Liberalism
Dr. Christopher S. Rice
The American Political
 Spectrum is small…
The startling Western
  transformation of
      1500-1700
Organic vs. Mechanistic
Organic Worldview
First Nature
Second Nature
The world is a living
     world…
Unrestrained growth is
an aberration, undesired
Mechanistic
Worldview
The $$$ World
The world is a
“dead” world…
Lack of continuous
  growth = death
The Organic Worldview
Ruach
Gaia
The rise of capitalism
Logical Positivism
    Leads to the
Mechanistic Worldview
Cogito Ergo Sum
Mechanistic
Philosophy
Logical Positivism
Is science objective?
     Economics?
The Liberal concept of agency is
    based on the theory of
possessive individualism
Possessive Individualism
1. What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of
   others.
2. Freedom from dep...
Liberal Philosophy
Equality
   Liberty
Individuality
 Rationality
Equality
Equality of Opportunity
           vs.
 Equality of Outcome
Liberty
Individuality
Rationality
Liberal Society
Feudalism   Capitalism
Why a free-market
economy is important…
The Pursuit of The Good
Liberal Politics
strict distinction between the
 state and civil society
ambivalence about the
benefits of democracy
Government is GREAT!




                   Government is BAD!
Utilitarianism
The Principle of
Utility Maximization
Government’s job is to
   ameliorate the effects
of utility maximization which
    bring harm to others
2
general conclusions
 about government
Government can best promote
the greatest happiness for the
 greatest number by leaving
        people alone.
Government is not likely to
promote the greatest happiness
 for the greatest number if it is
 only open to a small number.
Defend and Extend
 individual liberty
Harm Principle
 Every sane adult should be
free to do whatever he or she
  wants as long as his or her
    actions do not ...
Natural Rights
Utility
Society, as a whole, will
  benefit if people are
allowed to think and act
         freely.
Representative democracy
  only for the educated,
         wealthy?
Neoclassical liberalism
         VS.
  Welfare Liberalism
The Liberal View of Freedom
          (Ball and Dagger, “Liberalism”)

                     OBSTACLE:
                    ...
Negative VS. Positive
      Freedom
Neoclassical liberalism
Social Darwinism
Welfare Liberalism
Government as a
 POSITIVE
     force
Socialism
       VS.
Welfare Liberalism
Option #1:
Money can be divided up such that
   20% of us will get 82.7% of the
 income and property, 20% will get
11.7% o...
Option #2:
 Divide it up such that everyone
gets an equal share of the wealth
and property, regardless of job or
status. (...
The Veil of Ignorance
The Original Position
The Original Position
 Non-presocial liberal ideas that, if
   consensually held, would lead
everyone to accept the equal ...
4 Ideas of
The Original Position
Equal Respect
Non-risky Rationality
Mutual
Disinterestedness
The Veil of Ignorance
2
Principles of Justice
Equal Liberty Principle
The state must provide the most
   extensive system of equal
  liberties that is feasible and
 des...
Difference Principle
 Primary social goods are to be
  distributed equally unless an
   unequal distribution would
improve...
PROBLEMS
Keynesian Economics
The problem of
market failures and
  inefficiencies
The many benefits of capitalism
   are offset by certain problems:
• Complete market freedom results in
  various types of ...
The many benefits of capitalism
   are offset by certain problems:
• Capitalism creates externalities
  which harm the broa...
2
Methods of Stimulating the
       Economy
Increase
government
expenditures
Reduce taxes
“Priming the Pump”
          +
The “Multiplier Effect”
In case of an
overheated
economy…
Three ways to deal with deficits:
• Grow your way out of it – as
  incomes rise, taxes rise as people
  move up through the...
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008
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PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008

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PS 240 Liberalism Fall 2008

  1. 1. Liberalism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. The American Political Spectrum is small…
  3. 3. The startling Western transformation of 1500-1700
  4. 4. Organic vs. Mechanistic
  5. 5. Organic Worldview
  6. 6. First Nature
  7. 7. Second Nature
  8. 8. The world is a living world…
  9. 9. Unrestrained growth is an aberration, undesired
  10. 10. Mechanistic Worldview
  11. 11. The $$$ World
  12. 12. The world is a “dead” world…
  13. 13. Lack of continuous growth = death
  14. 14. The Organic Worldview
  15. 15. Ruach
  16. 16. Gaia
  17. 17. The rise of capitalism
  18. 18. Logical Positivism Leads to the Mechanistic Worldview
  19. 19. Cogito Ergo Sum
  20. 20. Mechanistic Philosophy
  21. 21. Logical Positivism
  22. 22. Is science objective? Economics?
  23. 23. The Liberal concept of agency is based on the theory of possessive individualism
  24. 24. Possessive Individualism 1. What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. 2. Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. 3. The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society. 4. Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. 5. Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. 6. Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. 7. Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism)
  25. 25. Liberal Philosophy
  26. 26. Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  27. 27. Equality
  28. 28. Equality of Opportunity vs. Equality of Outcome
  29. 29. Liberty
  30. 30. Individuality
  31. 31. Rationality
  32. 32. Liberal Society
  33. 33. Feudalism Capitalism
  34. 34. Why a free-market economy is important…
  35. 35. The Pursuit of The Good
  36. 36. Liberal Politics
  37. 37. strict distinction between the state and civil society
  38. 38. ambivalence about the benefits of democracy
  39. 39. Government is GREAT! Government is BAD!
  40. 40. Utilitarianism
  41. 41. The Principle of Utility Maximization
  42. 42. Government’s job is to ameliorate the effects of utility maximization which bring harm to others
  43. 43. 2 general conclusions about government
  44. 44. Government can best promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number by leaving people alone.
  45. 45. Government is not likely to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number if it is only open to a small number.
  46. 46. Defend and Extend individual liberty
  47. 47. Harm Principle Every sane adult should be free to do whatever he or she wants as long as his or her actions do not harm, or threaten to harm, others.
  48. 48. Natural Rights
  49. 49. Utility Society, as a whole, will benefit if people are allowed to think and act freely.
  50. 50. Representative democracy only for the educated, wealthy?
  51. 51. Neoclassical liberalism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  52. 52. The Liberal View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Liberalism”) OBSTACLE: Laws, customs, or conditions that block individual choice (or pursuit of “the good”) AGENT: GOAL: The To live as one “Atomistic” chooses, Individual pursue one’s own idea of “the good.”
  53. 53. Negative VS. Positive Freedom
  54. 54. Neoclassical liberalism
  55. 55. Social Darwinism
  56. 56. Welfare Liberalism
  57. 57. Government as a POSITIVE force
  58. 58. Socialism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  59. 59. Option #1: Money can be divided up such that 20% of us will get 82.7% of the income and property, 20% will get 11.7% of income and property, 20% will get 2.3% of income, 20% will get 1.9%, and the last 20% will get 1.4%.
  60. 60. Option #2: Divide it up such that everyone gets an equal share of the wealth and property, regardless of job or status. (Each group will get 20% of income, divided equally).
  61. 61. The Veil of Ignorance
  62. 62. The Original Position
  63. 63. The Original Position Non-presocial liberal ideas that, if consensually held, would lead everyone to accept the equal liberty and difference principles as the basis for mutually beneficial social cooperation.
  64. 64. 4 Ideas of The Original Position
  65. 65. Equal Respect
  66. 66. Non-risky Rationality
  67. 67. Mutual Disinterestedness
  68. 68. The Veil of Ignorance
  69. 69. 2 Principles of Justice
  70. 70. Equal Liberty Principle The state must provide the most extensive system of equal liberties that is feasible and desirable. All individuals must enjoy the greatest degree of liberty consistent with the enjoyment of like liberty by everyone else.
  71. 71. Difference Principle Primary social goods are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution would improve the welfare of the least well-off in society.
  72. 72. PROBLEMS
  73. 73. Keynesian Economics
  74. 74. The problem of market failures and inefficiencies
  75. 75. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Complete market freedom results in various types of market failures. • Monopolies which undermine competition & lead to concentrated power. • Business cycles which create economic inefficiency and insecurity.
  76. 76. The many benefits of capitalism are offset by certain problems: • Capitalism creates externalities which harm the broader public. • Pure Market Systems unable to provide many public goods. • Wealth isn’t distributed to everyone.
  77. 77. 2 Methods of Stimulating the Economy
  78. 78. Increase government expenditures
  79. 79. Reduce taxes
  80. 80. “Priming the Pump” + The “Multiplier Effect”
  81. 81. In case of an overheated economy…
  82. 82. Three ways to deal with deficits: • Grow your way out of it – as incomes rise, taxes rise as people move up through the tax brackets. • Increase income taxes on the wealthy, create luxury taxes, etc. • Reduce government spending in specific areas where it is no longer needed.

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