runde, C.: Konzeption und Einführung von Virtueller Realität als Komponente der Digitalen Fabrik in Industrieunternehmen. Zugl.: Stuttgart, Univ., Diss., 2007, IPA-IAO Forschung und Praxis, 455. Heimsheim: Jost-Jetter Verlag, 2007 xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends
  5. 5. Basics: Stereo solutions Two views are generated These 2 views have to be transported separately to the two eyes Note: natural eye distance (about 6.5cm) allows reasonable stereoscopic vision at a distance of up to 15m Greater distance: increase parallax Quality criteria, amongst others: xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends Quality criteria, amongst others: o Optical crosstalk (eye receives false signal): ghosting o Overall brightness o Uniformity of brightness distribution (hot spots) o Focus (tinting) o Contrast, dynamics
  6. 6. Stereo technologies xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends
  7. 7. Stereo technology 1: Color filter Anaglyph technology (complementary color views and filters) ⊕ Any display, screen, projector, wall is suitable, even printed products Red-Cyan-Anaglyph glasses xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends suitable, even printed products ⊕ Glasses passive ⊕ Glasses are light and cheap Θ Crosstalk Θ View is black and white Anaglyphic image from Google Earth
  8. 8. Stereo technology 2: Polarization filter technology Basic technology: Polarization filter technology (Light waves polarization, passive stereo) ⊕ Light glasses, passive ⊕ No sync necessary Projectiondesign F32 xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends ⊕ No sync necessary ⊕ No flickering Θ Two projectors necessary Θ Rack and calibration Θ Special projection medium necessary (polarization obtaining) Θ Irregular brightness distribution suitable projection screens tend to hot spotting Polarization filter glasses Silver screen
  9. 9. Polarization technology: Brightness Consideration luminous flux in passive solutions Achieved lumens: Integrated solutions improve significantly External polarization of DLP projectors 40% 2000 stereo lumen 5000 lumen Source: xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends significantly BARCO Gemini/VR workroom Stereo Lumens Boost 80% stereo lumen 4000 stereo lumen 5000 lumen 100% improvement
  10. 10. Stereo technology 3: INFITEC® Passive-INFITEC ⊕ Any wall can be used ⊕ No sync necessary ⊕ Passive glasses (no power supply) ⊕ Color fidelity remains largely preserved Filter characteristics INFITEC xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends ⊕ Color fidelity remains largely preserved ⊕ No flickering Θ Two projectors necessary Θ Loss of brightness Θ Rack and calibration INFITEC glassesProjectiondesign F32
  11. 11. INFITEC: Brightness Consideration luminous flux in passive INFITEC solutions Achieved lumens: Efficiency: o Color spectrum is only partly transmitted 30% of the light from Source: xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends 30% of the light from projector o 3% loss due to glasses o 27% overall efficiency INFITEC Plus: o Color correction („DynaColor“) compensation of color shifts o More brightness gets lost: result: 17%
  12. 12. Stereo technology 4: Active-Shutter Basic technologies Shutter technology, LCD, active stereo Display: at least 120Hz refresh rate ⊕ Depending on the system, very low crosstalk ⊕ Any wall can be used when projecting Shutter glasses Nvidia IR emitter xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends ⊕ Any wall can be used when projecting Θ Glasses are heavier Θ Active glasses: power supply Θ Glasses polarized Θ Usually an emitter for synchronization of image glasses is necessary Θ Loss of brightness Θ Possibly flickering (cheap projectors) In the past: CRT projector Today: DLP. Example: projectiondesign F10 AS 3D
  13. 13. Active-Stereo: Brightness Consideration luminous flux in active solutions DLP/CRT Achieved lumens: Active glasses: o Light reaches eye in <50% of the time Quelle: xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends <50% of the time half amount of brightness o The shutter principle uses polarization technology (two LCDs) Incoming light is not polarized half amount of brightness Result: <20% of the light reaches the eye Duty Cycle Non-ideal polarization
  14. 14. Active-Stereo: DLP-Link Active stereo without IR emitter: DLP- Link® White image is sent between graphics and is used to synchronize the glasses ⊕ No external IR emitter has to be set up xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends ⊕ No external IR emitter has to be set up anymore Projectiondesign F10 AS3D XPanD X102 DLP-Link shutter glasses
  15. 15. Stereo technology 5: Active-Infitec Active-INFITEC inFACT: functionality Shutter glasses L LRLR144 Hz Traditional active stereo xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends L LRLR Active Infitec: Infitec color wheel, synchronized with L/R images 144 Hz
  16. 16. Active-Infitec Basic technologies Active INFITEC - inFACT (INFITEC in time division) ⊕ Any wall can be used ⊕ No sync necessary INFITEC glasses xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends ⊕ No sync necessary ⊕ Passive glasses (no power supply) ⊕ Color fidelity remains largely preserved ⊕ Less hot spotting compared to polarizing filters Θ Loss of brightness Θ Costs BARCO Galaxy 12
  17. 17. Brightness active-Infitec Consideration luminous flux in active INFITEC solutions Achieved lumens: Increase the time of darkness of the DLP projector so that the color wheel can 85% L/R: 42,5% 11% Source: xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends that the color wheel can switch between INFITEC A/ B 85% brightness Distribute to both eyes: 42,5% INFITEC filter: 11% Color correction DynaColor: 7% of brightness remain 31,5% 11%
  18. 18. Stereo technology 6: Active-polarization filter Polarization filter in time division: temporally alternating circularly polarized light, clockwise and counterclockwise ⊕ Only 1 projector ⊕ No sync necessary ⊕ Passive glasses (no power supply) xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends ⊕ Passive glasses (no power supply) Θ Specific projection medium (silver screen) Θ Specific equipment: polarization modulator Polarizing filter glasses RealD: Polarization Modulator polarizes alternately in a high frequency L L LR R
  19. 19. Construction types of projection systems xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends
  20. 20. Projection systems – Construction types Powerwalls THE industrial standard system ⊕ Almost arbitrary scalable ⊕ Resolution almost arbitrary ⊕ Multi-user capable Θ Possibly installation & maintenance Imsys scale XL with 41 million pixels on 5.5 x 2.2m xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends Θ Possibly installation & maintenance CAVEs To take an inside perspective ⊕ High immersion Θ Single-user system Θ Installation, maintenance Θ Space requirement, costs Multi wall projection system CAVE
  21. 21. Projection systems – Construction types 1-channel workbench For product investigations ⊕ Compact, mechan. tracking Θ Product expired BARCO Baron xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends 2-channel workbench For product investigations ⊕ Very large field of view covered Θ Partially big dimensions Θ Product expired BARCO Consul
  22. 22. Projection systems – Construction types Flat angled systems Compromise between CAVE and Powerwall ⊕ Relatively good immersion ⊕ Relatively easy to set up Θ Slight distortions on the edges for Design review at Miele (Source: BARCO) xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends Θ Slight distortions on the edges for non-tracked Curved screens Cylindrical or toroidal projection surface ⊕ Good immerison Θ Difficult installation because of distortions, edge blending Joint Terminal Attack Controller Training Rehearsal System JTAC TRS (Source: Meta VR)
  23. 23. Projection systems – Construction types Desk systems Simultaneous 2D and 3D view Projection on desk surface and on wall/ canvas Partially cubes as interaction Screenshot xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends Partially cubes as interaction metaphors ⊕ Multiuser system ⊕ Link 2D-3D ⊕ Simultaneous layout and perspective Θ Interaction "over head” partially unsolved Working situation at planning deskScheme representation planning desk
  24. 24. Projection technology: Contrast Discussion: Contrast Flexible canvas Θ Poor contrast due to "tunnel effect" as a result of internal reflections Flexible canvas Bright projection screen Source: xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends Bright projection screen Θ Poor contrast due to internal reflections inside the disc material Dark projection screen („tinting“) ⊕ Good contrast thanks to absorption in the disc material Θ Loss of brightness Dark projection screen
  25. 25. Projection technology: Contrast Discussion: Contrast Local contrast relevant for high dynamic visualizations To measure with light spot in dark surroundings Result: contrast profile Contrast profile Source: xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends Result: contrast profile Tinted disc ⊕ Significantly improved contrast characteristics Θ Needs a lot of light Bright disc Dark disc
  26. 26. Projection technology: Hot Spot Discussion: Hot Spot Single projector solutions ⊕ Relatively inexpensive ⊕ Simple, no edge blending, etc. Θ Tend to hot spotting Θ Light performance is limited Hot spot single projector solution xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends Θ Light performance is limited Note: polarization-preserving discs tend even more to hot-spotting! Multi projector solutions ⊕ Almost any resolution ⊕ Very high light performance possible dark projection screens ⊕ Light distribution Θ More complex in the establishment CAD wall
  27. 27. Projection technology: Single vs. Multi-Channel Discussion single vs. multi projector solutions Technical image characteristics and necessary prerequisites ǁĂůů ^ŝŶŐůĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚŽƌ ZĞƐŽůƵƚŝŽŶ ŶŽƚ ůŝŵŝƚĞĚ ůĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ŝŐŚƚ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ŶŽƚ ůŝŵŝƚĞĚ sĞƌLJ ŐŽŽĚ ůŝŐŚƚ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚŝŽŶ ĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ďůĞŶĚŝŶŐ ďĞƚƚĞƌ ŝŵĂŐĞ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐŽƌƐ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ĞƐƚ ĚĂƌŬ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝŽŶ ƐĐƌĞĞŶƐ ZĞƐŽůƵƚŝŽŶ ůŝŵŝƚĞĚ EŽ ďůĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ƌŝŐŚƚŶĞƐƐ ĚĞƉĞŶĚƐ ŽŶ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚŽƌ ,Žƚ ƐƉŽƚ ƌŝŐŚƚŶĞƐƐ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƐƵĨĨŝĐŝĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ďĞƐƚ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝŽŶ ƐĐƌĞĞŶƐ Source: xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends prerequisites Space requirement ĞƐƚ ĚĂƌŬ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝŽŶ ƐĐƌĞĞŶƐ ĂƉƉůŝĐĂďůĞ 3500mm 7500mm
  28. 28. Mini-CAD/VR-Wall Projection wall with Up to 6 megapixel resolution Up to15.000 ANSI lumens Up to 208 inches diagonal Up to 55 cm construction depth Stereo compatible Schneider Digital Mini CAD/VR Wall Shutter glasses xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends Stereo compatible Wide-angle short distance projector
  29. 29. Multi-viewer stereo systems Multi-user head tracking Motion parallax, progressive (un)covering: depth criterion Different views for different user positions have to be displayed and separated Different perspectives due to different positions xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends separated Use of many time slots or combination of polarizing filter -time division ⊕ Head tracking for multiple user Θ Loss of brightness Different perspectives due to different positions (Source: University Weimar, Fh-IAO) View on projection system: 2 perspectives due to 2 different positions (Source: University Weimar, Fh-IAO)
  30. 30. Further trends xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends
  31. 31. LED-Projectors LED as light source For professional purposes relatively new on the market ⊕ Long service life ⊕ (Almost) maintenance-free xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends ⊕ (Almost) maintenance-free ⊕ 1920×1080 pixels ⊕ No cooling, warm-up phase Θ Brightness in development (but: ANSI lumens LED to DLP difficult to compare) Projectiondesign FL32 LED projector
  32. 32. Pico-Projectors Mini projectors based on LED ⊕ Very small ⊕ Partially with battery, multimedia reader ⊕ Long service life xxx: xxx Content: Basics Projection systems Construction types of projection systems •Display systems: •Autostereosc. systems •Volumetr. displays Further trends ⊕ Long service life ⊕ No cooling, warm-up phase Θ Low resolution Θ Dark Θ Low-contrast Aiptek Pocketcinema
  33. 33. Thank you very much for your interest! You are interested in this topic and you are looking for contact persons/ implementation partners? Please contact us. © Competence Centre for Virtual Reality and Cooperative Engineering w. V. – Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Virtual Dimension Center (VDC) Fellbach Auberlenstraße 13 70736 Fellbach www.vdc-fellbach.de

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