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PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2014

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Lectures on Liberalism for PS 240, Intro to Political Theory, Fall 2014, University of Kentucky

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PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2014

  1. 1. Liberalism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. The American Political Spectrum is small…
  3. 3. 4 The Western Transformation 1500-1700 (cc) 2005 Flickr user jurvetson
  4. 4. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Peter from Wellington 5 Organic vs. Mechanistic
  5. 5. (cc) 2008 Flickr user h.koppdelaney Organic Worldview 6
  6. 6. 7 First Nature (cc) 2006 Flickr user Bruno Monginoux
  7. 7. (cc) 2007 Flickr user autan Second Nature 8
  8. 8. The world is a living world…
  9. 9. Ruach
  10. 10. Gaia
  11. 11. (cc) 2006 Flickr user Euthman Unrestrained growth is an aberration, undesired 13
  12. 12. 14 Mechanistic Worldview (cc) 2008 Flickr user Ralph Bijker
  13. 13. The world is a “dead” world… 15 (cc) 2006 Flickr user Caro Wallis
  14. 14. (cc) 2006 Flickr user Wolfgang Kopp Lack of continuous 16 growth = death
  15. 15. (cc) 2005 Flickr user Tracy O 17
  16. 16. (cc) 2007 Flickr user Diodoro The rise of capitalism
  17. 17. Logical Positivism Leads to the Mechanistic Worldview
  18. 18. Cogito Ergo Sum
  19. 19. Mechanistic Philosophy
  20. 20. Logical Positivism
  21. 21. Is science objective? Economics?
  22. 22. The Liberal concept of agency is based on the theory of possessive individualism
  23. 23. Liberal Philosophy
  24. 24. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  25. 25. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  26. 26. Equality of Opportunity vs. Equality of Outcome
  27. 27. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  28. 28. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  29. 29. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  30. 30. Four Elements of Liberal Philosophy Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  31. 31. Liberal Society
  32. 32. Feudalism Capitalism
  33. 33. Why a free-market economy is important…
  34. 34. The Pursuit of The Good
  35. 35. Liberal Politics
  36. 36. strict distinction between the state and civil society
  37. 37. ambivalence about the benefits of democracy
  38. 38. Government is GREAT! Government is BAD!
  39. 39. Utilitarianism
  40. 40. Jeremy Bentham
  41. 41. The Principle of Utility Maximization
  42. 42. 51 Government should ameliorate the effects of utility maximization (cc) 2008 Flickr user gruntzooki
  43. 43. general conclusions about government
  44. 44. 53 Government should leave people alone. (cc) 2007 Flickr user afroboof
  45. 45. 54 Increase democratic participation (cc) 2008 Flickr user Edward DC
  46. 46. John Stuart Mill
  47. 47. Defend and Extend individual liberty
  48. 48. 57 (cc) 2008 Flickr user jukebox 909
  49. 49. Harm Principle Every sane adult should be free to do whatever he or she wants as long as his or her actions do not harm, or threaten to harm, others.
  50. 50. Natural Rights
  51. 51. Utility Society, as a whole, will benefit if people are allowed to think and act freely.
  52. 52. Representative democracy only for the educated, wealthy?
  53. 53. Neoclassical liberalism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  54. 54. Negative VS. Positive Freedom
  55. 55. Neoclassical liberalism
  56. 56. Social Darwinism
  57. 57. Welfare Liberalism
  58. 58. Government as a POSITIVE force
  59. 59. Socialism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  60. 60. 76 The Veil of Ignorance (cc) 2008 Flickr user left-hand
  61. 61. (cc) 2008 Flickr user Tostie14 The Original Position 77
  62. 62. The Original Position Non-presocial liberal ideas that, if consensually held, would lead everyone to accept the equal liberty and difference principles as the basis for mutually beneficial social cooperation.
  63. 63. 4 Ideas of The Original Position
  64. 64. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterested-ness The Veil of Ignorance 80
  65. 65. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterested-ness The Veil of Ignorance 81
  66. 66. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterested-ness The Veil of Ignorance 82
  67. 67. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterested-ness The Veil of Ignorance 83
  68. 68. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterested-ness The Veil of Ignorance 84
  69. 69. Equal Respect Non-Risky Rationality Mutual Disinterested-ness The Veil of Ignorance 85
  70. 70. Principles of Justice
  71. 71. Equal Liberty Principle The state must provide the most extensive system of equal liberties that is feasible and desirable. All individuals must enjoy the greatest degree of liberty consistent with the enjoyment of like liberty by everyone else.
  72. 72. Difference Principle Primary social goods are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution would improve the welfare of the least well-off in society.
  73. 73. PROBLEMS
  74. 74. History
  75. 75. 91 Human Condition Time
  76. 76. Human Nature
  77. 77. 93
  78. 78. The Social Contract
  79. 79. 95 Thomas Hobbes
  80. 80. 96 John Locke
  81. 81. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  82. 82. Liberal Economics
  83. 83. Laissez-faire Capitalism and Freedom
  84. 84. Adam Smith
  85. 85. David Ricardo
  86. 86. Milton Friedman
  87. 87. The problem of market failures and inefficiencies
  88. 88. John Maynard Keynes
  89. 89. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Complete market freedom results in various types of market failures. • Monopolies which undermine competition & lead to concentrated power. • Business cycles which create economic inefficiency and insecurity.
  90. 90. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Capitalism creates externalities which harm the broader public. • Pure Market Systems unable to provide many public goods. • Wealth isn’t distributed to everyone.

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